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THE 



DUBLIN REVIEW. 



THE 



DUBLIN REYIEW. 



VOL Vn. NEW SERIES. 



JULY OCTOBER, 

MDCCCLXVI. 



LONDON: 
BUKNS. LAMBERT, & OATES. 17 PORTM AN STREET 

AND 68 PATERNOSTER ROW. 

DERBY : RICHARDSON & SONS. 

DUBLIN: JAMES DUFFT; W. B. KELIiY. 

1866. 



WTHAK AHD SONS, PB1NTXB8| 

aSIAT QDBN ffTBUT, UMOOLir'a IKH FIKLDS, 

LOMDOH. 



184636 



5^*» • •••*.,* .•^■'--- 



TABLE OF CONTENTS.' 



Axe. L— Juuus Caub: Bt NaK}UK» m. 

Nataral intereit whioh we feel in % portrait of th« fint Cmmr by » modem 

Cnur 1 

G«nen^l dimrMter of the work »a a hiftory ^ 

Rapid rise and fait of ancient States 9 

Count Frani de ChampagQT'B history contrasted with the Emperor'i . . 11 

Cssar ooDsidered as popalar Messiah IS 

ITie state of Roman society in his time 14 

Cvsar's poHoy IB 

The Empemr's stndiee of Caear's oampugna 27 

Pompey and Cvear. 38 

General oondunons 83 



AKT. II. — CaNOV OaKUJCT'8 LTBA LlTUBQlOA. 

A gTMt obivracLeristio of the CathoUo litni^ is ite adi^jtation to sacred 

times and seasons 83 

ImportMioe of aooommodating private prayer to this plan .... 85 

Snob is Canon Oakeley's porpose 87 

Speomena of iti admirable eiecation 89 



Abt. m.— Licst'b "Hirobt of RxnoVALiSK." 

A more philosophical method of historical stndy is a phenomenon of the time 61 
Mr. Lecky professes the application of this method to relij*ion . .68 
He even seems to think that no historical propositioos whateTer can be estab- 
lished on purely external erideooe i&. 

His opinion on the eTideace for demoniacal possesnon 56 

His langnage concerning onr Lndy ib. 

Ilis great mistake in connecting the Catholic doctrine of hell-Gre with a sup- 
posed belief in the soul's materiality 58 

There is &r more unconscious aDthropomorpbistn among the Protestant than 

among the Catholic poor 68 

Mr. Lecky's extreme misrepresentations of S. Thomas Aquinas .66 



* BoBM of <mr rtmitn Iut* doaired to lee oor Oontmts— nparisOy those of srtlolas on 
Ihsobgioal sad fddbMopUosl Bafajcats-Mt forth ia ■oasiriut hller deuO thu ia A* osari 
■aaSoBi end wa sr« itod to meat thsir visw, is the )iop% that soah a BjUsbos as ws hafs ae*r 
|ff«% B^ fh cilltats Btody and rsferesoe. 



U CONTENTS. 

Hii gTMt miitaka .in ftttribating whftteTer nwy be found onial and repnUva 

in medinTRl Oktbolict to tiieir belief in tbe eternity of paaisbment . 70 
The efiect on medtBTal Catholioa of tbeir belief in poigktoiy and in the 

norunentB 78 

Hie great efiect prodaoed on tbem by the ioteDM and farrid teaabing of 

medieval Saints on the Iotb <rf God 76 

Tbe effeot prodaoed on them l^ derotion to the Bleesed Saormment and to 

the most Holy Virgin 77 

Oonolading remarks 78 

Abt. IV.— F. Htachhth Bkbbov. 

His Catholic education and early life 80 

He beootnes a Dominican 88 

He is Hot as missionary to tbe East ib. 

Bendenoe in Borne 86 

BetQms to the East 78 

Heroic death t6. 



Abt. v.— Ibish Wbitxbs on UnriBaiTT Eddoation. 

Mr. Whittle's comments on the Dublin Bbtiiw 81 

Dr. SalliTan in reply quotes the Biehop of Clifton ib. 

Dr. Sallivan professes foil iDtelleotual sabminion to Papal EnoyoUcals, bat 

serioosly misinterpets two of tbem SB 

Hr. Whittle equally misinterprets tbem in an opposite direction . , .90 
Hie DOBUN Revibw has not Bi>oken peremptorily except on matters 

whereon the Church has prononoced unmistaiceably . . .91 

Mr. D'Aroy's discourteous and foolish language about the DdbUV Rbvikw . 98 

Hie DuBUK Rbtxew is not an Irish publication 94 

Ezoallent passage, quoted by Dr. BuUivan, from the " Home and Foreign 

Beview" ib. 

His own ezcellent remarks to tbe same effeot 95 

Defence of the Irish Bishops and Clergy 96 

Admirable extract from Dr. M'Devitt 97 

As between Catholic and Catholic, two opinions are posuble on the new 

scheme 98 

But it is shameless in Liberals to oppose it on libeml principles . . »6. 
mostration of this from a supposed dialogue between Lord Rassetl and a 

Liberal deputation 99 

Abt. VL — Ihtkbssts of thb Catholio Poob. 

Social science 101 

Either a synonym for, or a human imitation of, the Cbnrob's system of 

charity 104 

The system OTarthrown at tbe Reformation 104 

The poor always better tended in proportion as the Cbnrdi la more free . 100 

Ojvmt aetiTtt diariiy in England at the present time ib. 

•Ar/ soiSwAzouste/r /wnmrtad oooMJooally to proselyting patpoesa . . 109 



ThrM mMt itrikuig Articl«B in " TIm Montb," on Cathotice in WorkhooMa 

Md PriKNu lOd 

I ifyttU Bw]« bjr tii« ArchilriBhop of Westmiiuter .... 110 
[ftiSL JuWaHmU lU 



Am. yiL— Tin Nbobo or Atbica Aim tdb Wbbt Ixdiis. 

Mr. Baker'* inlArettiitf TotiUMa Iltf 

Hi> vtnmffe and on-Cbniiuui Xhwrf ihtt Airiaua angci ut tbo remainB of 

ft nee tild»r th&n Ad&m 120 

t ft UiM«7 U diraotl/ oppcMd both to CbmUAn truth uul to the fouodft- 

tws of Eorapvu dTilixaUoD 121 

fr. Bkh«r'« optnicQ M to the impoMibilJtjr of nuwiDg tbe Kegro charactw 

b In with the HnglUb prejudice of th» day 1£S 

I Ofiawo u • re-MtioQ firom eiooM oo the oppoaite side .... 128 
■ft ia totmOj Cklae to allaga u a bet that, iodcutrialljr speaking, n«^ra emand- 

pUkiD baa beet) a &ilar« in oar Waat lodiao Coloaiea .... 124 
]t ia Mm Ifcat tbt JaraaJe* oegroM har* b«an in tbe habit of demanding 

«iofbit*nl wi^M 130 

I ita H tio * of tb« Start'tradt was a great pooaniary loaa to aomo of tbe 
•oImiIm : but the abntition of alnvery was bbueficial to all . . 182 

J>— tcrnd*, oxoBUent m it u in itaelf, baa been the real caoao of their dlxtran 186 

I pariod of diitnw haa now pa»ed away 138 

T, Bik«r'ajiMtdat«at*tiunof th«NUeiIare-tnde UO 



Aix. VIII.— Dr. Pobxt ox Mablut Dkvottov. ^| 

, tVa j>—t Artida daab only with Dr. Puaey'i objcotton Ibat the Oathulio ^H 

woolap of BCaiy taodi to obaooro tbe tbouf bt of Uud .1-12 

tan those Uarian doetritiea which tbe Charob nu^iterially teachea t . liS ^J 

I crUeaee for the tmtb of tbeee doctrioee 147 ^M 

mm b inddenlally eombatt«d tbnt by tbe mere fiu!t of belitriog that abe ^4 

caa raad the heart, Calboliea account bej- divine 148 

^J>r. P«af|*e owa olgocUon prrcinly itated ISO ^^ 

of ao ubJectioQ eotiraly aaalogoua, which might be made by an ^| 

UaiUri*a or Deiit a^init tbe worahip of oar Lord .... 153 ^^ 
1W aMTWM wkieb both Pr. Vamj and ounelvee would giTo to this objection 154 

- preciaaly aimilar rindicat«a the wonhip of Mwy . 157 ^^ 

[ttflbtvat el a w f e of mea to be cofuidered t&. ^| 

*^tW Hanaa derotioD of that partieolat olaea wUoh Dr. Foaay*! argamant ^H 

mmumoa • . 160 ■ 

T%m aaea of teurior aad of eainlly men ....... 17S ^^ 

Two IbaI aoaunento 4ft, 

^ywthei Maiba dooiriMa revy geaenlly held amoag Catholica . .174 ^U 

I thoai^fei and opnalfioi of taJttiiitaf wriCs-j arc diTi«ible aa regarde ^H 

MAari^Uldfotf AMa> 177^ 

TMaefOa-MdtMfCiM \']% 

i fwwgmaWims pvt (urih bj «utiotu«d irrit«f« . \W 



IT C0NTK»T8. 

Twentf'two propoHtioni- ouflfiUly ooDiidered, which hftT« hem ated bj 
Dr. Fowy from Catholic writen, and have been aoooonted the moit 
Btartling of all bii extnoti 190 

OoDdouon 100 



Abt. IX.— Tbs Qauioe C05TB0VXB8T ON CLUiaoAi. Stushs. 

The Ganme controTeny baa of late been Tevired 200 

Anxiety at welt-dispond foreignen on the fntnre of looiety . . . 201 

Under nich anxiety Ganme wrote the " Ver Bongeor " ... 205 

Becent indicatione that a nmilar view ia greatly extending . . 208 

How &r is a similar view applicable to England 1 214 

The prinoiplee oo whii^ OathoUo edncation waa oondnoted for fonrteen 

hundred years 217 

Qeneral oonduaions ai to the UmitB and eflbcti of the oontrorariy . . , 226 



X— Papal Bbzu in Fatoub or "La Civwri Cattouoa" . . .220 



XZ,— NonoKB 07 Books 284 

Bishop UUathome on Anglloaa Uni^^ — Bishop Doohamps' Seoond 
Eve — Mr. Sidden's "Cardioal 'Wiseman and Bishop Cballoner" — 
The Portmightly Review — Etndee Beligiensea — ^Ifr. Oxenham on the 
Eirenicon — F. Dalgums* " Holy Communion " — A Catholic 
Eirenicon — Correspondence between F. Guy, O.S.B., and Canon 
McNeile— F. Bawea's " Homeward "—Dr. Shirley's Royal LetteiB 
of the Beign of Heniy HE.— Mrs. Pitt Byrne's Coeaa de Espafla— 
F. Sweeny's Leotnrea — Joamal of Eugenie de Gn^rin — Mr. 
Scholthes* Religions Moaio — Lord Gray and Lord Daffisrin on the 
Bute of IrehuDd. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS'. 



Abt. I.— S. Pius V., thi Fathib or Chu&trvdou. 

8. Pitu V. the Uit atDonixed Pope. Hii earljr MsUtrj . . 27S 

Appoiotod Jnqnuitor 276 

Vtaita Rome in th»t office 378 

Pftol IV. OTMtee him Cudiaal 281 

Pios IV. raooeed* Putd IV 28S 

H. Pitu V. elected Pope hj the ioflaenoe of 8. Charlen 28S 

CondiUoD of the Charcb at that period . 287 

H* iuUtntee a geoenl reform 289 

He tnnu hU atteotloo to the Turks 204 

Be fonDi ft league agaitut the Hagnenota 295 

He writes ooDMllagly to Maiy Stuart, aod pronounoeB Elisabeth's deposition 290 

Viator; of Lepanto 298 

His death 301 



Abt. II,— pROTeflTANT Pbobblttibm in Eabtxeh Laitdb. 

Failure of Protestant misrionii and saocen of Catholie throughout the East SOS 

Turkish Miwon Aid Society 308 

I^yal Catholicism of the Maronites SIS 

Causes and results of " conTeiiion " to Protestantism among the Easterns . 816 
Promotion by rarious English Consuls d a proeelytiBing "Syrian Protestant 

CoUege " 82S 

Impossibility <A excuse for such eondact on the part of OoTemment offioiala 826 



Abt. III.— Oeioeit at CiMABBA. 

Ifl^ertsjsM of Origen'a pomtion *t Omsren %'^ 

Oh hpmilim th*n prmcbgd ... - > ^'^^ 
Vlitmrtaacwi* emu»»d bx Mmximia't ptntcuUon Wl 



n C0NTBNT8. 

Origsn'i Tint to Athsnt aod pruie of the AtheDian Cbnreh . 339 

HuretDTiitoC«»c«ftfMidhU"ContnOelnim" 841 

Celnu'i intelleotiul position 342 

Origeo'i relactant nsolre to aoswer him 344 

Cfaftraoteiiitios of OrigsQ'a reply 845 

Origen's orthodoxy and m M - ty r d o oi 360 



Baport of th« ConuniflrioDttt SftS 

Ot^[iiud Ungoage of the TimeB oonoerning &e ontbraak .... 568 
Oompuiaon of thii huguago witii that of the Conuniwiomni . 869 

Ori^n of the diaoonient S72 

The oaae of Mr. Gordon 880 

Character and oonctition of the mgroea 386 

Jvdgment of the Commiiuoneri oo the prodaaation and doration of 

martial law 890 

Beeponnbili^ ctf Ifr. Eyre and othora 891 

Bngliih demonktrationi in Mr. Ejre'i (aTovr 401 

Tlie real meaning of martial law, In the onlj Benee in whbh it ii legal . . 40S 
Extreme importance of obtaining some aathoritatire deoimon on the lawfaloeea 

of what haa been done 406 

Public opinion in Jamaica 407 

The clamour against Mr. Eyre in England has in many initancea been savage 

and violent ; yet baa done important wrrioe 413 



ABT. V.~Pro8 tX AXX> TBI ''Citiua Cattouoa." 

Aniwer made in 1849 to Hoe IX. *h appeal for literaiy defenderx of 

Catholicism 414 

Piw IX.'a present requital of the " Civilth " writen 41 R 

No literary defenee of Catholicism will be pnuaed by the Pope which is not 

purely Ultramontane in principle 417 

Tme anthorily of the Boman See 418 

.7S# 0UBdty oi dJaktyal O^balioa periups more danganma than that of 
*rtl«»w 419 



cOHfnTA. iii 

Fhu IX. *■ " emz de oniee " 42^ 

SiDgiilu- qnmliflflfttioiM fin- the Chuf^'i defence poBeeeaed by the Booiety of 
J««M ,481 



A«r. VL— Cbomwbl'b Coii«nn avo SEmiMsira or lawbum. 

EflMe el the bU of DraghMU 4S8 

VMablaa* ooeapfttioD of Ubter 434 

Onnood'i ^)p«eJ to the king 487 

OnnoBd'i pdiey and ooodaot tt Hum time 489 

FoaituBi of Owen Boe O'Neill 440 

Cramwell'i poeiUou and polioy 441 

He determines on the Hnaetar war 448 

Uk manlh to Wexford 444 

The nulitaij ndution 447 

Ihenege 448 

The mtck and nieueecw 449 

Eflccte of the &U of Wexford 464 



Abt. VII.— Dk. Pnsn oir Hakiav Dootbike.— Peace thbodor the Thuth. 

ExoeUenee and eeiMDableneeti of F. Uarper'n vulome 4fi5 

The Iramacalate Conception 467 

Extraordinary ngnificaoce of tho prophecy iu G«n, iii. 15 ... . 469 
Mary'i immunity from the " debitum proximam contrahendi uriginale 

peccatnm" 477 

Her Aaramption 489 

The error of rappodog )ier cu-pTt»ent iu tho Eucliari^t 491 

Doctiinea inrolred in the Chnrch'a devoUon to her 494 

Defence of these doctrinee ae regardB the langua^'e of Scripturo . 498 

Their defence aa regardd the silence of Sci-ipture 504 

Their defence as regards the language and the silence of antiquity . 610 

CottdnaioD. Peace tbrongh the Tmth 618 



IV COMTKMl'S. 

Till.— NonoEB or Bookb. 515 

Anmlecta Jaria Fontifioii — Dr. Murmjr'i Tractatua de Eocl«Bia 
Chriati— F. Harper'a Pence throogb the Truth. The Esaay on Tnd- 
snbatantiation — F. Sweeoej'a Lectares on Catholic Fulfa and Practice 
— Mr. Lookhart's Pouibilitiea uid DifflcnlUea of Reanion — Dr. Posfly'a 
Speech at Cbaroh Union Meeting— The Urwm JZevteu— The CkwtK 
Timet — Dr. MoCony'a Mosaic Covetiant and ChriaUan Diapeniation — 
F. Knox'a Life of B. Henry Suae — Mr. Earle's Mannal of the Fopea 
— Dr. Maxiere Brady's Alleged CooTerrion of the Irish Kahopa to 
the ReformatioD. 



TUC 



k 



k 



DUBLIN REVIEW^ 






JULY. 1866. 

A*T. I.— JULIUS C/ESA.R. BY NAPOLEON UI. 

IiM«iredgJuWgCtUT.—Totae L et IL— F^uu : Henri Plon.— 186&, 186C. 

"CV)B a modem Ceosar to write the biatnry of that first Csasar 
X; who bequeathed his very nam© to all futnre times as a sym- 
bol of power and greatnesB, is sufficient bo attract oar atteution, 
«id to desorro on the part of any competent critic at least his 
bOMt eodearours to do jastico to such on undcrtakiDg. Hut 
when Uid modum C'lesar has himself ascended the thronu in 
conAcqueooe of a cvttp d*etnt ; when his first sfep was to scatter 
before the windj a republican constitution, — to establish his 
own fikbric on the rains of that democracy, which had been 
raved and foKtcred for ven- different purposes ; — when, again, 
he has vacceedod in arrogating to himself a station of para- 
moani importance in the political world, which looks up to him 
•J a aort of umpire in every qnestion tending more or less to 
JeopardiEe European tnuKpiiUity, our curiosity becomes highly 
excited, and we are far more disposed to search for the inmost 
woHcinga of the imperial master-mind than for the scientific 
i- 4 ttud erudite discoveries of the hijjtorian. What 

a: 111 rt'pird to aristocracy and democracy? Huw aro 

tiioy to be moulucd to his own will and pleasure? How 
tar will ho allow them to expand or oppose bia power ? How 
does he understand the combination of supreme preroga- 
tirca with that coDcession of constitutional freedom which 
•nna to be the substratum and very essence of modern 
chilixation ? Ami then as to the grand figure ho has under- 
taken to portray — hrjw fur will it bo like the original, as handed 
down from olden times T Are we to have conjured up before 
oi that strange mixture of sybarite ofibminacy and heroic 
vigour, of the elegant patrician and the ranting dema^^ogue — of 
■ soaring genius and a aquandenog voluptuary, whicu tre BO 
VBgabu-R h)en^rti ia the e^rly ye^n of Caiua Ju\iua Caasax^ 
Orsr Rijwati /, ~U features to be ao remodeWQ^t 



2 Julyde,'&(£8ar. By Napohon IIL 

BO recast as .'to'-ttome fortK before our wondering eyos in the 
form and tft^liilfde of a modern statue, every inch of which 
betrays a 'mqW race, however dexterously it may be robed in 
the senator's toga or the soldier's chlamys ? 

SjJtbh-Are some of the numerous questions which arose in 
evei^ -thinking mind when, a year ago, the first volume of Julius 
TBi^sar was published by Napoleon III., and after the late 
, '.^'iasue of the second, those questions revive again. That 
-"•, *they remain unanswered we by no means wish to insinuate; on 
■ the contrary, the imperial writer expresses his views with the 
greatest boldness. Whatever may be their intrinsic value, — 
however different from those of other historians, they are 
at any rate stated with a candoar and a sober simplicity that 
challenge criticism and command on our part a fair and an im- 
partial investigation. The French emperor, himself a parvenu, 
as he asserts, appeals to the literary world as a man of high 
scientific attainments : as such he has a right to be heard and 
judged sine ira ac studio. Bearing this constantly before our 
mind, we will endeavour, as far as uos in our power, to answer 
his claim. 

The whole of the first volume mav be considered as an intro- 
duction to the history of the great Koman, who appears to have 
exerted a sort of fascination over the imperial mind. At the 
outset, the system is exposed in strong and vivid colours. That 
system may be expr^sed in two words — hero-worship, by no 
means new to the readers of Mr. Carlyle. Wo may even 
venture to affirm that the crowned historian goes beyond the 
British writer in regfurd to this new species of idolatry, since 
he considers certain great men as so many Messiahs, whom it 
is a crime to oppose, an act of poHtical suicide to withstand. 
The passage is so important, that we shall make no apology 
for placing it before the reader as it stands in the original 
French edition. 

When certain extraordinary facts reveal an eminent genius, can anything 
be more contraiy to good sense than to attribute them to the passions and 
feelings of mediocrity 1 Can anything be more erroneous than not to acknow- 
ledge the pre-eminence of those privileged beings, who, from time to time, 
rise on the scene of history like so many luminous beacons, breaking the 
darkness of their period and enlightening futurity ? To deny this pre- 
eminence would be an insult on mankind, as it implies that mankind would 
submit of its own accord for a lengthened period to a rule grounded neither on 
true grandeur nor on incontestable utility. Let us be l(^cal in order to be 
Jas£. 
Too auuij- biatcriiau £nd it An eaner task to lower mm. of genius than to 
.fl^ i&tvagh A gBaeroua iu^nUoDf totbeirhd^t,«mitotsftunD,^b!»xf^b»!^ 



JuUu3 Ocesar. Bij Napoleon III. 



Thni) in zcgird to Ciesiir, ioalead of showing as Rome torn by ciril 
■ui, eomiptM] by wtialtli, tnuiipling upon her oM imtitutioiu, threaUuod by 
pWKffal nolkiaif rach as the Oaulis the Ocntuuis, and the Pftrthuuis, unable 
to endure wilboat h iitnnig and equiuble govL-rnnient at the centra ; in^t^ad 
of tKmaiii;^ tbii ^ithful picture, voare laid that, frotii an eiiHr a>^\ Cn'isar woi 
■Ifeady mlrnt upon n^ceiuling to mrereign (iow«r. If ho opposes Syllu, if he 
Am^^ea with Cic«ro, if he becomee intimate with Poiupcitu, it proceeds 
famtliat waiy mttnteoeas whicb foreae&i all in order to anbdue nil ; if he 
I into Gaul, it is to acquire wealth through plunder, or nii army devoted 
I phas ; if he crouea the sea to carry the Roman eagles into im unknown 
0iiBnUy~K conqimt destined to conHrm that of Oaul — it is merely Ut wek 
farpnrisiuppaaed to be found in ibe Britiah Heua. If, again, aftvr conquering 
the moct tonSble enMniee of Italy beyond the Alps, he meditates an oxpodi- 
I ^piiiwt the Fu-thians, with the view of arcnging the defeat of Crasaaa, 
, BBttinLain certain historians, bocauso his constitution required activity, 
1 a aua|iai^ etreogthened hia health. If be accepts with gralitude a 
I of lanrela confinred upon him by the Senate, it is to oonceal hia bald* 
mam ; and lastly, if he U murdered by those on whom he hod lavbhed his 
Irroor, ft wu because he iMpirtil to ro^iilly ; as if, indeed, in the oycs of hia 
coDtanpocahea as well as of posterity, he were not greater tlian any king. 
■incD SaetocuiB tad Plutarch, such are the petty interpretations 
I vpoo the noot ooble actions. But how^ are wc to roooguixo the 
I of a insA 1 By the influence of his ideas, when bis principles and 
I thomph QVi?r his Tciy death or his defeat. Ts it not indeed the marked 
I of genius to \im beyond annihilation itself, and to extend its empire 
r fiftare georraiions 1 Cn-iiar vanishen &oni onr sight, and yet his influi-nce 
alnutger than in his Itfetinie. His anta^'vnist, Cicero, mnat needs 
* Every one of Ouiar's actions, writin;;^, words, promises, and 
firva an «Wtt iww more prevalent than when living.** For many a century 
ft WM nficient (o tell the world— «uch was the will of Cfesar— and tho world 
ii»r>4. 

Tkt pnoeding lines are enough to show my object in writing the present 
ftfertaiy. nal ob)6Clt Is to ptore that when Providence raises hih'Ii men as 
Cbar, OharitmagDe, or N^iolcoii, it is to cbnik nut the road which nations 
n t« Mknr — to imprint on n new cm the stamp of their genina— to fulfil in 
a firw abort yaan llie Ubour of serenU oentimeBL Happy those peoplea who 
hoCb mdffslaml and fuUuw tbvir leaden ! Woe to those who both niia- 
HHiihimil and vppuM them t Tli«v ar« like unto tho Jews, who crudfy their 
M^Hak ] tbof an at once both blind ami guilty— blind, for ihey do not «ee 
tWir own belylmiMw to prevent the nliimate triumph of what is right — 
fikf, tot Ihey only deUy pfogrew, by impeding iu speedy and (hiitful 

iwt, neither rs-aar's rmirdor, nor the c»pti\-ity of Saint Ucleua suo- 
1 in datmying tw«i piijuiUr oansoa, which were oTcrthrown by a coalition 
.■OBMd the ^rb of freedom. Bnitus, by killintl Cow, plungik&UoiDft 
-—J Ibe horroea uf « drii war; h* did not proveut the ret^ *A AupuAna% ; 
W V madSrvn/ /u^bfc thr rvle of a Xero jutd a Colignln. I^W^'mH 
A. ^^,^^1^ afyapoiaat by s mmhint^ Borope haa not prowntai ' 



■ 

I 

I 



4 JuUuv Ocesitr, By KapoUon ITI. 

rcsuiTcction of tho empire ; snd yet how f&r are we still (bom Uie si^utioa^ 
vf the uiont dilTtoult prolilcim, &om the appeasemeDt of ceitain puaions from 
the wLLiafnction of c«rtum popular ormvingi, already Beeured under the ^ 
fint empire. 

Such ia the theory — Providential meu or popular Mesaiaha 
are to be followed blindfold by a confiding generation, on pain 
of hurrying to wreck and ruin. The man of genius may prove 
himself an aspiring usurper, or pitiless conqueror, intent upon 
tho realization of hiH own ambitious plans, deiif to every plea 
of humanity that may thwart his views of personal aggraaaiBe- 
raent; still nil around, kings as well as nations, stiitcsmcn, 
magistrates, warriors, all must beud before** /nV will, for within 
his breast lies imbedded tho gcrra of a happy future, which it 
would be folly to crush, guilt to oppose. Doubtless his con- 
temporaries, or immediate successors, entertftined different 
ideas as to his secret motives, and, judging from his daily acts, 
they ascribed to liim a somewhat mixed character, usual id 
mortal man — that strange compound of shining %Hrtue3 and 
glaring vices ; but after all, their unvarying testimonioa ai« 
marked down as tokens of mediocrity, if not eveu of jauudico- 
eyed jealousy. Now it may bo as well to ask ourselves whether 
this tine-spun system is not itself a deviation from those r^y 
laws of moral criticism which the author so justly points out 
as the grouudwork of histoi-ical research ? Is it not going 
against every rule of evidence, and building up beforehand an 
ediSce destined to deceive our eyes and beguile our conscience ? 
Is it not moulding a figure according to our own fancy, not 
according to tho prcFcriptions of truth and science ? Granted 
that Csesar rose lar superior to all his contemporaries ; granted 
that ho detected, with tho keen glance of genius, the real 
weakness of his troubled times ; that ho quickly perceived how 
inevitable was an impending monarchy, whatever might be its 
form or name, what then ? Why should ho not bend the 
energies of his master-mind to the realization of his secret 
plans, and prepare the way for his future dictatorship ? Many 
were those beside him who ran the same race, and revelled in 
the same dream, though tho golden circle was farther from 
their reach. What could prevent Caesar from aspiring to the 
anpreme rank ? Sylla and Marius and Pompeius had trampled 
upon the institutions of their fatherland and drenched its historic 
soil in blood ; Catilino had well-nigh succeeded in his " 
rate conspiracy ; wherefore should a man above them all hava 
riotihteA or hesitated as to the final issue f Nay, more, as wej 
proceed tbrovgh lin's iirst volume, wo find that almost o very! 
other Sgure of mark is sacrificed to t\ie \dca\.\ieto (i? Oie tWjd 



I 



Julnt3 CauMi; By Napoleon III. 5 

to the SDCoeufhl statesmaa aud warrior, who trod on the 
Kbflrtiet of his coantiy, and paved the wa^ for that govern- 
ment vhicb has become a byword for the most execrable 
tymniij that over left; it« bloodj* imprint on the annuls of man- 
Iniid. GatuIoB, the honest yrinceps or leader of the Senate, is 
represented as a weak, besotted, benighted aristocrat, who 
talCBS hia stand upon obsolete forms and anciqaated notions j 
Cato, a« a mere caricature of his celebrated ancestor; Cicero, 
aa an oloqnent special pleader, wavering in his views, harried 
on by the stream, courting" popularity, or cringing before the 
all-powerful Inumvirs, simply to flotisfy his own inordinate 
Tmiiity, or allny his terrors} ! la this fair? Or rather is it not 
eomiag round by a different road to the very result which the 
anthor deprecates, that of making both men and things agree 
with an a priori system — the system of hero-worship ? 

Bnt there is another consequence of the theory wc can by 
A0l&c<tD9wink at or conceal. If every man of aspiring penius, 
like ft Cna&r or a Xapoleon, is to bo considered as a, ^Icssiah, 
it ia aH over with fi-i.'cdotn and free men. AVe have but to fall 
down and worship the idol, us a direct representative of Pron- 
deooe, or rather of fate, as hia majesty is fond of expressing 
it. As for ourselves, we confess to having been brought up in 
a diffonsot school ; wo have been taught to kneel before Ood 
»1 1 to revcro a Vincent de Paul or a Thomas h Beckett 

fu lian tht? most mighty genius, when that genius proves 

a despot, however enlightenediu other respeuta he may be. Both 
m Coiaar and Napoleon, in Cromwell, Louis the Fourteenth, 
Frederick the Second, there are many dark spots, and if om* eyes 
are wide open to their bripfht sides, why should wo bo blind to 
aome of their actions, which no honost man, above all no 
Christian, can approve. 

We have thought fit to enter our protest at the very outset 
•gainst' the system adopted by the author of Jnlimt Ore^ar, 
because it supplies a clue to the whole work, and is, in our 
Op Uik nt at least, derogatory to the dignity of man. We will 
eroa ronture to affirm that the immediate consequences of that 
sjatcvi did not occur to the writer's mind, or ne would have 
OodiRed his theory so as to make it coincide at least with the 
metice of his own reign. For, indeed, a most striking 
natore of the Im])orial Government is its conformity to the 
popular will and tendencies of the nation. During the 6rst 
|reaT» of its Bustenc«, the whole French people was unaulmous 
m its advocacy of a rtrong arm to put an end to tho periodical 
anarafay of the time bein^ ; and the foremost in ihtnr dotmmcA- 
aboos of popular wetitutioas were the men who t\ow iVa^^ 
fir^om. Fi-y*- woro thow who romoincd (aithtuV lo ^ 




)V\u^ 



6 Julius Ocesar, By Napoleon III, 

principles of their own lives j and such was the general rush 
towards an absolute government, that perhaps we ought to 
compliment Napoleon III. for not reckoning upon the perma- 
nence of this transitory feeling. Of late years, however, the 
nation has awakened from its torpor ; a now generation has 
grown up, and, forgetful of former calamities, it now pants for 
free institutions; thus reversing the picture which Tacitus drew 
of the Eomans in the days of Augustus. At the same time, the 
French Government seems gradually relaxing its hold, and pre- 
paring the way for a return to those forms and rules which 
under every clime mark the advent of liberty. Would or could 
Cficsar have done this ? We say. No ; though upon the whole 
Csesar was better than his times. But Christianity has not in 
vain ruled the world for eighteen long centuries, and the only 
true Messiah has so enfranchised man, that he can never more 
crouch as the Komans crouched, under the yoke of despotic 
power. Should Napoleon III. thoroughly understand this, he 
may leave one of the brightest pages in the annals of French 
history. 

Having once fulfilled what we consider to be a conscientious 
duty, we may fairly recommend to the reader the present 
volumes. They open with a retrospective review of Eoman 
history and of the institutions of the city from its birth. The 
author having naturally at his disposal, not only the resources 
of antiquity which are open to every scholar, but commanding 
likewise the numberless acquisitions of modem science, makes 
free use of both, and yet with a sobriety which does credit to his 
literary taste. The reader is interested and enlightened, not 
crushed or bewildered, by a display of erudition. He may 
wish for a style more brilliant, for a more animated picture of 
men and manners, such as Macaulay knew how to draw ; but 
still in this very sedateness there is something which im- 
presses the facts strongly upon the mind, and brings home to 
our understanding that we have to do with a man who is 
himself at the helm, and knows what it is to breast the 
surging waves — a fact, by the bye, which establishes a sort of 
similarity between him and the historians of antiquity, many 
of whom had a share in the government of their respective 
countries. To this, perhaps, still more than to their native 
genius, may be attributed that absence of meretricious orna- 
ment — that simple, sterling, sober propriety of language, 
which are so peculiar to the productions of a Thucydides, a 
Caesar, a Sallust, and a Tacitus. 
Another remarkable feature of the presei^t history is the 
/aJ/ and clear comprehension of the value of uistooratical 
elementa m the consfcitution of a coimfcry, Ouec«a eweSJcj «ea 



thnt t.ho sntlior has been no inattentive observer of British 
s in tcs-tifiwl hy tho following comparison between 
1 la nnil Kug'litih patricians: — 

Al tbo b«|^ni^ of Uw QfLh o<!ntiir7 from the foQAilALJim of Komo (418% 
lb« Scoale romiinM omnipotent m »pito of the pleWLui victoriea; for 
kwIrpeBdentlj of «ncb mcaiu oa it htu\ nt iU dlnpOKtl, it vras at \ihcTty to 
diitlc the plobiscita which it had to applj. Tf the inflnenco of a prcpon- 
dcf&liai; cLiM tt^uipcrcd the practice of politicnl Ii)>crtv, still the Inws 
fvUcTMl m a for hi^bejr dcgreu tho enjoyment of iudindnal ireetloin. Thus, 
tut only wjun everr ui^niWr of a fkiuily subjectutl to the unlimittd authority 
uf lt« heail, but every citbcen htvs bound to obey ntiml>cri«ft3 nbIi;;:Uions of n 
at cfannurter, Tht» censor kept a vigilmt watch over tho purity of 

I nurrla^ tie, oTor the education of children, tho trentnient of einv^ luid 
dhnita* the culltvntion of loiidit. " In iho opinion of the Rouiuius,*' snys 
Vtencb, ** 0') individunl waa at lil>nrty to inArry, to bring up cbi)dn>n, to 
«ri«cl hi» ovn mixlc of liriDK. to ^re buoquctii — in fact, to follow his own 
vailiaB tad lastia, without prBriotuly nndur)(oiiig an inbpectton und on 

Hm Stet« WIS ftft this period very like Euglaud's before the rarliomcntaiy 
nfam. For norrml ages tho British Constitution had been extolled aa a 
ptHtiihnii at fraodoco, thon^ cvon thoa, ua at Rome, birth nnd furttme were 
ikm nJtf aMiRSM of honour and jiower. In both countries the iiri»tt>cnicy, 
hvttlf orn tbs electiotM thn:>n:;h inLrigoa, through bribery or rotten 
■t enabled U> rvtum iMincians io Boine or iiublotoeu in England, 
I a nan without the electire &nnchise iras no citizen iu cither. Howerer, 
\ before ]7t)9, the English people hod no share in the nianiigoment of pttbllo 
aUn, thej trcre ri>;ht to boost of a liberty vhicb shone forth so Kplcudiilly 
■liiTil Uw dark and silent atmosphere of the continent. A di&interr>fll«d 
ttWrrtrilw* ooi vjtamiuc whether the stage on wliuh the p^vost political 
ifKfaHmu an) discnascd ix of vtmt extent^ or whether the acton arc moro or 
IttB a —i ffo u ^ : }}*• i*, flhfivr all, stnick with the grandeur of the scene. So 
V* are far '- '.■<.• nobility, either in Hume orEnghmd, furhnving 

niataiD<^1 ' }' ^y ^veiy nienns which the law or custom placed 

Hi tktir dispneal. 'lli^' inrricians were bound cridently to pieiervo their 
p>w er -- '-'"" ••- ihry were wurthy of it ; and we on ready to icknowledgo 
that, > ' ir prnwrirrance in the soino system of jiolicy, without those 

kfty rvr-wA, ktint rigid and inflMxible virtue, which ar« so nuiny characteristic 
i m imn m of on ariatocmcy, the edifice of Ronum civilization would bare nrrer 

At tbt tJina when ^omo entered apon the conquest of luly, 
previfjiu to that uf th? world, oar author endeavours to ahow 
1^ dificrent con"<' of circnnistnncca wbicli fiicilitntod 

tin great uudert. ^1 insured its siiccc-hs. Those pro- 

ni&eat tnut5 of tt n policy in rcjirard tu tho c*OD(\uured 

Ktitms ItsTo bri'i. i^^'/j ^rou^Efht otit in tUeir inio coVmri 

\r 2iaatiwquicii, Mommseuj Driunann, Morivale. ani oOo-et 



I 



I 



JuUits CfTgar. By Nftpohon TTT, 

eminent writers, tliat wo shall refrain irom enlarging on tbo 
subject. Bat still it mar be well to remember that the pos- 
terity of Romulus were the first to Bet sach an example, uttorly 
ignored by the Greeks, though their distant colouies od tho 
Mediterranean shores never voluntarily cut tho link which 
bound them to tho mother country. This greatly accounts 
for tho extraordinary success of the Romans, even setting 
aside the inmate superiority of their own internal organiza- 
tion. As the Imperial author very properly observes, the 
Senate, by bestowing upon tho citizen certain rights and 
privileges, which every ono found it beneficial to possess, gavo 
a strong impulse to lawful ambition j and one of the most 
remarkable outlines of ancient society is preci3<^ly this general 
tendency, not to overthrow, but to enjoy tho privilege. Both 
in the city and in tho State, malcontents and oven insurgents 
did not, as in modern times, aim at pulling to pieces, bub they 
themselves endeavoured to enter within the precincts of tho 
legal sanctuary. So tliat every man, according to his rank 
and status, had a lawful goal before his eyes : tbo plebeian 
was ambitions of rising to the level of the aristocracy ; the 
ItaUots sought to share in tho Roman sovei'eignty, not to 
impugn it; the Roman provinces, to be declared the alUes 
and friends of Rome, not to recover their independence. 

We may consider this period as the golden era of tho 
Republic^ out too soon superseded by those scenes of misrule, 
violence, and civil bloodshed which ushered in the Syllan and 
Manan proscriptions, and then the Triuravimtc, and then with 
Ceos&r himself the downfall of the commonwealth. Just as 
he is about to describe these tronblcd times, tho Emperor 
pauses as if to take a farewell view of the preceding age in a 
chapter on tho fair regions which enclose the Mediterranean— 
ft chapter wherein every scholar, as well as the more historical 
tyro, may glean valuable information. The picture of ancient 
trade and commerce is complete, thus supplying a deficiency 
of tho most popular works in modem times. It forma alto- 
gether an admirable essay on political and commercial geo- 
graphy in those distant times, and would be sufficient to 
oiatingnish any writer. 

The reader who, not contenting himself with a saperficial 
gbservatdon of men and events in the stndv of ancient history, 
Bdeavoors to gauge tho deeper oauses of tbo rise and fall of 
fioathen nations, is stnick by an ever-recurring phenomenon. 
The rise is osually sudden, the fall no less rapid, just as certain 
lovely flowers bloom in the morning, and fade ere the 
sun seta over their fleeting efflorescence. Tho Greece of 
our fond recollections lasts but the age of Pericles — nay, less. 



^ 



4 




Xii/i'ihr Cwjiar, "Btj Napoleon III. 



9 



lly fifty years of that noblo ccntary; and then comes 
idor with his conquoring" leg-iona, and then a final 
kp«e. When Kome Iiad subdued Italy, and bestowed her 
dtiseaAhip upon tho Italitin race, — wbon sho had made Car* 
ibage one bugu heap of wreck and ruin, what became of her 
boMted aoab^ty of nmonors. of her social virtues, her high 
Iwlnig of hononr and equity, her chivalrous adherence to 
pliDciple iu preference to utility, to oppression, to violeace, 
to crul of every description ? We have scarcely tamed tho 
page, vheu we are hurried headlong into scenes of moral 
Mpimvation within the family circle, of scurrilous iufidelity 
~ at the Gods, of barefaced iniqoity in the Senate, of 
1, riots, bribery, both in the Forum and in the courts 
jatlice; whiltut the provinces are subjected to an immenHo 
IjMsm of dcpredatiou, plunder, and opprcHsion, in order to 
gorge and enrich a few hundred patricians or middlemen. 
How is this? And, above all, how is it that there exists, in 
thb reapeot, snch a marked contrast between ancient and 
modem ctviUxation? On the one side, a corroding principle 
MMns to prey apon tho very rituls of heathen societv, and to 
Monder the thread of its existence ; on the other, after 
lodfl of corrnption, and violence, and social convulsions, 
1, perhaps, to those of old, wo never fail to witness the 
'(*kipTn«Dt of a healing power, cancelling past evils, in- 
' \g new moral strength into the individual, and thus 
W invigorating once more the body politic, leavening 
whow maM to such a degree that a period of degeneracy 
lattgnor is frequently succeeded by a far higlier flig^ht 
the xcnith of powt^r and exccHenco. Again we put 
(ko question, How are we to account for this ? to what 
histonaa are wo to tara for an explanation of the probtom ? 

Unfortiinatelr tho answer is most simple — to none. Begiu 
with ^' t nud Gibbon, continue with the host of 

OevlDr.. ;;o have spun ont in every form the history 

of old Uomo, and conclude with a Merim<fe, a Michelet, an 
Am4d6B Tfaiorry, or even tho imperial publication we are now 
rarieving, yon will find no reply to this all important qnes- 
licni — the very nncteas of a pbilosophy of history. So we 
■ant try to answer for ourselves. 

Tbe iuo«t superficial acquaintance with the natnro and 
HMBCO of tiio aoal is sufficient to show us that any obscarity, 
any ignoimuoe as to the link which connects tho rational with 
Xka ■upenutnral, will soon vitiate the whole mind of man. In 
atber words, suppose any nsrion, however sound ftm\ ^e.T^cd 
ki argmaixatiaiT^ /« be ignorant of the nutnro of <j04\j i\t\i\ ^■o^^ 
to wivt with cmck$ and B^wa uo leea in vUc towu*\»fc- 1 



10 



Jnlius C(P«ar, B/f Najtoleon JIL 



tions tbaii ia tho Bupcrstructuro of the body politic. Muu'd 
duties t-owards liis Maker being' unknown, or partmlly con- 
cealed by polytbcism, his notions grow ognally loose as to liia 
duties towards his neig-hbour. The very idJea of vice and virtue 
becomes Rfadnally obliterated, so that in the long" run vie 
itaeU* is placed upon tho altar and worshipped with far great 
devotion than moral dignity, deprived as the latter is of its sole 
source of Htrongth. Hence the astonishing facility witli which 
tho moat polished uationa of antiquity rush iuto a vortex of 
moral ana political corruption, of which wo can hardly at 
present fonn a conception. Those alone who are well versed 
in tlie study of tiio llomnn poets and annals know the truth of ^ 
our affii-mation, and how far the Christian revelation hasliftc^fli 
mankind out of this turbid stream. But let us realize^ at any 
rate, tho baneful effects on society of tho followinj:^ vices, 
which wera prevalent among tho Romans towards the latter 
end of the Kepnblic, or about one century before Christ: — 
Adultery and fornication in its worst forms ; might substi- 
tnted for right, and applying wholesale to slavery. Tho slave 
was a thing, a chattel, or a nonentity, according to his 
master's will or caprice. He might be chained to a post, 
as tho portei-s at the entrance of a villa, or sleep at night under- 
ground, and bound in the crgtLStulum, or be tortured by somo 
young girl in her teens, merely because the poor unfortuuato 
had broken a favom-ito vasc^ or forgotteu to feod a petted 
mullet of the fish-pond. Now imagine these acts of immorality, 
tyranny, injustice, cruelty, bribeiy, debauchery, and sensuaUty, 
repeated day after day, night after night, in every street i 
Rome, in evor>' Italian city or colony, in evei-y province, 
every i-egion, for months and years, and what a long vista 
degradation and decline at once opens upon us 1 How thfl 
Btuguant cesspool is constantly seuuing up its pestilential GxA 
halations ! Uow deeply it oozes forth in every direction, 
until it permeates the whole soil ! We turn aghast when, in 
the nineteenth centurj' of the Christian era, some great crime 
such as that of a Winsor, op a Pritcbard, or a La Pommorais^ i 
is revealed in its naked horrors, as if to show how d<^pHl 
rooted is tho evil principle in tho human soul ; but what i^^ 
we had a wholesale system of abortion or exposui-e of new- 
born babes ? What if wc considei-od it as a right in a fatht-r 
to abandon his own children ? What if we had touiples for 
a cult of open immorality, under tho advocacy of somo 
foul oriental demon? Could any providential hero, any, 
pseudo-Messiah, save us from utter destruction ? Where 
tAo Ciesur, himself a prey, let it bo remembered, to many 
At'odstrong pas&ioD, who could stop ua m our c<j>iratt iy-« 



JuUus C(tsar. By Napoleon HI. 



II 



the inclined plane ? True, his goniua might prop up and abut 
for awhilo the tottering edifice, but tho strong sbonlders of 
the giant onco removed, who is to conliimo his work ? 
Ciesar ranrdered, did Roman society obtain a roprievo worth 
mentioning ? Wo know that Octanus emerged into Augus- 
tus, but after Augustus, what a constant downfall from bad to 
worse, even under the best empcroiu \ 

Such are the considerations aud views it would be useless to 
look for in all modem histories of Itome, with one exception, 
however, supplit-d by Count Fi*a.uz de Cliumpagny, in liis excel- 
lent work on the Cccsars and the Antonincs, which wc reviewed 
in April. We confess to having expected something of the samo 
Cliriatian philosophy in the pubUcation now before us. It would 
^■BLthat a Sovereign possessed of so much insight into tho 
^^^B|b workings of worldly policy; so well taught lu the school 
^^Fadvcrsity ; so suddenly raised to one of the most oxnltod 
HHhtions, should have perceived at a glance the real cause of 
that weakness which is apparent in ancient socioty. But wo 
say it with feelings of disappointment, from one end to the 
other of thesQ volumes wo meet with the samo bold policy of 
expediency ; the same utilitarian views ; tho samo prevulenco 
of principles which might grace an elaborato essay written by 
Bomo old heathen philosopher, but appear quito oat of place in 
oar times. Wo aro ever referred to iate and destiny as ruling 
over human affairs, instead of Divine Providence. On other 
oecasions wo arc startled by some extraordinary assertion 
brought out with a coolness thai bafDes explanation. Hero is 
a sirikinn" instance of our meaning. In his youth, Ctcsap 
being obliged to conceal himself in the neighbourhood of 
Rome to escape from the persecuting bauds of Sylla, changed 
hia abode every night, though labouring under fever. He 
wnc, however, caught by the dictator's bands of assassins, but 
having bribed their commander, Cornelius I'hnzito, by a timely 
presimt of two tnlents (about £500), his life was spared, " Let 
tui observe," adds his imperial historian, " that when Cscsar 
himself succeeded to the supreme power, he met once more 
this Phazitaj but treated him with kindness, and foryot lite 
vast." Tho author cannot mean assuredly that Cfosar would 
have been justitled in avenging himself on a man who had 
tved liis life, even ot tho oxponso of a bribe, and yet what 
'er construction can we put on the sentence ? 
It ia certainly in no carping spirit that we make these 
observations, which wo would huvo far preferred to have 
omitted — let ns at least hope that as tho work progresses, the 
new historian of Julius Caesar will devflop views moro 
rvconcilablo to what we might term the general conscience 



Julius Ca3sai\ By Aa/'ofct/rt 111. 



to 

tar^ 



maakind. Abovo all we sincerely regret that from the very 
first a ByBtcm should Iiavo been adopted which tends to justify 
every aspiring genius in overthrowing the constitution of his 
country, instead of reforming it j of establishing by dint of 
sheer force his own absolubo authority, instead of banding 
together every talent, every energy, to stem the torrent, and 
rise auporior to the evil influences which are at work in 
50ciet\'. AVhen a man is pointed out as a Messiah, of course 
the whole mass of liistorical evidence is warped and made to 
bear in his favour ; whilst on tho contrar}*, every incident 
which may tell a^inst him is attenuated or considered 
a downright calumny. In the work before us there arff" 
numerous instances of this kind, and yet why should Caisar 
be held up as an unblctnishud clianictcr, when every vice 
and every act of unscrupulous ambititm on His part is ex- 
actly in accordance with the vices and oven the cnmes of hisfl 
age ? In heathen virtue there is always something hollow and ^ 
infirm in purpose, as is fully shown by tho moral character 
of a Cato, a Cicero, or a Marcus Aurelius. But why should 
tho groat Roman orator bo constantly held out as a sort of 
puppet in the hands of a proud oligarchy; as a changeling, 
over serving the time and purpose of tho day? As you read^y 
on you are singularly surprised with the fact that what we^| 
should call pai'liamcntary eloquence and statosmant^hip are^^ 
objects of bitter hatred to tne wriier, who endeavours to 
personify in Cicero certain eminent personiiges of his own 
country. We freely confess our dislike to such a system,^ 
80 totally avci*se to our notions of real impartiality. 

And yet whnt an instructive period for a Frenchman, mor 
especially for a French emperor, to study. There ho mayj 
find tho same passions; the same political parties; tho same 
extreme opinions; the same quarrels ; the same fnendshipB ; 
the same animosity. Such is the external sameness of man. 
On opening histonr at any page, our first impression is to 
mark numberless differences between one period and another ; 
our second, to acknowledge that e^'ory period is very much 
like its forerunner. Tear away tho cloak, tho toga, or the 
coat, and you have no more a Greek, a Roman, or a French- 
man ; you have before your eyes Man, with his passions, his 
intellect, his whole being. Ho who does not fully onderstand 
this needs hardly to study history. ^J 

The seventy years which preceded Cicsar'a age and life ar^H 
some of the most interesting in the annals of mankind, with-^^ 

J oai even eicepting our own, for scarcely any have supplied 
«o tattch vahmhle in/brnitttion. CoGsar bm^cK wrote his cam 

/^j^TiSj n-hich /ire a model of precision ai\A tto\iw\ ^Qoiscw 



m, I 
JiroH 

xnfM 



» 



I 



JhUum Cttsnr. Bij Napoleon JIT. 13 

irberein the ability of tho statesman Bhines throagli the simpli- 
city of the soldier. Sallust, a man bound to Coesar by crery tie, 
is on aathor somewhat like our modem public writers, with their 
proDcneflB to sophiatrr tmd to pedantry. He retires from 
our view in order to place his own rupntatiou in a favourable 
light,* and to preach a sort of morality to his old party ; and 
by 3o doing he indites one of the most curious narratives in 
antiqaity. Then come two (irecks, Plutarch and Dion 
Cmcids, both liable to suspicion^ the one for his admiration, 
tko other for his Hispara^emout, of the Roman republic. 
And yet both are well worth reading, the enthusiaRt more 
especially ; for there is always more good faith, more ster- 
ling truthfulness, in the enthusiast than in tho satirist. 
Bat the great historian of these exciting times is Cicero. 
Setting aside his famous harangues, what other epoch would 
■apply us with a whole collection of letters written to a 
brother, to a wife, to a bosom friend, about the daily erenfs, 
by the most sensible, most impartial, and most keen-sighted 
ODMrrer; the more keen-sighted, indeed, that ho is more 
vaTsring in politics. One would really have imagined that 
aa aathority of such high standing would have found more 
&roar in the eyes of a modern Ctesar, 

Bat in regard to tho C&esar of heathen Itome^ does he in 
bet deserve that ambitious title of a popular Mtssioh, which 
his new biographer bestows npou him ? Did he positively 
alter the state of the world over which he ruled supreme V 
Did he reform tho vices, purify tho morals, enlarge the 
Uberties, increase the welfare, of the people ? Perhaps the 
beet way of replying to this question will be to cast a hasty 
glance at the cf^ndition of society at tho period when Csasar 
MU«d tho reins of power, and then to leave to the imperial 
writer tho Uuk of proving his thoory in his subsequent 

The period included between the Syllan proscriptions and 
ikti battle of Actium may be counted among tho moat active 
IB the history of. tho world, He\'olution becomes permanent. 
VTben war is not raging on tho field of battle, it glares 
fortli in the furuni; when the le^ontt do not hnhe their com- 
Baad«rs to It^d them on to plunder Runie, driving before them 
tl» foriom Italians like so many sheep to tho shambles, we 

• ObMrva the following puMiges : — '*Sed oqo tululettcciittiliu initio, •irtiti 
llwWii ■ ^ ^ti.it . :ii1 fniniibUcnm Lttui MUin ; ihiqiie niihi iiuiItA aitvutia 
Mn ' I Iter on )»' »dJs, *'I hav<? dovoted bviV VvU\e M 

XUm-' ' to hor^'juniuhip ; hnt I havo »lrtaniben»:'i ta^ 

4 hm najf ^Miamd aoti /ist*iif (I :»humiAiuly, with atiew cl tnpRJtw«l£u:M& 
ih<^fk wimi mmn» mtJooy iw to their hufhwt eminence, Sic-'* 



14 Julius Ccesar. By Napoleon III. 

hare before us thousands of freemen aud freedmen, and 
bondsmen and gladiators, deliberating at the foot of the 
Capitol, sword or cudgel in hand. Such is their state of 
peace I The whole of Italy, or 900,000 men, have a right to 
the electoral franchise. What a surging sea must this 
assuredly have presented ! 

In every corner, in every by-place, men are in a fever; 
be it from offended pride or the resentment of their safferings, 
they seem intent upon sharing in the great dismemberment of 
the Roman power. Wandering shepherds, vagrant descendants 
of the old Samnites, hosts of fugitive slaves, at once the 
oppressors and booty of a barbarian world, all are ready to an- 
swer the call of any Catiline. The Scythians, though so far off 
from Rome, rise against it at the beck of Mithridates. Asia, 
though its best blood had been sucked by Roman covetoas- 
ness, jumps into thousands of crazy skiffs, and the whole sea 
is icfested with pirates. Again, the Marian party, expelled 
from Italy, having found a refuge in Spain, aims, under 
Sertorius, at building a new Rome over and against the 
old Rome of the patricians. Gaul, subdued and already half- 
Romanized, revolts against the conqueror, and more than 
sixty insurgent nations foam and seethe around Caesar. 
1,200,000 men perished in the Grallic wars I On the other 
hand, the Sicilian shepherds, a pack of slaves whom their 
masters did not oven pretend to feed, seize upon their un- 
wieldy staves, and, with, simple goatskins on their backs, set 
up for brigands. To reduce them, campaign upon campaign 
becomes necessary, and another million of human lives is 
sacrificed. Lastly, the gladiators, tired of killing and being 
killed for the pleasure of a Roman audience, take into their 
heads to slay and die on their own account. Spartacus plants 
his tent at the very gates of Rome, which but a few years 
before was almost taken by a horde of Samnite herdsmen. 

And yet, in the midst of all these bloody divisions, the em- 
pire stands erect. Csesar subdues Oaul ; Mithridates gives up 
Asia ; Sertorius, whilst upheaving Spain against Rome, really 
secures it to Rome ; every dying party drags along with it in 
its fall some tottering royalty or some independent nation j — 
an expiring republic expands as if to bequeath its newly- 
acquired possessions to the future monarchy. Nay, more: 
civilization itself is hardly endangered ; this writhing world 
is full of enlightenment. They are by no means barbarians, 
those men who massacre their fellow-citizens in the Forum. 
No; they are endowed with every accomplishment: their 
manners are polished and gentlemuihke; their minds are highlv 
caltivated; they havo stadied at Athena, speak Greek as well 



JuHua Civsar, Jiif Napoleon III. 



\ M Iiiocr»t«8 himself; fight for Zeno auito as readily as for tlio 
Brpublic ; plunder a province moroly to onrich tbeir own. 
iua ; and alay men by tkousauds, in order to obtain po»- 
Ron of a l*nixiteles. Cteaor is an oratorj a grommariua, 
tad a ])ot.'t ; Verrus, a sort of Wiuckeluiaun. Dunng one yuur 
of reliruniunt from pnblic nffaira, Cicero translates the whole 
cycloa of Gruflc philosophy; and Epicureism beaomos natu- 
mlizmi in Homo only under tbo poetical garb with whiuh. 
Locnitiuu hoa enrobed it. 

Such is the bright side of Roman civillzatiou ; but beneatb 
it ftU waa rotten — rotten to the core ; the social system itself 

lwa« rotten. The great cause of tliia ruttenness was luxury; 

I and that luxury was very different from what wo raodorna 
nndenttand by the term. \Vc are disposed to consider as a trito 
Mw of the old philosophers tho famous linos — 

" . , . . . LfDvior furroia 
Lazuria iocubnit victuniqne iilcwcitur orbciii." 

And yet tho ancients had very good reasons for holding such 
Ungnage. Lnxnry among them was by no means, as with us, 
ao exchange of labour and wealth between tho opulent and 
the working classes, — an exchange carryiti^r alon^r with it a 
cartjun compensation for its evils. Throughout all antiquity 
the working-man was enslaved : he received no salary but as 
a bvour. < ' ! stipulate no prices, nor proportion his produc- 
tion a- to the laws of consumption. Kujoying no 
fiwadom, hu was not stiinnlnted by competition, nor by the 
' hope of bettering hia condition. What wo call industry 
Bfflounted to nothing else but a duty fulfilled by the slave 
UnnuvU a taskmaster ; what wo call commerce was, among tho 
Unmans, only an all-devouring system of usury. Free labour 
nd firoe indostiy 9n boons conferred upon mankind by 
Cbnaiiouity ; there is scarcely any trace of either beyond the 
^■rith oonUuj and the Crusades. 

fltoeh being tho state of things, the whulo world fell back 
ipon agriculture as its last resouitre. But at that time what 
*u the condition of agriculture itself? It is all very well fiir 
Tirgil io axcUim — 

" O fortumUM atiaium, uia id bona nOriat 
A^jnooUA." 

b naV' ■' '0 waa no happiness for them, or rather thi'-y 
i»we 1 'TO by such a yoke of tyranny as wo can hnnily 

ee•oei^ 1 yet if wc do not, it will bo difficult to uiuWt- 

itaiid i Lc*sar or blsj^'. Wo haro no wt&h tA> cupWu 




16 



Jiilins Ctr.ear, By Napoleon III, 



the nature of the 



romantis and the 



puhlii 



tl] 



Ueu8 J 
. would be 
sumptuous on our part to g-o over the suiuo ground ; but it is 
necessttry for our purpose to show that the greater part of 
the soil was in tlio hands of the nohilitas, or new-fashioned 
nobility, and of the knights, or noi'i homines^ as they 81*6 so 
frequently colled by Cicero. 

The possession of certain magistracies entitled a man to a 
seat in the Senate ; the right of beanncf the likenesses and 
images of one's family on public occasions {jus inuKj-lnujn) 
made a nobleman; your fortune alono made you a knight, 
The farming out of the tnxes, and other obscure but lucrutivo 
stations, wcro ever filling the kuiglii's puree. Those pubUcans, 
OS they were called, formed a most extensive system of com- 
mercial companies, spreading throughout the whole empire, 
and corrosponding through a special system of postage from 
East to West, from Asia to Spain. Their central point is 
naturally at Rome, where they have a supreme direction 
{maijusier societntHm) ; tlieir influence almost overrules that of 
the Senate; they are all-powerful in the Forum, where 
blood was so often shed to support their interests. The knights 
are now a third power in the State, mediating between the 
Senate and the people, pretending even to separate seats in 
the Amphithcatro — a privilege which the Seuators thomselvM^ 
did not always enjoy. ^M 

And then they held iu their hands usury — that great i^esourca^ 
of the old aristocracy. Littlo by little, cither through long 
possession, or leases, or as money-leadera ou mortgages, a 
vast amount of private and public lands became their pro- 
perty, thus origitiating the system of lidifundia, which con- 
tributed so largely to impoverish both Italy and the world. 
Nor was it merely from rapacity that these middlemen were 
ever increasing their landed property [coidinuure aijms) ; they 
likewise yielded to a feeling of dignity. A civilized Roman, 
in other words, a Roman gentleman, required plenty of room 
oronnd him for all his splendoar — room for his villas, for his 
gardens, planted with exotic trees ; room for his aWarios, his 
large fishponds, bis crowd of friends, clients, freedmen, and 
slaves. liow could a park of a few acres content a tax-gatherer 
who had dwelt in the kingly palaces of Asia ? So ho was i 
obliged to add aero to acre, to acquire by right or by might 
the neighbouriug inheritance, to expel the piwr man who was 
in debt and could find no bail ; to usurp the pateh of land o^^ 
a 3o)d2er who, on parting from his home to join a legion, lelj^^ 
bebiad him a faxniiy yet too young to till the gi'ound ; to do s^\ 
job now mid then with some legionary, wUotclMm^'XciCTi.Vwcxcyvi 



Julitit Ca'Mf, By Xtipoleon JIL 



17 



after twenty yours' servico, bat oxhniistcd by continual hard- 
ahip3j linti quite unable to go through tlxo duties of husbandry. 
The lati/nnnittrn was of a most oncroaching nature, iibsorbing' 
gradually every small estate, and growiog from a modcrato- 
si/.ei.l property into a largo province. 

But will tueso lands so easily acquired bo at le&at caUi- 
vated with care ? No ; for the very title-deed of the now 
possessor is of a doubtful, precoriouSj temporary character ; 
there is more of the creditor Lban of tho owner in his nature ; 
he may bo a koepcr, he is by no means a gcntleniiui farmer. 
Besides, to farm one's own grounds is now beucath u Uomaa'a 
dignity; to let them out is a soarco of petty squabbles; a 
farmer diacussea and maintains his own interests, and often 
turns out to be a bad payer ; and then at the ver}' time of 
sowing or reaping, a war may carry him off to tho array. 
Par better is the slare, an animal, a beast of burden, who can 
labour as long an yon ploa.so under the bmh of anotlier slavo 
bko biroself ; who, in his old age, may still bo sold for a few 
dollnrs, and who, best of all, will never bo deemed worthy of 
iigbting under tho Komnn eagles. Yea, the slavo — such is 
tlio proper tool, and a cheap one, to boot j for as vet no one 
fears a dearth of slaves. Have not we got in the market 
numberless Thraciaus, Africaus, Spaniards, all manacled, all 
bearing on their backs tho brand-mark of servitude ? And 
throughout Greece and Asia, are thero not thousands of dealers 
in human flesh, ever on the look-oot even for freemen, of whom 
they bring over whole cargoes to Rome? So the litttfutuliuin 
will be given ovor to slavish bands ; tho tuguriitm of the poor 
Roman huHbandman will be pulled down, as in our days tho 
cottiigo of Uio evicted Irish peasant; whilst tho wido-ex- 
mnding villa over goes on oncroaching, witb its gongs of 
labourers, who sleep at night bound to each other in tho 
erijaahtiHm, 

Tme, tho slave hardly can Ijo said to cultivate the soil, or ho 
does it with a broken s]jirit, with no heart in his business; but 
who cares fur that ? Alter all ho makes a tolerable shepherd ; so 
thrtt sheepwalks aud pasture-land may easily superscdo corn- 
fields and vineyards. The system answered well, and made moro 
than one rich capitalist. Thus, by degrees, small estat-os were 
merged into hirgc principalities, laxui-y replaced useful labour, 
tho tilttve ojfpelled the husbandmun; tho shepherd, tho sub- 
at^ntial yeoman. After nil, this rapid increase of fortune it 
"" eroly pampered the inertness and sensual indolonce uf tho 

salthy. Moreover, tho Italian soil was considered aa a 
plcu4(uru loud : a gentlemuu must havu one villa at Tivoli to 
D« near to Rome; another near Naples, for tKe ^ko qH \3Qft 




18 Juliiis OoBsar* By Napoleon III, 

sea-breezo ; a third in tKe Apennine raTineB, for the sake of 
Bolitudo, with roads built exclusively for the use of the happy 
possessors, with hosteh^es erected for himself and his friends. 
Such are the requirements of Koman pride and luxury. Of course 
a plentiful income must be found somewhere to support all this 
magnificence ; and so we have made sure of fertile lands in 
Sicily, capital investments of money in the provinces, shops 
and large warehouses let out in the best parts of Kome, in fact, 
our fortune lies everywhere else but at home. Never mind, we 
are Eoman citizens ; as such our property must be established 
on the best principles of Roman law, and on the privileged 
soil of Italy. 

But what will become of the &ee population thus displaced ; 
of that plshs rusticaf the very pith and marrow of the common- 
wealth ; the fruitful nursery of so many armies, deemed so 
highly superior to the plehs urhana in former times 1 They 
are no less proud and privileged, as being of Roman birf^ ; 
they deem themselves equal to the patrician order; but then, 
as they are generally poor, they become an object of contempt, 
fit for eviction and for being a prey to merciless usury. Private 
industry is all in the hands of the slaves, and accrues to the 
benefit of the wealthy ; so it proves totally unproductive in 
their hands. The protective laws, such as the L. Porda 
L, 8ejnproni<ij which we might call the bill of rights of a 
Roman citizen, are not even always respected in favour of the 
plebeian tenant who dwells in the country, and he is some- 
times whipped like the bondsman, or sent out into some distant 
province, there to work and drudge like a common slave. 

Whenever, in the study of a historical character, we wish to 
scan the depth of his genius and measure the degree of influ- 
ence ho has really exerted either over his contemporaries or 
posterity, it is of high importance to ascertain what is the 
condition of the society over which he swayed, and which he 
stamped, as it were, with the imprint of his own spirit. How 
are we to fathom the workings of his great mind, if we have 
not before our eye the obstacles he had to overcome ? And 
what obstacles can be greater than those arising out of the 
moral degradation of a nation, or out of the constant viola- 
tion of such economical laws of production and consumption 
as are indispensable to the well-being of any civihzed country ? 
That is the very reason why wo have dwelt at some length 
on the social rather than on the political condition of the 
Roman republic when Csasar assumed the supreme power. It 
will now he an easy task to draw up the balance and account, 
so to speak, of wha,t he really did to «teen^\w(n. ftafc \Hi19gQ 
fhbrio which hp bequeathed to liU bucow»ot», "ftu^ Vm «^ 



JuUiis Cfpaar* By Hapoleou III. 



10 



IP «* J*. 



I 



faaportant side of tbe qncstion ahonld liavo oscnpcd the 
aafelu>r of the work wo have now before ns, is in onr oyca 
■ttoriy mcotnprcbtnsible. 

As ioon as CVsar became an inflitontial leader of the popnlar 
party, wo oror eoc him ti*nrlin^ to undermine tho autliority of 
ih' ^ — '■", and to please tlie people by dividing the punlic 
lai tig Uie poorer chisses. Chi one occasionj ho 

|i iiw less than 150,000 inhabitants of Rorao in distant 
!, in onler to rid the city of the most unruly portion 
of jta in. ThiH meaHuro was certainly a wise one ; 

Ukd jf. -L :.. , ily satisfied ovonthoso who benefitted by its en- 
■cto>oiit«. Thoy preferred by fnr a life of lazineits in Rome to 
tfa* most honournblo activity of an agricultural life. At any 
nU«, wn can see no reason wh^- Ciosar shonld have so stead- 
fe- jwd the old senatorial troditions, nnlcss it were to 

lai own anibitiouK pnrposos. Tliis our author will hardly 

ftdmic, and yet almost every pago of thcso troubled times 
tends to coniirm our views of tho case. Had ho been somc- 
thinff iDoro of the Mftmuih, and Homofching less of tbo man, his 
ipmi Aim would haro been to reform the raoralH of hiii country- 
mfiu, ftnd to alter the condition of labour in the heathen world. 
But thi» w»» more than any genius, however ti"anscendent — 
Unn any Bteteeman, however powerful and able, could aecom- 
pliifa or dream of. So it was no fanlt of Caesar's if tho very 
idea of BQCh a rcvolatton did not oven cross his mind. We 
Imow in what qnarter th.it revolntion was to arise — he could 
ant. ' ■' fir, as well as after Cirsar, this huge 

omM •- lion, inifjiiity, cruetty went on, preying 

ipon tho vi'ry vitiiis of society, dt«tr(»ying one by one every 
pr^n^{nli- ,X ^mndiug order, until the notions of order, justico, 
B'.i jr, and so forth Appeared in tho eves of men 

tomctitiug buiiqnated, — something fit for old-fasnioned en- 
lU, or, nt tho lw*«t, for tho pompous declamation of a 
' l»y wliifh wo ought to view Cmsar's 
, it is far safer, we venture t<^ affirm, 
^l Iheon***! about Providential men, and nation^ 
;he accond voloroc now before ns placoa beyond 



npfaiF 
KenJn>- 

ilian t 

dimtA. 



' openswith obsorvalions — ^whichwe find lypeoted 
'. more devt-ilopetl form, and aa both theHopas- 
awwi may bo said to rontain tho Rpirit and lemling idea of tho 
wdf<' ir. *rV it miiv bo a!t Well to lay them beforo tho reader. 
0: narrative of Ciwuir's expoditiona \n ^iftv^, 

\^' -.1. .. rrprcuscs bimscll in tHo fo\\<3fwva% 



20 Julius Gccsar* By Napoleon HI, 

When Suetonius attributes the idea of these expeditions carried on by 
the great man to the sole wish of enriching himself hj booty, it is an insult 
on history and common sense, and he converts a most noble design intaa 
most vulgar object. When other historians impute to Cresar the sole inten- 
tion of seeking in Gaid the means of conquering the supremo power, they 
display a false perspicacity ; judging of events by tJieir final resiilt, instead 
of coolly weighing the causes that produced them. No, it was not sovereignty 
which CsGsar sought for in the Gauls ; it was by far rather that pure and 
exalted glory, arising out of a national war, carried on in obedience to the 
traditional interests of one's country (pp. 9-11). 

Again (p. 349) :— 

Certain writers who feel absolute irritation at the sight of glory do all 
in their power to lower it. They seem to believe that they thus will weaken 
the judgment of former times ; loe prefer to strengthen it by showing why 
the reputation of certAin men has filled the world. To place in a strong light 
heroic examples, — to prove that glory is the lawful reward of great actions, 
is merely bowing respectfully to the public opinion of aU ages. A man who 
has to contend with ^most insuperable difficulties, and yet who overcomes 
them by his own genius, that man offers a spectacle ever worthy of our 
admimtion ; and that admiration ia all the better grounded, in proportion as 
there yawns between the object and the means a wider abyss. 

Now, if we take every word of tho above lines — and there 
is hardly one from which any man of common sense would 
dissent — so thoroughly true and evident is this language, that 
it amounts almost to common-place. Kapoleon Ihe Third must 
therefore have a particular object in view, when he comes forth 
so solemnly to affirm what no one would venture to contradict 
in its general bearing. That object we soon discover, for every 
particle of evidence against Caesar's ambition, or against thensual 
arts of bribery and corruption, to which he had recourse like 
all his rivals and contemporaries, is attributed to envy, or 
hatred, or narrow-minded prejudice, or political blindness. Of 
course, thanks to this method, Caesar stands out blameless, 
emblazoned in a sort of immaculate halo, something like the 
halo, we fancy, with which the imperial biographer surrounds 
the eminent founder of his own dynasty. Nay, we strongly 
suspect, that had not a certian political Messiah of modem 
times been constantly looking over his nephew's shoulder, 
whilst pondering over the Commentaries, and Plutarch, and 
Dion, Appian, Cicero, and others, the very idea of attributing 
the same character to Caesar would not even have crossed 
his Majesty's mind. But is this history? How are we to 
bestow our well-deserved admiration upon that bold figure of 
the old Roman dictator, if all his failings and his vices are 
^as wbite^waehed, in. order to satisfy this fine-spun theoiy 7 



Or how nro wo to account for tlio fiict tliat a Merivolc und a 
Mommscu — to inDniion tbem alouo — have never been ouce 
struck with tho same bri^jht conception ? They both oclcnow- 
Icdgt? the great snperiurity of Cicsar over h\s competitors; 
they both admit tho cHcte dofjcneracy of tho Jtoman aristo- 
cracy, the unruly turbulence of tho mob, tho inability of the 
]iopalar party to efTect any real good, the utter disorganiza- 
tion of the central no less than of tho provincial government ; 
in fUct, they Fully acknowledge' the necosaityj nay, the existence 
of a roal m<marohy in tho hands of Ca3sar long before it was 
formally establisiied ; but they are not blind to the means, 
foul or fail', which ho used to secure success. In our eyes, 
this is paying in reality a higher tribute to Cajsar himself than 
by inventing theories founded upon no positive evidence. A 
brief review of those troubled times will justiiy our assertion. 

According to the author of Juh'nn Ctr^ar, the latter left 
Italy for Gaul, merely with tho view of increasing tho inlluenco 
of his fatherland and of subduing tho most dungi^rous among 
those barbarians who hud for ages threatened the very ex- 
istence of the Koman Kmpirc. now do facts agree with this 
bold theory? Shortly before thia important event took place, 
Pompey had returned from tho East, and might easily hnvo 
seized tho crown, if his innate irresolution had not constantly 
baffled his fondest hopes. " The diadem lay at his feet, he 
had but to pick it up," says, graphically, M. Mommsen; for tho 
aristocrat ical oligarchy had been thrown overboard, and the 
popular party — though headed by Csesar himself — ^was power- 
loas to rcBtoro a genuine republican government. For a long 
period the Roman commonwealth had been hurrying on to au 
incvitftblo catastrophe, in other wor<ls to a monarchy, whatever 
form it might ultimately assume. The power of the Senate 
had ju.st succumbed to the hberal opposition of tho middlo 
class, supported by the strength of the army. A new order 
of things was expected by every thinking man, though tho 
old names, and persons, and institutions might be preserved; 
as for the rest, it was a matter to be discussed between tho 
democmtic party and tho commanders of the legions. Tho 
Asiatic urovinces had been newly modelled and regidated as to 
tht'ir aclministration by tho victorious I'ompey, whom tho 
population greeted as a second Alexander, and whose freed- 
men or lieutenants they worshipped as so many princes. Thus, 
with his Bovereign power, his vast treasures, his anny, and liis 
roputjUiuii, ho really appeared in the eyes of men as tho future 
monarch of the Homan empire. Tho late anarchical conspiracy 
of Catiline, attended by a civil war, had proved beyond dis- 
pute, that a goTcrnmcDt deprived of all authority, for viwi^ 



I 



22 Julius Ccesar. By Napoleon III. 

of a military forces ofierod no defence against the grinding 
tyranny of the moneyed interest, no more than against the 
mob. So, according to all appearances, the year 62 B.C. 
(092 u.c.) would usher in a change of the Constitution, merely 
another term for the establishment of Royalty. 

Doubtless, at this period, Cato, Gatulus president of the 
Senate, Crassus, Titus Labienus, Ceesar himself, would com- 
bine against the Eastern Conqueror ; but the latter was at the 
head of his veteran legions, and could reckon upon the support 
of all those in the city who had anything to lose, whilst the 
former could hardly levy a single legion in the existing state of 
affairs. The very aristocracy itself would have gladly given 
up their hollow and useless privileges, for the sake of rank, 
and influence and wealth in the sovereign's court. It is well 
known how all those- expectations were brought to nought by 
Pompey's own supineness and vacillations ; how ho disbanded 
his army on lauding in Italy ; and how ho soon became an 
object of contempt for every party, bearded by the Senate, 
cajoled yet deluded by the democrats j feared by none. From 
that day, wo fancy, that CsBsar must have taken the measure 
of the man ; for let us remember that his future rival had no 
real feeling of self-renouncement or true grandeur: he was 
deterred from realizing his ambitious views by nothing else 
but sheer pusillanimity. 

And yet still he was Pompey, the only ruler of the day whose 
arm was powerful throughout the whole peninsula, thanks to 
his scattered but faithful soldiers; and to bid for an alliance 
with him against all comers was well worth the trial. Caasar 
did make that trial, and was successful. During the politick 
calm which ensued upon Pompey's return to Rome, the youthful 
head of tho democratical party had mado the most of his time 
to increase his own influence. But two years before, he was 
Uttle better than Catiline, whoso conspiracy he had certainly 
abetted;* he was, moreover, on the eve of becoming a bank- 

* We borrow the following observationa from M Momimen : — " Accord- 
ing to evidence of the most mdisputabie character, Crassus and Ctcsar, snp- 
ported, more than any others, Catuina in his pretensions to the consulship, 
when Cfesai, in the year 690 (64 B.C.), brought before a court of justice tne 
mimlerous agents of Sylla, he obtained a condemnation against most of them, 
but let off scot free the most dangerous and most infamous of them all — I 
mean Catiline. Doubtless, on the list of the conspirators, which was divulged 
hi the sitting of the 3rd of December, tho names of these two influential men 
are not to be found ; but it is notorious that the informers had denounced, not 
onfy those who weie prosecuted, but tnanj/ o(Acr tniioccnfa, whom CScero 
thought proper to stnke off the list ; yet in aitex Imea^ -when, he had no 
-«^ai«»* in S^alung the truth, he poBitively namedL C««ax w tna «A ^Oab 
M^itora. Another indirect but moat B^niftcanfc ^irewHiVBfcwa. vQ^auA. \«Wk, 



Julius Gcesar. By Napoleon TIL 23 

rapt adTenturer. But since then he had gone through the 
prsetorship, and obtained, with the government of Ulterior 
Spain, the means of repairing his broken fortimes, and of ob- 
taining mihtarj renown as a victoriona imperator (62-60). 
Even Before his departure from the capital, his old friend and 
confederate, Crassus, showed himself most willing to enter 
npon a confederacy with him, in the hopes of combining their 
efforts against Porapey, the great object of the latter's hatred. 
So he consented to pay off a large portion of Caesar's enormous 
debts. When Jnlins retnmed to Rome, with fall coffers, to 
canvass for the consulship, he found the situation materially 
altered in hia favour. The most keen-sighted among the 
leaders of the democrats were fully aware that henceforward 
the sword alone could bring about a change in the government, 
and they courted Pompey just as many a French democrat 
cajoles the modem Csesar. But they were not in the slightest 
degree disposed to support him sincerely ; they hoped, on the 
contrary, by playing off the one against the other to paralyze 
the two rivals, and to establish their own influence on the 
ruins of both, leaving out of sight that the situation of public 
afiairs was very different. Above all, within their own ranks 
important changes had taken place, since many of their best 

u the fact that two of the least dangerons prifioners, Statiliiui and GabiDius, 
were handed over to the care of the aenatore, Coesar and Crassos. Hod the 
prisonen made their escape, the public would evidently have held their 
jail<vs aa their accomplices ; ijf not, they would bo compromised as tumcoatii 
among their own associates. But the following scene in the Senate throws a 
still stronger light upon the case. Immediately after the imprisonment of 
Lentolus and his companions, a messenger sent to Gatilina by the city con- 
spirators was seized by the government agents. On being secured against 
future punishment, he made a very full confession in the Senate. However, 
as he came to the circumstantial ports of his evidence, when he denounced 
Crassus as the originator of his message, the senators interrupted him, whilst 
Cicero proposed, not only that the a^ir should go no further, but jiiat the 
informer should be detained in prison, notwithstanding the previous promise 
of pardon, until he should recant his deposition, and even make known the 
penons who had cbnunissioned him to bring forth such a piece of slandering 
evidence. Now, here we have positive proofs that the man was weS 
acquainted with the particulars, since, when incited to make an attack upon 
Crassus, he is said to nave answered that he did not wish to take the bull b^ 
the honu ; but we see further that the Senate, headed by Cicero, was unam- 
uious in not pushing the investigation beyond certain limits. The public was 
fay no means so chary ; for the young men who had armed themselves against 
the incendiaries were incensed against none so bitterly as against Caesar. On 
the 5th of December, as he was coming out of the senate, they levelled their 
sw<nds at his breast, and he narrowly escaped the fate which he met, seven- 
teen years afterwards, on the same spot." — Boemit<Ae GeidiichUy dtcr Band^ 
a. 181, 4te Avfage, 1866. 

It mil hardly be believed Uiat the imperial writer takes absolutely no 
sotioe of all these circtunstances. 



24 Julius Gonaar. By Napoleon IIL 

men now admitted the necessity of a monarchical form of 
government, though grounded on free institutions and on the 
ascendancy of the middle class, which was, indeed, the Boundcst 
part of the social body. The future monarch was to bo the 
representative of this ideal system, which Caesar himself seems 
at this time to have partially entertained. But it amounted 
to nothing more than an idea, to be rudely contradicted by 
stern reality. The Roman body-politic was rotten to the 
core ; what the Komans needed was an iron hand to govern 
them with military power, not a sort of constitutional sovereign. 
Of this truth the subtle mind of Ca>sar must have soon become 
thoroughly convinced ; hence his i-esolution to form for himself 
a strong army as the only road to power ; nay, perhaps the 
only way of realizing his own views, which were doubtless 
superior to those of his rivals and contemporaries. So a 
coaKtion was formed between all these sundry elements against 
the aristocracy, who bought and sold their votes just as 
Pompey, Crassus, Cajsar, and their multitude of adherents, 
no less openly bought and sold their own. In this, as well as 
many other respects, there was no perceptible difference ; the 
almost universal rottenness was daily gaining ground, and 
nothing could henceforward prevent tho rot from doing its 
work, — no, not even a Caesar himself. This fact seems to have 
escaped his Imperial biographer. 

So Caesar became a Consul, and made sure of both Gauls 
for five years, with the supreme command over several excellent 
generals, the rank of propraetor for his lieutenants, and many 
other important advantages. Certainly, not the least of those 
advantages was the fact that he could recruit his legions among 
a population well known for their steadfast opposition to the 
exclusive, narrow-minded mle of the Senate and the Forum. 
At the same time, measures wore taken by the three grandees 
to secm'e the best positions to their subordinates ; whilst, on 
the other hand, Pompey's veterans were supplied with lands 
in the rich Capuan territory. The Senate was thus held in 
check in the South of Italy ; and, in the North, Caesar was 
quite powerful enough to hold his own. 

It must likewise be borne in mind that, at this period (58 
B.C.), there was not the shghtest probabihty of a rupturo 
between the omnipotent rulers. Pompey's interest was to 
watch over the maintenance of those laws which CaJsar had 
carried during his Consulship ; and the opposition of the 
Quixotic Cato did by no means contribute to loosen the bands 
between the triumvirs j for triumvirs they really were, how- 
ever the French Kmperor may object to the term. The moral 
aapenonty of Csssar consisted perhaps in his honesty in regard 



Julius Cccttttr, By Kapohon III. 



25 



to tho fultilment of his own cn^agcmuDtSj and this ho did 
fiiithrully adhere to, as long rs they stood not in tho way of 
his privoto mtcrcafc. Wo do not deem each an encomium a 
hacKueyed oue in speaking of thoso trackh'ng times, and it 
could hardly bo awai-dcd to Cicero himself. A quality so very 
tiucummuu probably brought over to Ctosor more stuiick ad- 
herents than his more dazxling qualities. 

But as & proof of whui that honesty was at tho bottom, wo 
must not forget that at this very juncture, tho trinmvirs insti- 
gated a prosecution agaiust the famous orator who had put 
dowu tlio Catiline conspiracy, and they were the real authors 
of his banishniont. It is well known how " tho Father of his 
country" had Ixjeu obliged to violate tho legal formidities to 
secure the punishmeufc of tho conspirators. Yet tho Senate 
had forced this breach of law uu Cicero^ though it shrauk all 
tho wliile from the responsibility of the munsure. AVhcn tho 
triumvii'ate became all-powerful, he did not, like so many 
others, bend tho knee ; nor even did he listen to many a wise 
hint, whispering in his car, that he would do better to loara 
iiomo ; tliut lie should be provided with a lucrative appoint- 
ment, Ac., ic. Besides, Cicero was a wit, and his pungcut 
laszi Hew about tho city Uko wildlirc. So he was selected as 
n warning to others, Clodins let loose upon him like a blood- 
hound, and fnially banished. It wau no merit of the triumvirs 
if ])ublic opiiiion soon revolted at this piece of injustice uud 
made amends by thut unparalleled triumphant recall which docs 
credit to tho huiriun cburactor, but very little to the puhtical 
Messiahs of tho timo being. Wo are indeed somewhat 
astonished to find Ciesar tarrying in the immediato neighbour- 
hood of the city, as a support to Clodius in tho prosecution of 
his nefarious designs. Let us drop the curtain on this sad 
tragedy. 

Tho conquest of "Western Europe is certainly ono of tho 
most striking events in tho annals of maid^ind, It was tho 
good fortune of tho Boman aristocracy to establish unity in 
Italy ; bat in other countries they failed to fulfil the saino 
mi)«»<ion. According tn their ruliug idea, foreign nations wero 
considered rather iu the litfht of booty and a source of fortune 
for the most intluontial monibors of tho nobility: — hcuce arose 
that system of extortion which made tho name of a Koman 
proconsul odious throughout tho whole world. On the con- 
trary, it WHS the pot^ulinr glory of tho Deraocraey or Monarchy 
— for Ihoy both go hand in hand — to mlnpt a different 
poiiry- y* hat the irresistiblo power of the Koman government 
h:; d iu thuEiist and West; what the system of Koman 

cc! _;i had continued — thus gradually carrying towards 



26 Julius Gcnaar. By Napoleon III. 

the West a higher degree of civilization — ^was followed up 
with renewed vigour by the popular party. Caius Gracchus, 
its eminent founder, had first initiated the movement j but the 
time was como when it was to bo fully developed. The two 
leading principles of the new policy may be thus laid down :^ 
To concentrate and unify wherever the Greco-Roman civiliza- 
tion already ruled supreme j to colonize wherever the contrary 
was the case. lu the times of the Gri-acchi, a victorious 
general, Flaccus, had applied tho system to Southern Gaul ; 
but the reactionary period which ensued, acted as a drawback 
on its completion. The Koman Empire remained, in many 
regions, an immense tract of land, thinly inhabited, badly 
governed, and without any definite limits. Spain and tho 
Greco- Asiatic possessions along the Mediterranean shores were 
scarcely distinguishable from the mother country ; but in tho 
interior, and on the coast of Northern Africa, tho Roman domi- 
nation was insulated among whole tribes of semi-barbarous and 
nomadic nations. This was particularly the case with Carthage 
and Gyrene, and the same may bo said of inland Spain. It 
seems astonishing that the government should not havo fol- 
lowed up a policy of concentration, and yet so it was : the 
gradual dechne of tho navy even loosened more and more tho 
link between Rome and these outlying possessions. When the 
popular party recovered a momentary ascendancy with Marius, 
the old plans of Gracchus were resumed; but this was, of 
course, of short duration. However, the downfall of tho 
Syllan constitution, towards the year 78 B.C., enabled the 
Democratic leaders to return to these plans with greater 
efficiency. First of all, the restoration of tho Roman rule on 
tho shores of the Mediterranean was thoroughly effected, and 
then established throughout the East, reaching to the banks of 
tlio Euphrates. But the work of extending Roman civilization 
beyond the Alps, and of shutting out from the North and 
West the Gallic and Teutonic barbarians — a work still imac- 
complished — was undertaken by Caius Julius CiBsar. It would 
alike be committing an historical error and a blunder against 
common sense, to maintain that the great conqueror of the 
Western World had no other object in view but to form an 
army for himself, considering the Gauls as a military school 
for his soldiers, as may bo the case with Napoleon the Third 
in regard to Algeria. Undoubtedly, he was not the man to 
lose sight of this great design, as a means of establishing hia 
own autocracy at no distant period ; yet, as ho was not a yalgar 
ju/adj bat, on the contrary, a soaring genius, he need the tott 
means he collected for his own purposea to B.tt8.m Ok^^^Wr end 
thaa that of private interest. Grantiag ftiafc Owawt Tw^ms^ % 



Julias Cmsar. By Napoleon IIL 27 

largo military force for his own party views, still, the cou- 
quesfc of Gaul, at least, ho did not effect with a party spirit. 
As the Imperial writer very justly observes, the Romans were 
under a stringent necessity of repelling, once for all, tho ever- 
suirging invasions of the Germans, were it but to secure the 
blessings of peace to themselves. This was, certainly, a high 
and most important aim; nevertheless there was one still 
higher, which Csesar fully apprehended. In former times, when 
Latium grew too narrow for the multitude and activity of the 
Roman population, the intelligent policy of the Senate had 
provided new homes for them by the conquest of Italy. Now 
that Italy became, in its turn, too small to contain the tido of 
emigration, the same system was to go on, but on a more ox- 
tensive scale, and commensurate with the important changes 
that had taken place in the social status of Kome itself. So 
when Caesar crossed the Alps, ho was fired with a noble idea, 
with a lofty aspiration — that of winning for his coimtiymen an 
unbounded supply of new settlements \ for the Senate, a new 
source of regeneration, through tho infusion of new blood 
among its members, by the adjunction of more vigorous races. 

Thus we do full justice to Caesar's genius and Caesar's 
high quahfications for his undertaking. We are not among 
those whom His Majesty accuses of envying glory ; nay, more, 
we consider the Roman conqueror as one of the fittest instru- 
ments, in the hands of Providence, for preparing the advent of 
the sole and true Messiah, who alone renewed the face of tho 
earth. That either Caesar or any of his followers could not 
have the slightest idea of such a contingency is self-evident, 
but we, who live under tho Christian dispensation, can read it 
fully in no less evident characters, and we are entitled to afilrm 
that he who is bUnd to the fact is the very first to narrow tho 
bounds of history within the most limited compass. Above 
all, we must once more enter our protest against a theory 
which makes of Cassar a demigod, moving in a dreamy land 
above common mortals, unassailed by common passions, un- 
tainted by common vices. Unfortunately, on more than one 
occasion, his conduct proved the contrary. When it suited 
his purpose, he knew how to stoop to the most ignoble in- 
trigues — to bribery, to public and secret corruption, to tho 
murderer's dagger, to all those guilty actions, in fact, which 
are the usual accompaniments of an absorbing ambition, 
coupled with tdl-powerful means. 

It cannot form a part of our present Review to follow the 
fVench £mperor in his highly-interesting naiTative of 
Caasar's conquests, though it would fuUy repay our troublo- 
H. Mommsen had already gone over the same ground 



28 Julius Cceiar. By Napoleon III. 

way which seemed destined to discourage all future endeavours 
in that direction ; but the Imperial writer commanded re- 
sources, which naturally were not at the disposal of any 
private individual. The results of these researches as to the 
topography of Caesar's battles, sieges, and expeditions have 
been embodied in the text, and in an atlas that is perfection 
itself. Doubtless, the Emperor's own opinion on many of 
these subjects is open to more than one objection j but still 
you follow him with a willingness due mostly to the clear 
brevity, and correct technicality of his descriptions. Here 
and there, however, we detect certain startling inaccuracies, 
which will probably disappear in a future edition. 

Whilst Cajsar was successively subduing the Gauls, Pompey 
assumed in Home the position of the prime triumvir. He was 
considered as such by public opinion; the aristocracy pro- 
claimed him in private the Dictator ; Cicero, taught by bitter 
experience, bent his knee before him; and Bibulus, Csesar's 
former colleague, fired against him his most pungent squibs 
and sarcasms in the halls of the Opposition. In fact, matters 
could hardly be otherwise, for Pompey was incontestably still 
hailed as the first general of his age. Cassar might be pro- 
claimed a promising young soldier, full of talent and rising 
ambition ; but then he was so notoriously unwarliko in his 
manner, he had altogether something so effeminate about him ! 
Such were the current saws of the day j and who could 
expect a well-bred aristocracy to sift the platitudes that flew 
about concerning the obscure victories won on the banks of 
the Tagus or the Arar ? So Cresar, in the eyes of the 
multitude, played at first the part of one of Pompey's lieu- 
tenants, for the benefit of his senior general, just the same as 
a Flacciis or an Afranius had done in bygone times, though 
not with such signal success. Besides, leaving in the shade 
other circumstances of minor importance, Pompey ruled over 
the Roman empire, Ctesar over two provinces. Pompey com- 
manded the soldiers and the treasury of the whole State ; 
Caasar had but 24,000 men, and only a small amount of 
money at his disposal. Pompey had been allowed to fix for 
himself the term of his power; Csesar, though intrusted 
with his command for a lengthened period, was bound to give 
it ap at the end of five years. On Pompey, in fine, had been 
bestowed the most important undertakings by sea and by 
land, whilst Cajsar had merely to guard Northern Italy, as 
a safeguard for Pompey's security. 
It 13 well to remember this difference in their mutual 
poaitiouB, as it wiR enable ua to take in. «.t ^ ^iKose the 
eaormons advaatagea Pompey lost in s. yer^ ^ort ^-mfi^ "Bfi^k 



Juliiie Ctrsar, B*j Nnpctleon III, 



29 



I 



I 



Grst duty and intcre8t would liavo boon to securo tlio tran- 
qiulUty of the capital hy n scries of mcasiires, which it was no 
Arduous task t-o carry into exccntion. Bat in undertakinff 
this, he hail presiiraed too innch on his own energy : to hold 
the cvind of government was precisely by far too much for his 
rapacity. In the coarse of a few months, Rome bocamo tho 
scene of tho most scandalons anarchy, which reminds ds more 
than onco of certain days in tho Paris of 1848. Clodins 
NHgned saprccoe over the mob, whilst Pompcy endeavoured 
to cratrio ftim with his bands of frcodmen, gladiators, and 
" kTO«, whom he let Iooro against tho mob-king. Naturally 
igh, the arch-ruler soon becamo helpless and ridioulons, 
this feeling, wliich rankled within his own breast^ soon 
turned into anger and hatred. His very helplessness drove 
I'sperato mcosnros. 
1 ; lean time Cajsar had pushed on from conqnost to 

r<oni{at»it until he reached the Hbiue and tho British Channel, 
The report of these victories, tlyiuj? ono after another to 
Borne, like so many clops of thunder, conld no longer be 
ignored nor pooh<poohed by tho aristocracy. The eflfeminato 
uid long-doridod Sybarite had, all of a sudden, become tho 
idol of ill' . so that Pompey's laurels were completely 

Ifarownint- < nlo by those of his youthful rival. Forarival 

indt-cd now he was : no more an obscure adjutant. To be sure, 
hotii triumvirs were t>ound by closer tics than those of n 
pohtical character ; but yet what a difibrence already in their 
votual relations ! Now was Pompoy obliged to seek for 
Vopport against his nlly, in order to match his power. To 
ftpply to tho people was a sheer impossibilitv, for ho had 
BT\tAt4.'d the ii*ob by his late quaiTc! with Clouins. His only 
Ibopo was tlierefore in the Senate, " Besides," observes very 
iroperly M. Mommsen, " even n man of Co'sar's genial stomp 
JUKI learned to know that a dcmocraticnl poUcy was utterly 
worn I ' that mob. tendencies woidd by no means lead 

to th* During the present interval between tlio 

TVpoblio and oionitrchy, to set up for a prophet and dofif the 
"■fintli* which Caxar himself had long ago cast off; to mimic 
llio great ideal of Caius Gracchus would have amounted to 
4oiningfat folly. Tho very party which, at a later period, 
took Ha name from the demoorntical agitation, did not even 
Vogb a fp.ithpr in the issae of the forthcoming contest."* It 
vkardly pc>*«ible t<» tiruw a more correct picture of tho crisis ; 
U iho same time, tho above words flatty contradict Na\K)\tiO\\'is 



> if JZtmhdu' Oeteblebtc, .9ter Baml, S. 120^. l>Am, \W», A)M j 



30 Julius CcEsar. By Napoleon HI, 

theory, wliich makes Gsesar a constant representativo of 
popular opinions and feelings. 

So Pompey took his stand with the Senate, whose import- 
ance now began once more to rise in proportion. Nay, as 
soon as it became apparent that Cffisar did not so much aim 
at reforming as at overthrowing the Republican constitution, 
the ablest men of the popular party went over to Pompey's 
side. Perhaps at this very last moment, had these men been 
endowed with any degree of public virtue, energy, and talent, 
they might still have preserved from imminent destruction the 
long-revered institutions of their forefathers. With the help 
of the Senate, and the support of numberless republicans 
scattered throughout Italy, they might have withstood the 
power of the two arch -triumvirs. But Ceosar knew well with 
whom he had to deal. His gold poured in full streams to- 
wards Rome ; and from Rome another stream of high-bom, 
but necessitous ladies, of thriftless young nobles, of specu- 
lating, half-bankrupt adventurers, flowed towards Gaul, there 
to draw from tho source itself, whilst those who were obliged to 
stay at home had recourse to Caesar's agents, who were generous 
and open-handed to every man of any influence. They had strict 
orders, on the other hand, not to compromise that exalted name 
by intriguing with any demagogue of the mob-party. The 
vfiry edifices which Csesar built at his own expense in the city 
— edifices wherein the jobbing capitalists of the time found 
more than one source of profit, were in themselves a specu- 
lation. The same may be said of his splendid games and 
festivities. All this was making political stock for Csesar, or 
for the future monarch, but had nothing to do with Messiahs, 
or ideas of reform. 

Let us hurry on through tho internal events of these years, 
which forced Pompey to throw himself once more, much 
against his own will, into the arms of Csesar, and renew a 
second confederacy at Luca. The Imperial biographer makes 
much of this famous meeting, as a set-off in favour of his hero. 
Let us endeavour to see the matter as it stood, in its naked 
reality. Although Cassar was informed day by day of eveir 
incident of importance which took place in Rome ; although 
ho watched tho events, from the southern limits of his pro- 
vince, with intense anxiety, as far, at least, as tho conduct of 

' the Gallic War would allow, he was not yet ready to throw 
down the gauntlet. However, it was necessary to act at once 
with firmness and decision. The aristocracy was daily gaining 
ground, and almost denounced war against him, no less than 
ajramst his two helpless colleagues. According to all vroba- 

bmths, bis rotnm to Gaul wonlq becomQ the si^i^ of docided 



Juliua dtftar. Bij Nnpohon TIT. 



31 



I 



hoatititipfl. 80 in April of tho year 50 n,v., CnuiBnB left the 
city to meet Cosar at Ravoann; shortly after, thoy both re- 

3d to liuca, where they woro joined by Pompoy. Tho 
hud alleged, us a pretext for his departure, the necessity 
fiiipenntomling in person the arrival of corn from Sardinia, 
und Africa. Tim niosl distinginslu^l udberciits of tho txiuinvirs 
flocked to the provincial town, whilst a whole procession of 
noblenxen soon 8ot in from Rome, to the amount of two hundred 
oenatofB alone, without rockoniuf^ other persona of distinction. 
Sndently, Cawar held, at this critical moment, tho very exint- 
cnfse of the oommonwcnlth within his own grasp. Tiut thnt 
irma % sfcrozig reaaou for not jeopardizing his position by any 
act of rashness on his part. Ko he used the opportunity to 
ostabliAh the tripaKitc alliance on a stronger l>aais. The 
most important commands after thnt of Ganl were awarded to 
his two colleiignes, and iheir possession made Buro of btith by 
financial and militnry measures. Cossar reserved for himself 
tho prolongation of his own command until tho year 40 ii.c, 
that is to say, for tive years longer. At the same time, he wns 
authorized to i-aise his forces to ten legions, to bo paid out of 
tho public treosuiy. Now, all this was setting at defiance the 
authority of the Senate. But indeed this was not all. Tho 
futnro consulships, together with a body of troops, to be 
locate*! in Sonthem Italy, for the pui-pose of awing the Oppo- 
sition into obedience, such were the different precautions 
adopted by Cirsar for the future. All rinestionR of importance 
being thus settled, ho treated in a lignt, off-hand way every 
other secondary difFerence, and we may presume that his 
winning manners did the rest. Even Clodius was persuaded 
to send back to their kennels bis political bloodhounds — not 
tho least feat, by the bye, of tho nll-powcrfiil charmer. 

The whole nogotiationa and series of measures bear upon 
thom the stamp of Caesar's master mind. Throughout, they 
offer tho character of a compromise. Pompey had come to 
him more like a political refugee turned bankrupt than as n 
rival. Ciesar mi^ht have at once declured the coalition broken 
altogether, or taken it up again on his own terms. In either 
caao Pompey remained, as boforo, a zero. If a rupture 
did not ensue, still he was obliged to bow before his great 
rival's protection. Did ho, on the contrary, break with Cajsar, 
ho ooiud but fall back upon a hntofm alliance with the 
Sonato— t-ho most hollow of all combinntions. Wo may panae 
bero to inqnim what reasons could induce tho coufpierur of 
Gaal to make such enormons concessions to his inferior and 
ho«tih} compelitorsf Most probably, m the first place, he was 

yH Mfficiontly master of his own soldiers to pn»h thom 




82 Julius Cccsar* Sy Napoleon III, 

headlong into rebellion against the lawful government of their 
fatherland, which they had been accustomodj from their child- 
hood upwards, to servo. It is all very well to t^k of political 
Messiahs, and of high-£owu systems of progress; there are 
home-strung ties and feelings which men are not prone to break 
at once asunder. We firmly beheve that such must have been 
the case with C&csar, and the eagle eye of the statesman de- 
tected in his present situation a naw that no other coold easily 
discover. On the other hand, he would have been obHged to 
recall his army from Graul before its final subjugation. To his 
credit be it said, he preferred the extension of Roman civiliza- 
tion and Roman power to his own immediate interest, however 
that interest, as a candidate for the throne, stood in the way 
of his brilliant victories. Finally, a feeling of a still purer 
nature may have inspired his conduct on this occasion; in 
times not very distant he had himself been helpless and un- 
known, in the same position as Fompey was now to him. The 
great man had then proffered a saving hand, and retired to 
the background, in order to leave free room to the aspiring 
youth. And then, had ho not married, and did he not yet 
fondly lovo Coesar's only Julia ? In the soul of the statesman 
beat also the heart of a father. Doubtless, all these considera- 
tions, and fears, and views, swept to and fro before the great 
Roman's eyes when he resolved to conclude at Luca the 
second triumvirate. 

It would be tedious to push on any further a review of 
Caasar's acts and policy previous to the civil war, the period 
at which closes the second volume of his new historian. It 
would merely present the spectacle of the same ability, the 
same arts and tactics, displayed to serve the objects of an 
inordinate ambition. But as to those higher views for which 
Napoleon III. gives him credit, wo must confess our ntter in- 
creduhty on the subject, and we shall wait until he snppUes us 
with such historical evidence as may justify these assumptions. 
Yet, this does not destroy our admiration for the illustrious man 
who was so decidedly superior to all his contemporaries, through 
his clemency, for instance, a virtue almost unknown to an- 
tiquity. Our object has simply been to bring down the idol 
to its proper level, by showing that its lower ports were not 
of pure gold. For that purpose, wo have had recourse to the 
most indisputable authorities, — tbo same, indeed, which his 
Imperial Majesty had before his eyes, though he seems to 
have read them in a spirit somewhat different from what we 
understuid by the word Impaetialitt. The modem Histoiy 
of Julius Csesar, in fact, reminds one far too frequently thi^ 
Ibere once lived such a personage as Napoleon f^e First. 



83 



Art, n.— canon OAKELET'S LYRA LITTJRGICA. 

Jjffra XtJwyMo. B«doetioiu in vcne for H0I7 Days and Smsoiu. London : 
Burnt, Utnbert, & OnU;*. 1865. 

t JtuHtutionm JMurgiqiu*. Par le R. P. Doh Prosper GuERAJiaKa. 8ro. 
Fkris, IMl. 

Oriyiiu* a Bauon* (U la lAtunU Caiholique, en Fonoe de Dictioiinalre. Par 
fAbb^ J. B. £. PaAcal. ROTal Sro. Paris : Migoe. isea 

AMONG the more obvioas characteristics of the Catholic 
Liturgy there is none more striking, aud at the samo time 
loss resized in practico, than its division into times und 
•as, and the accommodation of its services and forms to 
Ae peculiar spirit or genius of each. Tho Liturgy of its very 
eflaence ia a public prayer ; not the expression of individual 
intelligence or individual will, but tho representation of what 
may be called the corporate piety of the whole Christian com- 
munity. In the devotional exercises of the Liturgy, the indi- 
vidual feeling is merged in the common spirit of the corporate 
worship ; and in the arrangement of its services provision is 
'c, by tho systematic adjustment of the several partSj for 
adequate expression of every sentiment of love, aJioration, 
gratitude, and supplication, which the Church as the repre- 
sentative of all her children, without exception, pours out 
before the throne of tho Almighty Father, as well, or even 
more, for all, as for each one on his own particular behalf. 

And thisj although by no means the sole object of the insti- 
tation of sacrtnl timea and seasons, is nevertheless one of its 
most important results. Not alone does it secure the com- 
pleteness and harmony of public worship, but it provides in 
tts all-embracing cycle a place for each in its turn among the 
manifold relations of the creature to the Creator, now bringing 
into promiueuc-e tho mysteries of justice, and now those of 
grace and mercy ; pouring out alternately the penitent wail- 
mgs of the prodigal and the tender ai^pirations of the grateful 
child restored to a Father's love ; passing in succession frum 
Bethlehem to the Mount of Olives, from Thabor to Calvary ; 
at one time appealing to the love of a Father, at another 
hnmbly deprecating the rigour of a Judge ; but never, through- 

kOUt all its alternations, losing sight of tho great characteriatica 
TOL. VH. — NO. xni. [A'tit; ScrU-s.] D 




I 



k 



34 



Canon OnV-eUy't Li/ra LUttr^Un, 



of Christian prayer, and filling up, by fchia unity in variefc 

the whole circle of the wants and wishes of our dependent 
nature. 

In truth, it is hardly possible that tho public worship of the 
Church should otherwise adequately ful6l the threefold function 
of confession, praver, and praise, which belongs to it, as ihe 
public voice of God's servaata upon earth. The cycle of Chureh 
festivals is in itself, in a certain sense, the liturgical creed of 
the Church, in which each festival may bo regarded as a 



separate article of her faith, and in which all in comma 
receive the most unequivocal testimony and the most Bolena 
sanction which it is in her power to impart. The same cyc: 






serves to bring forward in saccossion every variety of potHion 
which the cotumou necessities of sinful man can suggest or 
prescribe ; and by proposing for public roverenco in tJio cvor- 
returuiug aeries of Church festivals, each of the mysteries of 
God's omuipoteuco in tho creation of man and of His mercy 
in man's redemption, it supplies, as it were, even to the most 
commonplace and unreflecting aouls, unceasing evidences of i 
the greatness and goodness of God, and oxhaustless motives J 
to praise and glorify Him. ^H 

And hence this distribution of the year into sacrod seoson^^ 
each subdivided into its own special festivals, is not only 
found to pervade almost every form of rehgion known in the 
ancient world, but is carried out with curious minuteness in 
the Mosaic dispensation. The three great periodical feasts 
of the Passover, Pentecost, and Tabernacles, had each its own 
ft group of festivals, with their specified offerings, and other 
W Sftcrod accompaniment» ; and in each there is clearly traceabl 
an appropriateness, whether religions or historical, either c 
the offering itself, or of tho ceremonial which distinguishe 
it, to the particular season to wliich it is assigned. In the 
■ Christian Church the institution is unmistakably of apostoli 
t origin ; and it presents from tho very earliest date at whi " 
it can be traced, the same general characteristics which dis- 
tinguish the sacrod seasons of tho modieeval and modem 
Church. The services of the Lenten period were already 
sorroAvfiil and penitential ; those of the Easter marked by 
triumph and jubilation. Among the usages which Tertullian, 
in the well-known pn-ssage of his book Dc Corona Militis, 
declares to be apostolic, although without warrant in Scrip- 
ture, is that which forbids to kneel at prayer on the LorcM 
Day, or within the paschal season. The mystical associatiool 
of the festivals and seasons in which they fall, have alwayfl 
boen a favourite topic of spocuUtiou. S. Augustine's well- 
Jcaowa application of the text, " vWum opOTteV cTOs««tft, too 



Canon OakeUy*a Lyra lAlurgica, 



35 



ftatem minui/'* to tbo circnmstance of S. Joliu tHe Baptist's 
foMt being fixed at Midsummer, just at the tnrniug-point in 
the leofftb of the days^ is a eiiriou:i iUu^tratiou of tho tendency 
to dwell apon sach anologiea. Tho diversity of practice aa 
to tbe propriety of fatiting upon Saturday, which existed be. 
twoeo too Churches of Home and Milan, although it betrays a 
WKOi of perfect imiformity in the application of the principle, is 
BOrertbeiefts a proof as well of its existence as of tho import. 
" which was attached to it; and in tho progress of 
i ao much had this feeling grown, that in the age of 
Condarins, the Latin practice of marking the contrast 
I the joyous and jubilant character of tbu liturgical 
of the Easter-time and the sorrowful offices of the 

SMfion, by the omission of Alleluia from the latter, 

I ooBsidered of so grave moment by tho Greeks, that thoy 
made it one of the articles in that impeachment of Latin 
grtbodoxy by whicli thoy sought to justify tho withdrawal of 
tbetr communion. 

Tbo various ancient liturgies, whatever may be their diver- 
nliet of detAJl, are all, without exception oiranged on thia 
eoaunon {«' 1 it would be an easy^ and in some respects 

an aui:. - n^ task, to point out, even in their very dis. 

B9, constantly recurring illustrations of the principle 
rhich tbo distribution is based. But the htnrgies, as 
■ucb, an forms of public rather than of private prayer ; nor 
it it reqnired, even if it were indeed possible, that the private 
jto tiona of tbe people should follow out the same details. 
1 it need bardly be saidj that it is not merely po^sible^ but 
L deairmble to transfuse into private devotion the spirit of 
(be pnblic htor^ of tho Church ; and although there are 
BmnmirleM mystical shades of sense and feeling which it 
wonkl bo vain to attempt to popolarize, yet, as it is clearly 
tbe tSLtemtion of the Church to convey a lesson even in these 
ecml fbrms, wo cannot doubt that that intention will bo 
i Oftiried out by endeavouring to accommodate even private 
yer at least to the general spirit of the public liturgy in 
I aoTGral aeasonii. The great body oven of more spiritual 
Cbhrtiaoa, it it true, would be quite incapable of following 
tbi profouadlv mystical senses of tho liturgy and the acces. 
'tm at the biorgy, which have been elaborated by Dnrandua 
I tht writare en bis school ; but there are many bruud and 
Bg cbaractoristics, as well of individual festivaU Ofl of 
I eyeiea of feetirals, which not only may be appreciated by 



I 
I 



• 



86 Canon OdkeJpy^n T/ifrn TAtnrgicn. 

the most simple mindB^ but may serve to stimulate and even 
to direct, wlmt would otherwiso be the most commonplace 
devotion. 

And this result is partly secured by the use, as the giiide of 
individual devotion, of the public service-books of the Charch, 
whether in the original Latin or in versions for popnUr use 
into the vulgar tongue. It is attflined also in part by the ex- 
cellent books for meditation and spiritual reading, arranged 
according to the order of seasons and festivals, which now 
abound in every language. The Liturgy may be said to hav^— 
two distinct functions — the didactic and the devotional : oq4^| 
addressing itself to the intellect, the other to the feelings^^ 
on© designed to bring under view in a series of lessons 
Bystematically arranged, and comprising the whole cycle of 
Christian duty and the entire body of the moral teaching of 
the Church ; the other appealing in succession to the various 
motives of action, and seeKing to elevate these by considera- 
tions drawn from the higher mysteries of rtligion, and to 
impart to them force or tenderness by appealing to the 
imagination or the feelings. To the former cln-ss belong the 
Epistles and Gospels of the Mass, and the lessons, chapters, 
and short chapters of the Breviary. The key-note of the other 
will be found in the Introit, the Gradual or communion, and 
to some extent the collects or other prayers of the Mass, and 
in the h)Tnns, antiphons, verses, and responses of the divine 
office. 

It is only the former of these two uses, both oqaally im- 
portant, that can for the most part be reached by the class of 
books to which we have referred. 

The charming little volume which is named at the head of 
these pages, is the first instalment of an effort to provide for 
the otnor. We gave a short notice of it at its first appearance ; 
but it is a work of such singular beanty, that onr readers will 
be well pleased to have it again bron^t before their notice. 
It is, according to the modest profession of the accomplished 
author, an attempt to apply to the Catholic liturgy the method 
of illastration which has long been familiar to Anglicans as 
the well-known *' Christian Year," of the late Mr. Keble, — not, 
it is tme, carried through the entire year, os Mr. Keble has 
done, but, nerertholoss, by drawing upon particular festivals 
from each and every season, presenting, at least in gene! 
some illustration of the peculiar spirit which will be found 
pervade each separate cycle of the festivals of the Chu 
Most of the festivals, besides their own special theme of 
votion or of mystery, have a general bearing on the eccl^ 



Canon Oakeley'» Ltjra Liturgica. 



37 



w—ticml Nason to which they belong, and of this oircumstoQce 
tbo aathor of the Lt/ra LUurgira hns carcfuttr avntled Himself, 
ID wcartog the unity of the collection aa nrell as the intoreat 
of each particular part. 

Tha genera] theme, therefore, of Canon Oakcley's volume ia 
the illoatration of tho spirit of cho ecclesiastical seasons. He has 
doaain poetiy and iu the superuatural order for the ecclesiastical 
Jtmr, as &r as his prcficnt labours reach, what has been dono in 
proae for the natural year, and in the order of natural science, 
Dy Doncan in his well-known "Sacred Philosophy of the 
Beaaoufl;" and the subjects treated iu each season, without 
£Qmg vp the entire aeries of its festivals, are yet in all cases 
■ d to ci t od from the season ; and tliuir analogies are developed 
with admirable taste and feeling, in strict accordance with their 
bearing apon that place in the order of the operations of 
dtriDO grace which is assigned to the mysteries appropriate to 
the particular season. The book is not properly a collection 
of hymns, but rather a series of " thoughts in verse," the 
IJKmghtB heing "adapted to the successive seasons of the 
Cbnnrli;" and, in explanation of the comparatively limited range 
of ita aubjects, the author professes that his purpose " is rather 
that of following out trains of thought suggested by particular 
offioM and ceremonies, than of providing ihe reader with aids 
to devotion or the different celebrations of the Church in their 
integrity." 

Tomb theme, we need hardly say, is not new. Its doctrinal 
boaringB, of conrso, have lieen diacossed by most of our leading 
Cburch* writ GTS. Father Gretser has Icfl Uttle unsaid upon the 
polemical question. Benedict XIV., in his well-known work, 
DCaidoa the dogmatical and historical bearings of the subject, 
haa illustrated it upon the practical side from the vast and 
Taried stores of his ritual and liturgical leaniing. Binterim, 
Satragi, Zaccaria, Nickel, and many others, have treated the 
T»rty|T^ftri%p view with a fulueaa and precision which were in 
•ana Muse Xkeoessitated by the minntc investigations and often 
ODfr-aided representations of the long series of Protestant 
vriton, from Bingham to Augusti and Gruericke. Considered 
ptaefticaUy too, it enters, although in a comparatively common- 
iJarw way, into many of our must homely devotional nuiuuals. 
Bat Canon Oakel^'s special treatment of it may fairly be 
daimbed aa now, at least in English; and wo canuot help 
n^carding hwLyru lAiurgica as a moat valuable addition to higher 
dwotional literature. It rusumblca in its object the well-known 
Ocraao work of fcitaudenmaicr, "The Spirit of Cbriatiantty 
tthibited in Sacred Seasona> Snored Funottons^ and Sacred 



38 



Canon Oaheley'a Lijra lAtunjita, 



Art."* Bnt Staudenmaipr, besides the poetical illustrations of 
the festivals and seasons, has also entered fully into the partly 
mystical, partly philosophical boaringa of the Church calendar 
and the featirals which it comprises. Canon Oalceley has left 
his "thoughts in verse" to tell their own tale, and has added 
nothinff in explanation of the spirit of the ceremonial which 
he describes, or of its connection with the order of God's 

frace for the salvation of man, beyond what is conveyed in 
is own brief bnt pregnant lines. And yet it is hardly too 
much to say that no one who reads the few versos which ho 
devotes to the several sacred topics an^cstcd in tho circle of 
each of the seasons, can fail to catch (rora them the trne spirit 
of the Church, and in many instances to apply them with fruit 
in the direction of his own thoughts to meanings and purposes 
which he himself had failed to discern, but the justice and 
appropriateness of which he roust appreciate when once they 
have been presented to his mind. AVe gratefully recognize in 
the results of Canon Oakeley's studies or the Church calendar, 
the practical realization of that beautiful prayer with which he 
himself closes his introductory lines on sacred ceremonies. 

Teach ua, dear Lord, obedient to Thy rule, 

To COR HtattWt letMTU in the Churek't aekool ; 

Ijest. prone to cvth uid soilM by ninful staio, 

Wc touch Thy holy things with hands profane, 

Forget Thy pretence, thuugh Thy steps btf nwr. 

And ver)^ ou angeU' ^oand with leu than anflets' (ear. 

The Lyra Litvrgica, which, of course, is divided according 
to the four ecclesiastical seasons, begins with the winter 
quarter; and the opening lines on "The Two Adventa " abound 
in beautiful allusions to the connection between the winter con- 
sidered in the order of the natural seasons and the mystic 
winter of tho Church calendar. In the supernatural order, tho 
Advent is happily symbolized as the — 

Twiligbt of our year^ 
Sure token that the sim is near ; 
When dju-kncH inclta into a hght 
So softly vtarm, m> calmly lirigfat ; 
With threats of doou to siuuen ud, 
CoimuiDgliog alleluiag glad. 

Thii is but one of tho many analogies which can bo trace 
between the natural and the ccctesiasticul Hcusons. Staudon^ 




* -^^ Oeiff dee fJhrul^nthiims^ i^ar^aldll in tlm l^-ujtK Ztdet^ in den 
/fayyww ffantiiungtn^ und in dcr kcUvjcn KuniL \mi Ui.Y.'S^'gAa wAjittcw 



CanQu Oahlcy's Lyra Liiuigieo, 



SO 



niaier drairs oQt very be*utifaUf the lesson whicJi may bo 
gathered from the Advenl's f&Uing in the period when the seed 
is cast into the earth, to lie in silenoe and obflcurity for a time, 
in order to its preparation for gcrminatioQj growth, and final 
roatnrity. Han, too, before he can receive the germs of 
heavenly life which his Savionr, vrhose coming the Advent, 
silently and without ceremonial pomp, is designed to solemnize, 
brings with Uini to the world, requires a total renovation of 
eeoso and heart, without which the divine seed can neither 
germinate nor ripen. 

And among the analogies of this portion of the ecclesiastical 
yeAT is one which strongly resembles that which, as we have 
already observed, was traced by S. Augustine as the co- 
incidence of the feast of S. John the Baptist with the 
mtML'ting-point of the lengthening and decreasing days of the 
mid-summer; we mean the fixing npon the shortest day of 
the natural year for the festival of S. Thomas, the incredu- 
lous apostle. At thia season, aa titandenmaier, with a curious 
but yet not infelicitous or ungraceful refiuement of the analogy, 
obattres, the days, as Advent advances, are becoming ever 
shorter and more sunless j and In the last week falls S. 
Thomas's day — the shortest day in the year, and preceded and 
followed by its two longest nights, — an emblem, he fancifully 
pursues, of the povertv and obscurity of man's life, and of the 
spiritual night mto which human nature has been plunged by 
Bin. It is not without purpose that for this shortost of days 
is appointed the feast of S. Thumas, which is rightly pre- 
sented as a type of the unbelieving mind, and the timid and 
faltering uature of man when destitute of God's grace, as our 
glimmering existence resembles the doubting and agitated 
condition of the onbeb'cving disciple, before the actual coming 
of his Lord brought him peace and calm assuraucc, and con- 
Terted his scepticism into steadfast faith. 

Canon Oakeley has not alluded to these graceful and 
imaginative but yet instructive and touching interpretations. 
But ho has brought out very beautfuUy in his lines on " The 
Two Advents," another mystic lesson, tho justice of which 
most strike even the least observant mind. It is clearly not 
without purpose and significance that, in the cycle of the 
Church's year, the two advents of our Lord are placed in 
Jnxta-position, and tliat while the expiring ecclesiastical 
year closea, in its " Last Sunday of the Pentecost," with the 
' " coming of Jesos Christ to judge the Uving and the 
" the new year of the Church snonld open with that 
cifu! coming of Bethlehem, the celebration or which is in- 
augurated by tho " First Sunday of Advent." 



46 Canon 0akMey*8 Lyra JAiv/rgica. 

But Adrenl bnth ita double senfle, 
Its Rtra.in or jo; and penitence ; 
Since He, who oace in mercy came, 
Shall come to wrap thiA worid in flame. 

Then Bhall tho d«iid awiike, mid all 
Be gathePd at the Judge's aUl ; 
And He the nations shall divide. 
Like sheep and goats, on cither side. 

And He shall say, " Come, all ye bl«>t, 
Heire of My kingdom, to your rc«t f 
But to the curst, " IVpart and go 
Into the pUce of endless woe." 

Judgment and mercy haunt our gatca ; 
But Mercy knocks, while Judgment waita ; 
Full eighteen hundred years, and more* 
Have Iiill'd to drain Love's bounteous store, 

If like Tby love Thy judgmenta be. 
Where, T^ord, were sinners frail aa we T 
loving Judge, O Saviour jiwt, 
Bemember that we are but dust 1 

0, spare us yet a little spacc^ 
To profit by this Day of Grace ; 
Draw ns by love, by mercy win. 
Ere judgment come, and wrath \»ffn I 

The same impresalvo ihonght is carried througli (lie lines on 
tlie " Feast of tho Immaculate Conception," in which our 
La(3y is presented as the patroness of the two Advents, and in 
wkich her true position in tho order of God's providence foi; 
the salvation of souls is most truthfully and touchinglj- deL 
line^t-ed. Wo refer to thcso linos with the more satisfaction, 
inasmuch^ as having' been published several months before the 
appearance of Dr. Pusey'a " Eirenicon," the author has boon 
enabled to nso them with most happy effect in his admirable 
reply to that " Eirenicon,"* as showing how accurately the 
Catholic devotion to Our Lady distinguishes that function of 
mercy, in its intercessory sense, which is ascribed to her, 
from tlie mercy of Redemption which is the attribute of her 



• The Leading Topics of Dr. Pusey's rocent Work, reviewed in a Lett 
addressed (by permiwion) Lo the Moat Rev. H. E. Manning, D,D. By th« 
Ve/^Rer. Fraooriok Oakelcy, ALA. 



Canon Oakdetf's Lyra JAturgioiu 



41 



Son alone, and how carefally it guards the appeal of the 
sinner to botli alikoj against " the uanger of laying too much 
Btress on the merciful aspects of religion."* 

Thy Mothor'a name, so ewect an<l fiiU of power, 
Sheds o'or the auiDer's night its gloam of hope, 

Th«t Tbou, the Giinnlian of ChriBt's natnl hoar. 
Will turn fruiu us His jnd^nient'd foarfiil Bcopt:. 

But woe to thoe, that in thy mere; trace 
Deceitful hues of pnce ^at ne'er shAll oome ; 

And iu the loiTowinfi ainnei's pledge of grace 
Fo^et the h&rdeii'd Binncr'a threat of dooiiL+ 

The same caution (as though its value in the coutroversial ase 
which has since arisen, had been uuconacioQsly anticipated) is 
repeated in the closing stanzas of the aame piece. As our present 
object, however, ia not iu any sense polemical, we shall rather 
select the beautiful lines on Our Lady's well-known title from 
the Litany of Loreto — Stblla Matctika. Probably there ia no 
single piece in the entire volume which better illnstratea the 
scope and purposeof thenulhor. It applies to their sacred and 
mystic meanings all the characteristics which this title of Our 
X«ady involves, and we think the analogy between tho " morning 
star " in the order of natnre, and the Blessed Virgin under 
this title in relation to tho Advent season, and to the cycle of 
the Church festivals of that time, is pecuUorly beautiful and 
happy. 

STELLA MATUTINA. 

Hie stars retire, when first tiie sua 
Hii giant nice e«iAy« to run ; 
Thoae larops thiit stud tho Arch of otght 
Wax pale before the I'ouat of lights 

One only star nor fodes nor sleeps, 
But atill her twilight station keeps, 
With eye undinun'd and beams unshorn ; 
The bn{{fat, the peerleM Star uf Mum. 

When Christmas first rereaU itd light, 
Hte Church's firmsmont is ili^ibt ; 
Her Stan still pave the wintry sky, 
A great and glorious i;alaxy ; 



* The Lending Topics, p. sa 



t Lyra, p. 17. 



42 Canon Oakeley'e Lyra IMurgica, 

Martyn and Yugins,* FontiA b(dd,t 
And DoctoiB witJi their woida of gold ;X 
Then comes a roidf as, one by one, 
The stars retreat before the Sun ;§ 

Save that Apostle, whom hia Lord 
From diilling doubt to faith restored ; 
Who now b^ide Hia Cradle pays 
No tardy tows, no faltering praiae. 

Bat Maxy all the while is there 
In hymn, or antiphon, or prayer ; 
Shedding o'er every page and line 
A lufitre, only not divine. 

When Advent lessons first begin, 
We muse on Haiy clear of sin, 
And in the Virgin's primal graoe 
, Tbe promise of the Mother trace : 

And meet it were, and dateoos, sue, 
That Mother should from stain be pore ; 
Who did, by high prerogative, 
The Manhood to her Maker give. 

For ei^t full daya,]! wiUi reverence due. 
We linger ftmdly o'er the view 
Of her, on whom the Father'a eye 
Dwelt with intent complacency ; 

For, mirror'd in that glass, He saw, 
Undimm'd by cloud, unspoil'd by flaw 
(Albeit in creature's meek estate), 
The Beauty of the Uncreate. 

Tears roll away — the Virgin pure 
Is 'stablish'd, lo, in grace secure ; 
Girlhood's soft blomu still gilds lier brow, 
But matron hoDouiB crown it now.lT 



* S. Bibiana. t S. Ambrose. X S. Peter I 

§ The Festivals of the Saints become rarer as Advent advances ; uid 
there is none between December 16th and Christmas Day, with the exception 
of that of S. Thomas the Apostle. The Feast of the " Enectation " is noticed 
later. The Blessed Virgin, mean^iile, is eommemoiatoa throuj^bout Advent 
in the OfBce (^ the Seawn. 

11 Octave d Uie Immaculate Oonoeption. 

'f Tlu Feast of the Knectation ft^ws the OctaTe of the F""ifr"'-^ 
Caaoeptimi attet tiro day^ mtervaL 



Cmi&n Oakchy'g Ltjra LUnvgica, 43 

"Mary in hope"— Mother-MaiJ, 
What thoughts thy wondering hesit penmdc I 
But wait awhile, and God will ope 
TiaioDa, tnuucendiog e'en their itcopc. 

Hpeed on, jre lagging momenta, i^ieod, 
Till joy folfttrd to hope aucc«ed ; 
And Maty's patient fiuth ha\-ewon 
God for oar SaTiour, and hor Son. 

Tho "Kclogue" of Chriatmos embodies very succossfully 
|ie spirit of the scripture narrative of the Nativity. But a 
ettcr illustration of the proper subject of the Lyra Liturtfiea 
U the ** Triple Mass " of Christmas. We do not remember 
over to hare met a more thorough appreciation of the sense of 
the Church scrriceSj or a more intimate identification with their 
spirit, than ia embodied in tliia exquisite little ]jiece, which, 
baring as it wore passed in rericw the chief incidents of tho 
Advent, and the high mysteries of promise which they fore- 
shadowed or foretold, bursts forth into an ecstasy of joyous 
contemplation in the presence of their actual accomplishmenfc 
in the fall and abiding glories of tho Nativity. Inere is a 
dramatic character^ too, in the structure of the piece which 
heiffhtens its effect ; and the beautiful interpretation of the 
" 'niplo Mass/' and of the place of each in the Church's com- 
memoration of the mystery of mercy, which all alike record, is 
ono of tho happiest examples of tho "applied sense" which wo 
know in the whole circle of tho literature of symbolicnl 
ritualism. 

CHBISTMA8 DAY. 
TOE TRtn£ uiaa 

" Drop down, ye genial beaveve, your dewy ebuwer, 

DinolTe, ye olouda, into a ipiahing rain. 
Bud forth, thoa earth, Salration's beaiileoua Flower f 

So apake the Church in calm imploring strain 
Day alter day. And now her cry ia heard. 

And, 'mid the solemn stillnesfi of the night, 
Deicenda, Father, Thine Almighty Word 

Forth from the renlniN of Hi» imperial might* 

Bride of the Laiuh ! put on thy atreogth, arise, 
Thy rests of joy, thy gift* of grace prepare ; 

An ampler tide of grateful Sucrifioc, 
A sweeter incense of prevailing prayer. 



* Dam medium ailentiom teneient omnia, et box in sac eunu meditmi 
iterpeaBCret, Oiimipntena Kermo Ttms a regaiibua aodibua TeuiL — Antijjhon 
for Sun&y ajUr Ckrutmat. 



44 Cmion Oakel*^*e hyra lAinrgwu 

Tis done. The Bride goes forth to meet her Spoiue, 
And spreads her fesliTe board, and dons her be«t ; 

With special rights her faithful Priest* endo^*-!. 
To gre6t with worthier love her Royal Guest. 

Thrice ahull the Victim, Sov'rcign Lord, to Thee 

Be itiiinohit«d at eacli holy Khriiie ; 
In hoQiage to U)« Erer-bleaaed Three, 

Whtwe purpose iuued in thu vork divine. 

And while this triple Act of priceless woith 
Flcadji for the grant of Thine etfcctiud grace ; 

Its slow unwinding gives to men on earth 
The TiirioUH epochs of Thy plan to trace,*' 

(Like Angels, who the Fiice of God behold, 
And at Hiii Throne their duteous homage plighti 

Yet bear their high commiasion to unfold 
His deep economies to mortal sight ; 

Or like tiie stars that p&re the firmament. 
And chant their joyous lauds from t^ to s^ ; 

Yet turn pn us Uirir lustrf, and present 
The rariouh wondeni of their jewell'd pnge :) 

At nudnight^a hour,t prophetic inist« still hang 
Around the glories of Messiah's Birth, 

Whidi Daviil hinted, ere the welkin rung 
With the glad notes of holy augel mirth. 

At dawn,^ the Hhephe rds tt-ll wil.li meek Hurprise 
How Kearen enwrapp'd Ihem in its light benign, 

And how they Kped to feiuit their wondering ejos 
On Mai^', Joseph, and the Babe Divine. 

But when the dsy§ hitth oome, Saint Paul shall preach 
Of Him in whom the Father's brigfatoeas ahooe ; 

And Holy Church the Word Incarnate teach 
In the clear accents of the loved Saint John : 

Fall we CO bended knee, and Him adore, 
KoT own His present Deity the less, 

Since veil'd in Infant form ; but all the more 
His Mif^t revere, because we love His lowliness. 



• The three Masses of Christmas Day, regarded on what may bo called 
their human side, set before os the Nativity under the different sspects of 
prophery, namitive, and dogma ; and ninr thus be oonsiderod to repttsont 
the Mystery in the thrw Bti^ea of ilshistorioal prognss. 

t Midnight Btass (Introit^ J Aurora Maa. 

§ Man a the I>»y. 



Oafion OaJceley's Ltjra JAhtrgiea, 



45 



The " Epiphany " resemblefl, in its genei'al character and 
spirit, the Christian Eclogue already referred to, and possesses 
quite as much of the true ballad character as is compatible 
with its devotional use. On tho contrary, the esponsals of 
onr Lady and S. Joseph may appear to some too didactic for 
such a theme, althou^ there are few who will not gladly 
dvrell on tho practical lesson with which the piece closes : — 

Each year the Church her children tnie 
These cbiste Eepotuabi IncU review, 

And call th«ir leraons sweet ; 
That while o'er histovy's p^je they roam, 
One linlesB bond, one qMtleia home. 

Their weaned ejo may meet. 

Hot let rach virtue's arduous claims 
Or scare oar sight or daunt our aiini ; 

E'en Puiliiro'K aolf vaay teach : 
Though homhleil, w(> txuny yet admire ; 
Though baffled, still iu faith aspire 

To heists we may not reach. 

Who nothing ilorts shall nothing gain ; 
E'en they who tempt the bonndleas main 

Must Blep by step begin ; 
And he may Satan's work undo^ 
And Sden's bliss in pari reaevr 

Who weeds hb way of sin. 

From the feast of S. Benedict, the great father of the 
religious life, Canon Oakeley has drawn a very touching 
leMOD on The Twofold Immortality of the Saints, of which the 
saintly sons of Benedict were the first, and for a long time the 
chief teachers in the West : — 

While thrones have {alien and empimt part, 
Wearing their crowns of grace, that lost 
In undeoaying youth. 

And he has made the First Sanday of Lent the occasion of a 
aingularly pleasing and appropriate reading of the example of 
onr Blessed Lord, as the typo of the self-abnegation of the 
Christian. But we prefer to turn to tho short but most appro- 
priate piece on Palm Sunday, which cannot fail, we think, to 
ap p rove itself to thoughtful rea<lors, as realizing most felici- 
toasly every association, historical, ritual, and nscetical, oon- 
noctod with tho day : tho forest of consecrated boughs, uplifted 
in the hands of pnest and people ; the long procession, twain 



46 Canon Oaheley*8 Lyra Littt/rgica. 

and twain ; the mystic bat highly dramatic halt at the church- 
gate ; the faithful " upraising their leafy swords " while the 
gospel is chanted; and finally tiie appeal from the outward 
symbol of the martyr to the inner spirit which that outward 
badge ought to symbolize : — 

PALM SUNDAY. 
What Bweetly solemn pomp is this, 

Where joy and grief imite — 
The suckling'i praise and Judas* kiss 

Blent in one common rite 7 

The Church's range, to stranger's eye, 

Shows like a forest now, 
As priest and people lift on high 

liie consecrated bough. 

Anon th^ moTe to mearaied stnun 

Of deep patiietic psalm. 
In long procession, twain and twain, 

Arm'd with the peaceful palm. 

Not blithe, as when the fickle crowd 

Strew'd branches on the w&j 
Of Him, whom in their rage they Tow'd 

When next they met to slay : 

For how should Holy Church be glad, 

Who views with equal eye 
The triumph and its issue sad. 
So various, yet so nigh 1 

We linger at the Temple gates 

To chant Thy praisee, Lord ; 
For while we pause, the " Historian " * watts. 

Thy Passion to record. 

Stand at your posts, ye faithful bands, 

And mark the Go^>eI words ; 
And as they sound, with trusty hands 

Upraise your leaJfy swords,+ 

'Mid error's strife and war's alarms, 

Prepare to do your part ; 
Te bear in hand the Martyr's arms. 

Then nurse the Martyr's heart 



* Tha Deacon who chants the narmtiye part of the Panon in Holy Week 
b called tht "Historiaa" (Cbronista). 
t The pahns are boroo in the hand dnring the nnfi^ of the OoqieL 



Hunon OakeUifg Lyra JAiurg^tn* 



47 



n<]uaHy happy Canon Ookeley's interpretation of that touch- 
ing observance of Pasaion-tide which prescribes the veiling of 
all statues, pictnrcs, and other sacred representations in the 
churches. The usage is in itself highly suggestive; but we 
doubt whether even tlioao who have meditated most profoundly 
upon it may not derive some novel associationi some fresh 
religious impulse, some till now unfelt inspiration from the 
simple and highly poetic&l stanzas in which Canon Oakelcy 
has clothed his own conception of the rite of — 

THE VEILING OF THE PICmiES AND IMAGES. 

The gleam of jojr thitt dawn'd lait w««k 
On sin a review, so bUak and bleitk, 
Wu but the sun's rctiriztg gLmoe 
Shot on tbp ilieary worltl'ii expaiuw, 
Juat ere hu glowing orb he ahrxiud 
Beneath u titibU> ptill uf cloud. 

R[*e on mjr «oul, perennial Light ; 
Thott ut not qnpDch'd, bat hid firom night ; 
Thou hut but v&aUh'd for a apace ; 
Thoii wilt Thy rearward gtejiM n'tmc* ; 
TTiou tread wrt, Lord, Thy walk of sorrow, 
To rite resplendent on the morrow. 

Our pictures draped, in moumin;! Ruuie, 
Thr dodtan'd luatre symboliie ; 
And enrkyat veils for once deny 
Thine Imaj,'© Xa the longing ere ; 
Truth'a nelf niuKt every shadow chose, 
Art fiiilH to teach, and foraia d^ve place. 

Away with aign and Benibhuice now ! 
None can expreai Thyself but Thou : 
Ye SaintSt your 'njinish'd hnnoiira hide, 
Wichdnw before the Ciucilied ; 
Nor let the bounds <rf sciue control 
The riiton of the rnnffing souL 

O lafferinff Saviour ! 611 my heart ; 
Sin mail Thy Paasion's fiercest nnart ; 
'Twaa not the cniel Jewi, but we 
Who heap'd Tlir chiefest woes on Thee ; 
Onr pride — our waste of grace — 'twas thiit 
Which atung Thy aoul like Judaa* kiaa. 

More, more to Thee thaa soooi^ge or nail 
Wm that fiir-fltretddng deathful lile 



^nm^Jakelejf*s Lyra Lttnrgtea, 

Of human sin, in Evu bcgiin, 
And to the Day of Doom to ruiif 
That, b the siut G^thutnani, 
Roue to Thy Mind'* Affrighted Eye. 

Of sins oumpleted and fwecaKt 
The glim proccaaion came and poso^d : 
The sins that moved Jehovah's tre^ 
The una Ihat fed Goisorra^s fire. 
The flinx that jK^riflh'd in the Flood, 
The aina tiiat viivd Thy sacred Blood ; 
Nor least nor Inweat in the Hue. 
Thy Buw, poor child of God, and mine. 

But we must guard onrselves against tlie temptation 
multiply extracts, of which these sacred topics and the fasci- ' 
Hating associations connected with them are fruitful. The 
sammer and autumn quarters are still nntoachcd, and wc mast 
leave it to the reader to discover for himself their many 
beauties. There is one subject to which we have not even 
alluded, and on which, nevertholesa, Canon Oakeloy is spe- 
cially felicitous, and whicli ho treats with an uBOtion and an 
enthusiasm which cannot fail to warm even the coldest wor- 
shipper. We refer to the festivals connected with the Blesaed 
Sacrament, The mingled feelings of love, adoration, and awe, 
with which he approaches this great Mystery of faith and life, 
are beantifully expressed in the prefatory lines ou sacredj 
ceremonies to which we have already alluded. 

But most T lore the pomp that gathera round 
The Saving Victim, w in love He comes, 
At Bac<!rdotal biddiug, to renew, 
In bloodleaa form, the Sacrifice of Dlood ; 
Or mounts His Sacramental Throne, to shed 
Cidm benediction on adoring crovds. 
For thi« doth image, in tOTredtrial gnise, 
ITic Wowhip of the I&uib — a glimpac of Heav'n ; 
Where angelti bow their heada, and veil their eyea. 
And ware their golden thiiriblea, and wake 
Unearthly music Eram their myriad harps. 

And, indeed, even without tliia profession it would be im- 
possible to read any of the poems in which he touches upon 
this theme without perceiving that for him its very name 
suggests an impulse which almost amounts to insiiiratiou. In 
ever}' instance in which he alludes to the Blessed Sacrament, 
or to any of the rituftl or ceremonial observances of its 



Canon O'tlefetf'f Lym Lifurifiea. 



40 



wontliip, tie seemfi fully to realize the ChnAtian concoption of 
lliBt ftwful but conHoling Presence, — the Holy iSacrince, the 
f*roc«ftaioDf the expositiou, the bencdirtion, the holy \'iQticum, 
the perpetual adoration. Not that he lias dwelt at length 
apon any of the«o, or attomptnH formally to unfold the 
treunnTM of faith and loi'e with which they are fnuijfht; hut 
he luv* nftpn contrived hy " f*^w simple words and by a siogle 
lun 'f tli'nij^ht to stir up the very depths of that loving^ and 
r«' i tfndenjpsa which is almost an instinct in overy 

Uui- . ii.;d of Qo<l, which there needs no refinomout of tasto to 
develop, and no cflTort of philoHnphy to elevate, but which 
eooM direct from Gnd'H uwn hand, and Is at unce the 
iBaonstioD and the reward of trne simplicity of heart. 

We shall venture upon one other extract, which may in 
•tow weaae illnstrate what we have tried to convey. 



THE rmirsTiAN prtesthood. 

Dmw nwir, ye (Tiristian Priests ; 
Till in your Vfaht of fmuttti, 
WbMic* ilal-e the ^loriwi of your .saintly line ; 
Wlirn llnA the Inranmte Ood 
Iliiiiiu'lf mi men liestowM ; 
And loii] oQ yt>ii 1') ({unrtl ami give th? Boon Divine, 

Onp at till* niLar 9tnnd«f 
Awl hftn with liuly h.-UHl9i 
The Victim piiiv, bo loritifj y*t no drpfld ; 
O ilif^ty immeaBe t 
O joj ntpMliRg MOW ! 
He act* hi* Saviuiu'* ix^r aud otTers iu his stead. 

Hin fcllnWM :il the litmnl 
Uavf "rnU'n, .inil iwl*'rwl ;" ^ 
Hrln Iff Hi" chui^, .and pnrtnerfl of His gift ; 
Ailwtt thoy ti)iL->t forlkent- 
Hij privilr>rt> tu Mtutrv, 
And niHw ill «t]<>i)co nn their hli;h vocntion'i drift t 

What luill'*wit)t< thoui^iM ariw I 
Wlut ^nKiuiii* inLtnoriai 
Fluw fruiii llint Aci, »nd float ftiniind iU touree * 
Ak tf liic- Vi>n' place 

W*-! ■'■■■< fit cmiv, 
Whrn* .1 MUiii'd uiJ (M-t Hi^ PricrtJioocI'. couru ; 



H 



• Mi S'l .frivpninl.— P«. x«l 30. 

' in wM-h r-liiin* on Holjf Tliiu>d»y : 'wd 
tfc. .<)MUUi)mL-.«ic al iu 



60 Canon Oaleley'e Lyra Idtxirgica, 

Thoughts of that serrioe sweet, 
Whidi, bending at the feet 
Of those he call'd His friends, Our Sariour paid ; 
Thoughts on the favour spent, 
With unreserved intent, 
On hiin who shared the Feast, and then his Lord betray'd. 

Where graces most abound, 
There sins are deepest fouud ; 
With John's affection grew Iscariot's hate ; 
The light which shines when used, 
Is darkness when abused ; 
The love which fires the Saint wil! steel the reprobate. 

With this extract we must close ; but we think there are 
not many of om* readers who will not be induced^ by the speci- 
mens which we hare laid before them with no grudging hand^ 
to make themselves familiar with what remains of the Lyra 
Tjitifrgirn. It is, as we have already said, bat the first instal- 
ment of a t^sk which is capable of almost indefinite expansion, 
and we trust that, in taking leave of Canon Oakeley, we 
are but parting from him for a brief space to meet him 
again ere long in what is plainly a cougenial field. He has, 
in the little volume before us, merely sketched the general 
outlines of his subject. The details which remain to be filled 
in are infinite in number and inexhaustible in attractions. 
There is one great class of subjects to which Canon Oakeley 
has hardly alluded, and which, nevertheless, overflows with 
topics of that peculiar character in which hia poetical genius 
would find itself most completely at home. We mean the 
^eat sacramental and quasi- sacramental rites which exhibit 
most strikingly that union of the outer with the inner world, 
that contact of grace with sense, of spirit with matter, which 
form the veiy basis of ritual religion, and which realize in 
man's service of his Creator the true conception of that two- 
fold nature which he received from the hand of God. Such 
are the ceremonial rites of Baptism, of Extreme Unction, of 
Orders ; the benedictions, the exorcisms, and the pei-aonifica- 
tions of nature and of the material elements with which tliin 
ceremonial abounds. The full poetical yet Christian realization 
of these associations is the true corrective of that subtle and 
seductive pantheism which nnderlies the religious cestheticisni 
of such writers as Lamartine, Schiller, and oven our owu 
Coleridge. We know no Catholic poet who is more capable 
of presenting these associations in an attractive form than the 
accompliahea author of the Lyra Liturgica. 




Hitiory of tht RUe anrf IitAuenec of tht Spirit of SalionaJirm iii Evrojtt. 
By W, E. Lrtxr, M.A. Loudon : LongnwiLS Orem, & Co. 

IT hns bet'ii said by a very high nuthority that, the study of 
history if destined to assamo a new nf^pcct, from the 
application to it nf a higher order of minds and a more philo- 
sophical method of treatment. We arc passing out of the nffe 
of Ppcciality into the age of generalization. Innnmerabie 
observers have collected fnots, and innumerable speculators 
liavo multiplied theories ; and we now scora to have amved at 
that period when it becomes the proper function of the 
thinker to co-ordinate the stores of knowledge which bare 
been set apart for him by others ; evolve laws from the multi- 
tude of instances; separate the truth fi-om the falsehood of 
conflicting theonesj conjoin effeotfi with their causes, and 
trace the half-revoaled nnd far-reaching relations between 
fiistant and appnrently tmconnected phenomena. The influence 
of such a spirit — long felt in the less complicated sciences — is 
now, even in England, beginning to act on those which are 
more intricate. For history the time is rapidly passing away 
tturing wliich a groat luit much erring thinker conid say thnt 
it was the unfortunate peculiarity of the history of man that, 
nlthoogh its separate parts had each been handle<l with con- 
siderable ability, hardly any one had hitherto attempted to 
combine them into n whole, or to A.^ccrt&in the woj* in which 
they are connected with each other. On the oontrarj-, he said, 
» strnngo idea prevailed among tiistorians that their business 
was merely to narrate pventw; so that, according to the notion 
of hiiton* in hi* day prevalent, any writer who, from indolence 
of thonght or from natural incapacity was nnfit to deal with 
the highest branches of knowledge, had only to poas some 
rears in reading a certain nnmbei* of books, nnd then he whs, 
?/'^ ■ ' . r|nalified to be a historian. The time is fast coming 
wl. • fli-(iftry nnd mmiotonous narratives of oonrt intrigues 

and ptorij. ' nly to memorialize nn oge when the 

history of k mited for the history of nations, and 

the consi<leration of the actions of a few individuals for the 
expowtiou of the life of the whole social organvttiVSou. ^\?ftOT^ 
is gro^wing to he leaa of a chronicle and mote ot * scie»Tio^ -.Vw 



■ 



&3 



hcchfg Hiftovy of Ralioitalimi. 



office is no longer thonght to be confined to the registration oH 
rA few superficially prominent facts ; but the discover}', by ol 
flciontific induction, of historical laws, and the investigation ofl 
causes, is chiefly aimed at; and, ns the circnmstances whiclil 
havo to bo taken into acoonnt in such a method of writingj 
history are often dismissed by the older school of writers asl 
almost unworthy of notice, and are, moreover, exceedingly! 
numerouf* and of alinoHt Infinite complication, a for wider and ' 
more diversified range of learning and a far greater power of 
analysis than were fonnorly either required or expected are. 
snpposed in the historian. ■ 

It would be idle to imagine that the influence of this morel 
philosophical way of writing history will not extend, orhasnoti 
exteuded, to theology. One of its first results lias been tho^ 
unpremeditated vindicntion by non-Catholic writers of thaJ 
mediaeval Church. AnJ that natuniUy; for the :u'tiou of thai 
Church in the uiiddle ages was founded on their social stAte,l 
and it was therefore only when history descemlud into thol 
bosom of society that she could receive a fuller n^eed oH 
justice. 'ITie Catholic Church has boon more philosophically! 
ti*eatod, and lior primary attribute, that she is a kiugdoui,! 
»nore perfectly realized ; while a flood of light has been throwul 
on the historical character of Protestautism, and to that 
farrago of heresies the conclusions arrived iit have been almost 
unifonuly unfavourable. Nor must wo suppose that it will 
affect only the tw^atment of the external history of C!hriatJ*J 
unity, and leave untouched the history of it.s dogmas. It hiial 
effected, and will hereafter, to a still greater extent effecbJ 
that both Catholic doctrines and heretical opinions will hM 
studied not only, as heretofore, in their objective aspect — witn 
respect to their evidence and connections one with «notht*r — m 
but more and more in their subjective aspect, as to theiil 
influence on the minds of those who hold them. Wo have, lol 
a great extent, yet to see the results of n profdund audi 
extensive study of dogmas in this light; but to study them iifl 
this light is undoubtedly the tenilfuty of the pivsent age.' 
We have thus opened to us a field of investigation almost new, 
;ind in its nature very different f«)ni tlio beaten tracks in 
which con t rove rsiu lists have hitherto followed one luiotUer. 
Whatever be the results that m.iy bo thus finally nn'ived at, 
there cannot be a doubt but that they will be fraught with 
iinuienso advantage to the cause of truth ; and in the coutm 
uf any i^eaearches that may bo made into the i^bjectivM 
iutluence of individual dogmas a number of facts — htthertoi 
but little attended to — will bo broug'ht foru-ard fi-oni the mos|l 
rsrious itoun:os i so that it will exck^ediiigl)' beltove those whfl 



LetfijfU Hiiiory of Ruliunalijinu 



53 



re Ui attoni] to the defence of CliristianUy to make sure that 

thwo arc tmly rillogcd and rcprosonted. 

Mr. Lecky, iis we have beforo noticed^ endeavours to 
apply to ri'ligiuuri ilie more advuncod method of secular 
fantorr. He Httoinpta to trace tlic subjective inflnenco of 
ntligioiui opinion^^j the miumor iu which they inutunlly affected 
t: ■ ' r, rind iu which they nctcd or were reacted on by Iho 
*•- ■ iwences of their time. He does not pay much atten- 

lioo to the question of edde^tccj or to the arguments by which 
t&cy were 8upported» except in so far as the use of particular 
ai^ai«nt« or linos of nrgumcnt affords him some iudicatiou of 
tbe Itinper of the times of which he writes. The very idea of 
luB work — u history of rcligiijua opinions — compelJed liim to 
»'■ rather than tu tha alleged cvidcuce of particular 

til- • Ijittcr being the ppoix*r province of the tlieo- 

kigiaD tut the former is of the historian. But from this 
ntCBBatury one-sidedneHS of his work ^Ir. Leeky seems to liare 
boea led iulo » corrcHponding one-sidedncss of mind. Every 
MWwi'" ■■'' that educiitiouj disposition, the opinions, and, 
itfll II. • tone of those around us, make it exceedingly 

difficult lu treat rehgious questions ou the sole ground uf 
evideaicc ; lUid Catholics are ountinually urging itiis against 
ifco IVoioitwi(« who, by their denial of the infallibility of the 
Cbnrcb. multiply indefinitely the nnmbcr of questions which 
Wtc W be thus decided ; but Mr. Leeky goes further, and 
my» that there really is not sufficient ovitfence for us, situ- 
•Jtcd ss wc ore, to come to a reliable conclusion at nil. H i.s 
utaral, therefore, that he should now und then take occa- 
ooQ to sifl supposititious evidence snd fallacious arguments ; 
Mud m i»cveral places ho states with great force the nature and 
losirit' ' -rf the i-easons given against some or other of the 
on di now dcnietl by IVotestants. An inHtiince of this 

may be- inureMing to our readers: the subjoined passage is 
taken from his second chapter "Un the Miracles of Iho 
Omrch":— 

■ .it wt* the uTonml* on wlii^-li iV ce»*tlioii of iiiinicU-ii !■ 
tAiucd ; ihcj luajr, I nU|i{N«o, Itc allium^] up much m 

^ ** «dit, mrv thr dirinc nt^lrntinla of lui in«iiin*d ni^-wMongcr 

nnem which cmihl not othcrwt»* be «tnl»Ii»hM. They pruiri* 

I nr ui ruthttsioft ; that hU tcAcbiug is itnthcr 

t nor (if M) OTfiflMiitwt imAgindtinn. From 

i.l nrtt !«• proved iu Any othar wny .... 

tmprohftble than nr^i'liiti^n : '-^r i> wwU* 

III mimilro. But. »lill«' Oil-. '"•" 

I to I hi* amjitl tuincXv^ it v i_ vwm 



4 



54 L&ckifa History of Raiionalisvi. 

clearly from those of the Church of Rome. The former were avowedly ex- 
ceptional ; they 'were abeolutely necessary ; they were deBigned to introduce 
a new religion, and to establish a nupematural message. The latter were 
.siuiply means of edification ; they were directed to no object that could not 
othenvUiC be attained, and they were represented an taking place iu a divpen- 
^tion thai was intended to be not of sight but of faith. Besides this, 
miracles should be regarded as Ihc most awful and iiui)reHijive manifestations 
of divine power. To luakc them habitual and coniniouplacc would be to 
degrade if not lo destroy their character, which would be still further aba*.?d 
if we a'^luiitted those winch appear trivial and puerile. The :uiracles of the 
Jfew Testament were always characterized by dignity and solemnity ; they 
always conveyed Rome spiritual lesson, and confen'ed some actual benefit, 
besides attestuig the character of the worker. The niedixval miracles, on the 
contrary, were often trivial, purposeless, and unimpressive ; constantly 
verging on the grotesque, and not unfrequently passing the border. 

Such is, I think, a fair epitome of the common argimienta in favour of the 
cessation of miracles ; and they are undoubtedly very plausible and very 
cogent ; but, after all, i\liat do they prove ? Not that niiracl&i have 
ceased, but that, supposing them to have ceased, there is nothing surprising 

or alannliig in Uic iact Tliis is the full extent to which they can 

legitimately be au-ried. As an A priori ])roof, they arc far too weak to 
withstand the smallest amount of positive testimony. Miracles, it u said, are 
intended uxchibively to accredit an inspired niessetigcr. But, after all, what 
proof is there of this / It is simply an hypothesis, plausible and conbistcnt it 
may be, but entirely unsupported by positive testimony. Indeed, wc may go 
further, and say that it is distmctly opposed by your own facts. .... You 
mitst admit that the Old Testament relates mauy miracles which will not fall 
under youi' canon .... But the ecclesiastical miracles, it is said, are ofleu 
grote^yque ; they appear ^Hniu /ocie absurd, and excite an irresistible repug- 
nance. A sufficiently dangerous test in an age when men find it more and 
more difficult to believe any miracles whatever. A sufficiently dangerous 
test for those who know the tone that has been long adopted over an immense 
part of Europe, towards such narratives iis the deluge, or the exploits uf 
Samson, the speaking ass, or the possessed pigs ! Besides this, a great pro- 
^wrtion of the ecclesiastical miracles are simply reproductions of those which 
are recorded iu the Bible ; and if there are mingled with them some that 
api>ear manifest iuipostitres, this may be a vei^' good reason for treating these 
narratives witli a more jealous scmtiny, but is certainly no reason for main- 
taining that they are all below contempt. The Bible neither asserts nor im- 
plies the revocation of supernatural gifts ; and if the general promise that 
these gifts should be conferred, may have been intended to apply only to 
the Apostles, it is at least as susceptible of a different interpretation. If 
these miracles were actually continued it is surely not difficult to discover 
the beneficial purpose which they would fulfil. They would stimulate a 
languid piety ; they would prove invaluable auxiliaries to missionaries labour- 
ing among barbaioua and unreasomug savages, who, from their circumstances 
and habits of mind, are utterly incapable of forming any just estimate of the 
eridencea of the religi«tt they are called upon to embrace. . . . To saf that 




There is noihingj indeed, thnfc is pavticiilurly Dew in this 
roftsoniug^; our reudurs must liave ft'equuntly seen or he&ztl 
it urgea ugaiusb iVotestants; bub it is valuable iii Mr. 
liCcky's hi^itoryi as showing the view taken of the ordinary 
IVotcstADt urgumenta by tho liigher claBU of anti-Catholic 
writci'^. In a i^ioiilar manner hti diuposes of the vulgar argu- 
oientB against magic and aoreery in a yjussage which, how- 
ever, IS, wc regret to say, too long for quotation (Vol. I., 
pp. 9-16). Ho there concludes by saying that tho evidence 
ou that tiubjec't is bu vaut and so voiiod, that it is impossible 
to disboUovc it without what, on any other subject, wc should 
Consider Uie rnoBt extraoitlinaiy rashnesB. The subject was 
examined in tens of thousands of cases, in almost every 
eoontiy in Europe, bv tribunals which included the acuteat 
lawyers iind occlc^inetics of the age, on tho scene and at the 
timo wheu the ulleged iW-ta bud liikcu place, and with thb 
assistance of inniitneniblo sworn witnesses. As condemna- 
tion would bu fulluwed by a fearful death, and. the accused 
were for the most part misei-able beings whoso destmclion caji 
bavo bccu uu object to no one, the judges e«u have hadnosinistor 
motives in euuvietUig, and had, on tbu euutmrj', tho most 
urgeut rfasous for e^koreisiug their power with tho utmost 
Cwitiou and deliberation. The accusations wuro otten of such 
» character that all must have known tbe truth or falsehood of 
what was alleged. Tho rrideiife is ceseutMfly cutnnhtiit'c, 
tjomo cases, it is added, may be explained by monomania, 
uthei's by imposture, others by chiuice coincidences, and others 
by optical delusions ; but, when wo consider the muliitudus of 
stmuge statemenU Ujot were swum to and registered in legal 
documents, he confesses that it isvery difficult to frame a general 
rationalistic explanation which ynW not involve an extreme im- 
probability. 

And now, i)af^iug to uuotUur subject^ even Catholics may 
find in the following passage something worthy of being dwelt 
ou ; — 



TIip world itt govcrnM by lU i^lwU, itnd mIiIoui or never ha» iht!rt> U'cii 
un« winch biu cxrrcbiccl a iiwrv i>fofonii<l mid on Uie whole a uore luUiilary 
iaBttvtice tbui thv roedufval cuncviHioii uf (ho Vir)(iii. For the first time 
wowui WM rli*viit«d to her nghtfiil pojtitinii, uiid the Mnctity of w«ftkii«M 
W7. - - ' wrll as Uio mmctity of mttow. No longer tho bIutc or toy 
ul aiaodaled ooty witli ideuof degmdoliou, and cf Nnnuility, 

wifcwui jl:h,, ui liic pmon of the Virgin Mothir, iiUw a new «iibcrc, und 
ibo o)>jcct uf 4 rvvireuiul Uoiiugo of which nntttiuity hitd had no 




56 



LceUi/v ItUfoi'if it/ lUiiiunatisut. 



L-oDceptioii. Lot-e wms itlcuJixDtl The luonil cliiirui attd liriiut;y or foiu 
rxcellencG wui* Tor tlii? fii'»t liiiit* fclU A iiuw ty|)c of I'humcter wiia uuUod iot* 
1>ping ; a new kiiiH of iiituiiriticiii -kwh {(ttslvwX. \\\Xtf a hanih aiKl i;^iinniiil| 
itmi lirnighte*! »j^ this idral ty|)e iiit'iwM » type of ;^iiLleii«i*9 an<l nf piiriiyi 
unknown tu the pruiideul civilitutiijiih uf the t"*^!. In the imj^ch of Uriiij 
tenderness which iiuniy ii nioiikiah writer ha-* left Iq hnaunr of }iU cele«ti,i 
pjvtron ; in the niUlioiw who, in uiuny InntU uml in nwny ngetj, Imre wtightl 
with no bsirrcu dcdire to mould their churacter into her iumgc ; in those bo]y| 
uiaiden>, wb1^ for the Inve uf Mary, liHve KC|fiiruted themselves from iiU the^ 
glories mtd plennures of the wurld. tu seek in la^tinf^ luid ligiU and hnroble 
ehnrity to render them.'iclve^ worthy of her benediction ; in the new sense otj 
honfHiT, in the chivalrous respect, in the snflening of nranncrs, in the reHnoJ^ 
nient of tji»le!idi^{^»yed in all the walks of 5tM.'iety ; in Ihweand in many uthef 
^iiV!* we deteet il« influeuL-e. All thnt wiut bent in Europe duHtered :iiviuidl 
it, Mid it is llie on}(iii of uuiuy of thu pure»t deiuouU of our vivitizAlioiL- 
Vol 1. P11. 234-235. 

" But/* lie is pleasetl to add, " the price, and perhaps tb« 
necessary price, of this wiwj the exultation of the Virgin as ac 
omnipresent deity of intiuitu power aa well na of iuliuite con-1 
descension." lloi-e we hsvo nu exHuipIc of tlie extraordiuiuy 
mistakus wliicli are oceasionally miidc by Mr. Lccky. We by 
no lUi'uu.'? uccu^iu him of iuteutiouul misreprcseut'U.liuu ; and iu 
u work of U(?arly a thoLisand pages, of which there is scarcdyJ 
a p^c without n note, and scarcely a note without six orl 
Mevea refureuces or qautations, it wrw impossible but that aonKi 
iuaccnracies should creep in. But he unfortimately often nuea 
a looseness and generality of reference which makes his uotea 
almost useless to any one desirous of verify injj tliurn, and hia 
inaccuracies, some of which bear with them au appearauoc ^ij 
f Kreut carelessness, are incredibly fiviiueut ; wliilu we dcsi- 
' derate iu him that ftiluess of theolog-ical knowledge wliich a 
writer ought to possess who critieiaes dogmatic syHtcmB so 
dogmaticully ns ne does. In the present case ho actnally' 
sceius to think that the Blessed Virgin was rcganled 
ns an omuipre^cut deity hecuuse it was believed that she 
could hc^- prayers auywhero addi-esscd to her.* Hut the 



* In rt qole at Mvc fool of p. 236 he tcllj m th«t "Ercn at tie jirrKenl cUy 
the Pbidter of St. BonaventHre— an cilition of iht- Pauluirt iifl:i|itrd to tiio 
won-hip of the Virgin, diiefly by the Mnhstitulion of the woni tUtuiimi for tli«j 
word flnmimis-'ys h ]>opnlor l>oi>k t»f devotion ii( Jloinc." It is, of eouneJ 
dilticidt to HI)' whiit uxiictiv is K*r|uire<l to cifntttitntc it |>o|iiditr liook of drT(h3 
I tiun, and it i» qnite pohmidIc tiut the Psulter in quention may lie nised by 
I come penons iuRomc; but it is, not nieutiouud (at from itK ehunicter 11^ 
[might be expet'led to Ik- nieTilione<ri iunonjr tbo ** forty h'tth' liooks" M!n* 
' theiiev for Dr. Newninn'i^ examination, nur did the piiMeiit ui'it4?v, whvQ IQ 
Borne, over either see or hwir of it A* to its Win;^ i'on)i>OHi'd by K. Itotui* 
yeuUirt; C'litholiu vuntroreniiilitUt ha^e u^uin uaU ngiiiu ui^^^vd Ihul it 



I*crktf*8 m«it>rtf oJ'JOilioHaHsni. 



67 



liug" of Cutbolic thcolrtgttuis iimkes a veiy groat difference 
itwcen iho omnipn'sonfo of tiod and the miunier in which 
e BIcMscd Virgin aud the Baiiitu aro cognizant of the pmyern 
ured out to them ou earth. ITio Scotista ordinarily teach 
lat God rovenls to the saint« in fflory whatever it is oxpo- 
3ieut thai they should know ; the Thomists that tlioy see in 
the vision nf 4iod the prayers and (hn nccessitieH of meu ; 
•tiino have urged the elevatiuu and expansion of even their 
naturul facuhies cousc(|uent on tlieir outranco into the 
ltat« of glory, but nuuu huvo ever supposed them tu bo 

rrc4Jont, as God is, to the whole created nniveree. Mr. Jjecky 
rococds to state that before the boliof that u Hutto spirit 
CouM heiu" prayer wherever otfered whs firmly establisheil, it 
Wfm believed that at least they hovered roun<l tlie placet* where 
their relics had bceu dt-pottited, and there, at least, attended to 
Uio prayers of their suppliants. In supiwrt of this ussortion 
be quotes the following words an from 8. Jcroiuu : "ergo 
cincrcs nuoa amant animic martyruni^ et eircumvolant eosj 
ftetnperquo pnertcutes sunt ; ne fortu si aliipiis precator h<l- 
venerit abyentes nudiro non poysint," to which he gives the 
extranrtlinary reference" Kpistohe, I. iii., c. 13." These words 
indeed occur iu S. Jerome; but they occur as the sarcasm of 



IpurtDtiii : to whifh wp Dtityvldthc Iwiiiuony of Ondin iT>SiTipl. Kivl«i«iii».t, 
Ait.Baiu(i' Ii. xi. n. 86); — "Inrligntim porrouiihi liiletitr, qatvISHncto 

BonaTBOl' rr iribtuitur." Nor is it errn (ViiV/y iuLtp(€(l t« the 

onhip i't '111' i^ii'NM'd Vip^n in tlio uuiDntr ^t«U^I liy Mr. Ltvky. hi Ihe 
prordji rif thf ]>rcfiico uf ihi- Rotniiu nlitioii of !>. BonavcuLurv'i w^lrk^, ''(niVi'a 
b^KR'nt niiu PstitniU Daritli!!, qiiii> vcni MilMcqmmttir Beat;*/ Virj^ai . 
• MpUntiir ;" iinil rven in tho very "iiiitiii" v«ry pfliiryestive Hitcnitionu . 
, v.fe'. P«. 23, "I><iiaini est lcrr.i et [ili-nitadu ejiw: tii aulctii :«inc- 
totcr cmii Eo rt-yruis ia ft'teniuia."— 1'». 24, *' A<i le dmuiuii leviivi 
iJDMini ; injiulicioDei, laid prccibiw non cmbcBciiiii." Vt. It), '"iX-uw, 
ni* m*iw, ivsjtifut ill HIP mentis I ins Virgo wmpcr Marij," &c. We luive 
id, uioreortT. the ctumj^fx iiu«lc in the Iwdv of the ruiilniH af such hs l« 
|i>at the distincli'm iwlvrrted to by Dr. Pf«wiiu»n, thwl Ihe Umv nf Ihu 
"<<n prtit) i.j mir Lady U dialiiiut froia thnt ofrn-wl up lo (iw\ in Uii*^ 
;> iKiid l« tlic Aluiixhty in niiireme, prufoiind. And nviiil : thr 

I'V'"'' t<'*'»"l the Blessed Virmn is affcctioiintf and imleiit, 

r tfl».ird ;i lucrv rhild of Adiuii ; thonj^h Mibdiiod, M ooinit^ fnaa her iiiafnl 

kiiidmt (Itfveli'Ptnt'nt, p. -136.) 

Wp tfiajf iiIho oiMerre lliiit Mr. Lecky use* the temi " Mariolnlry " : a piec« 

' Tcrjr nmdleM offciuirMiew at the lauit, but thr loss wonrlcrfiil when w« 

mwHT thnt he rcnovn the vffHe dtBrge of idolatry (Vol. I., p. 236, Sa:). 

IU kind of things huwt vot, is infinitely l«s dimfjrr'Hi'* (hiui the hnbitiwl 

tonr, juid flippnncy of ntylf ia xpfftkiii^; of SHtrcd thin;i% 

th« wlinlt- work, which indicntc», bolh a ;(rc«t wiinl of co<kI 

. If 'till nK,< n yn-«t drfrct of (xiluiJenitu.)n fur utlirri ; iiud 

' 'I hiui to iniert ]]iuwi}{es ubsolulcl^ bliuiplu-inouH in 

I, ]i, I'ifi, init*-.) 



58 



Lutktfa Bistortf of Jiutioualism. 



an opponent which kS. Jerome gives only in oi'der to t-efute it. 
The passage is quoted from VigilautiiL» tu S. Jerome's book 
againat that heretic ; but the eaini kluibelt' culU it a " portent 
worthy of hull/' and argues in reply tu the idea expressed i^ 
iij that we cannot net lawu tu (.iotl; that the inartyi's foUoi 
the lamb wheresoever ho goeth ; that the demons wandor ovo 
the whole world ; aud are the martyi's to be shut up in a boxl 
As to the HIeased Virgin beinjr rogwded as a deity of iutinit 
power aud iuliuite t-ouduscensiou, thoye Culholic writers who 
in their devotional writings have spukuu the most sh*0Dgly o^ 
her power^ have merely said that God wiU never refuue ht 
anything she asks, aud tliat tihe will never ask anything incoo 
Bistentwith His Providence. Mr. Lecky shows in many ot" 
places the grossest ignorance of Catholic theology. He quotes 
in evidence of the present belief of the Komuu Church in dema 
niacal possession^ a ritual which, he says,*'^is used in the diocc 
of Tarbes." He need not have gouo to an ubscui'c provincia 
htoul for proof of his assertion ; ho will hiuxlly find any 
Catholic iheulogiuu who denies it; aud the must used and 
best known of our modern theological wiitei-s htiH devoted 
a 8pocud chapter to tbo subject (Pcrrone, Do Deo Creator 
Hai't 1., c. V.) The doctrine of punishment by a material i 
*' still lingers/' ho tells us, " in the Roman CathoUc manuals 
for the poor." li' by this bo meunt that it docs not remain 
also among theologians, this is not true ; Perrouc, one of tfan 
uiost moderate, calla it, " sententia commuuiter recepta/' 
Deo Crcutore, Part 111., c. y\. a. 3.) 

la tlie latter part of his chapter " On the Developmouts 
Uationalisin," Jlr. Lecky has put forward an opinion that 
doctrine of the matorial chanict<.'r of the nenal fire ia elosol;^ 
connected with the ancient opinion, that tlic soul is in som< 
sscnsc material. The doctrine of u tuatorial fire bocumo, he 
says, the foundstiou of an opinion that the sovd is of a matenul 
nature; and he refers to Tcrtullian, citing De Aniun^, c. viii. 
This assertion is, however, utterly without foundation. It 
nowhere appears that this wns the chief fouudatiou on which 
this error was rested. Fur from making this material conception 
of punishment the chief ground of his argument, Xertulliau, 
in the passage quoted by Mr. Locky, does not argue from tho 
matcnnlity of tho firo nl all. Wliat he doe« argue firun is the 
corporeal inunner in which Abniham, Dive», and Lazarus, are 
repre^L-nted in the Gospel ; from Abraham*M bosom, tho tonguo 
of Dives, and the finger of Lazarus; and ho mentions tho 
"ignis" merely in an incidental miknner, and not to argue froru 
its material nature, but to found hi^ rcusoning on the genurifl 
^ropoMtion that whatever is susceptible of " fovela" uP (fl 



Itceh/i iJiMory uj UaUonolum. 



o9 



"puaio'' must be oori)orf»il.* ll m, of course^ quitu cod- 
oaT»blti U»t ft writer, who believed tlio tioa] to )>c of ti inutu- 
rul oftture might argue from the commonly roceivcd opiuioii 
of B nuloriiJ tiro j but the origiu of ihiu opinion was in fact 
'ntiUs different. Some of those who held it ovcu believed 
tbo " liru " tif bcU to be inottiphoi-ical. But beibi'o tlic ndvunt 
rf Chruliaiiity tlio iiiiiid* uf the people bud been coustjintly 
utd pemiiitctitly directed to tiiu sensiblo aud the material; 
fr©m the rnuUs of the people CJu-istiuuiiy was reeruiled; uuti 
tb is nut wonderful if gomewhul of their former habits of thought 
ciuay to thuse who were eouvert«:d. It wits ouly by degrees, 
4iui aAcr n pntiont and Kilent opposition to prevailiug habitii 
oClboaghtt that Chrifitiunity HUi-cecded in flpiritiinlizing vch- 
nou eoAoeptioiu ; and tho time which elupsc^l l^efuro ihiti had 
Ha eflaotea—« period of more than three liuiidird years — 




■* ^TJffl a namKr uf philoAopliionl rraxoi», he pixKCrtU tluii : — 

"V -i pnDDaepbw, Nitt*! tucc : (|uiiiitliiu ad miKtro^, c\ ahiniiLtnti ; 

^Okktu coipem/tliu nMinur in ipto Emnffilin rthuvM; Void aptid ivferot 
mgimm tMf^'^**», *i jmnilur Vm ff-tmnui^ ct rritdatur t'li linyiid ; tt cfi* tfifitQ 
waitMt /' "( Ttfrii. (Tlif wordn iu itttVuv iviv iho^o 

^Hl«d I II CXlMiliriia illlUlJ <>x!tniii IMUltcrin li)-Unti)-. 

ftfivfti* luin-mi* i ,\i >[it.'i il>i Luari luiuipii. oi iion in vcriutc tr^ r«t f 

H Mba oqn lubcTTt ontnm coquu, nou upcitrt niiiuui iiiiii^^im'ui c>ir|w)ri(i; 

■ilililiilnr ilr cvqwrnlibit.-* mrroliris 8cn|ittir«, hi ttun n-imt. . . . Nihil 

■Lf ai nan nujuu. IiKMrpornliiuii mini nl> oiinii g^uTc t.:ii>>lo<li.ij tilH'mexL, 

■ I J ]-, ... . F <■■'.•!«. i'or 4U0U cuiin [miiitMr nut luvctiir, h'Mi erii 

' NiriiR'iiti eiv* *oliilii .iiiiiiin jicrcejiit iu tMixtre sou 

litif' ' ' i'> xitiu AlirRhiT.prolHiliii'rit corponilibiMiiuniiv. 

laOWpanlttJi i<ihil halfCtia )Mt quod piiLl pu«tit ; nut *>i 

hah^liaceri' . i jiiiltutt uitcqKmitU) . . . Sii; ct ilivjii ii|Hid 

laftscM liajpia eA, «l ijuu^ieri <li^itu3. H »iDii^ Abinlue. Per ba^ liiieaset 

r iBUl7Tuiu*ul( iJt.-in iiit'-Mfi^iuitur." Iu another pWu Mr. Leckv i|Uoto» 

• rfucd/ujas ftiniiiihiiig n ntrikluu 

li li)'reitIieation of tlic doeuine of' 

lK>\i vrtr. eompnTC the pi&sA^ it«cir. 

I,<vl(yV comiUMitii \vol. I, j>. SftlV. Nor 

I W ikf^ orChmtiniiiiv : ibc 

1- evidoiH-«d by the t)i»i|)UU; 

Mr. Ltcky. indc»'d, n']ir-o-rnt', 

" WTiercvcr ihcy tuinrd, they 

"- '^jiTritf. who wiTp pcnKtuiilly 

I .1' I W'tttrhfnl tiriidti «too<l 

I, .nir. ..k'".>lirm «<f liri', iitid tho 

t tiicir h.tlnil" ;voI. I, J). SJ*-; yihvrt 

r.n'. AIl T . . l.\ iiut'lit tM Imvf rriuoiii* 

I . ■■•tiivt iiii<l |njMi r "f 

iititii«liiiii>'ii <'( Eiti^i'Li 

h" iiii;^Ul lit IfiUit Imvf rfincin- 

lic iri-iirnd trildi-ncy iif thn ftirfy 

4|Hi«M>J lu * t«A)dnK'y to diUle uii Uii* BUtniri 



ftma TVftouuia a MMw:. 
> uT tW kmd of 



pBftfahll-mt Ut Uir- itudci 

«iAlfte«aDl»vif*«>»«liT>9'tt, with Mr 
dtCocodLr 



4 



40 



h]ckt/s HUUh'ij iif HatHmaVtvm. 



was one of no littlu confuaion m this I'egiU'ci. But no ona 
HeciuH to huvo been iud into the error of aupposiiiR' the huinnn 
aoul tr> be mat-ei'ial by the notion of a miitfriiJ Hrt'. tSomc bo- 
lieve<i thiH to bo tho caso because they coiUd not see how 
could possibly be otherwise; thoy were anablc to rise to thi 
iduft of A spirit, properly so called ; they could not concoivfl 
auylhing to bu roal, and not material. That this was the case 
ill particular, with Tertullian, cannot bo doubted, whctlicr wd 
L-uutiider his way of speaking iu the whole book Dc AnimCty ii 
the book Adv. Prn-rcnm, c. xi., and in the J)r. Cnriie C'linxt!^ 
c. xi., or tht* pre-eminently sensuous aud realistic charaeter ii 
his mind. The Platonic philosophy wjis another foundation of 
this opinion respecting the human soul. Some writers who 
were especially attached to l*latoniHm, as Oripeiij explained 
the JMatonic doctrine of emanation as meaning that God Alone 
is a pure Spii-it, all beings proceeding from God having a trace 
of materiality greittor or less as tlieyare more or less rcmovccJ 
from llim. They therefore boheved all created spirits to be iu 
Homo sense ntateriMl ; and forms of expression which may seen 
properly to bnlong to this opinion reniaiiu^l, as is often thi 
casOj long after the opinion itself hud vanished. But the 
source of tlic whole cn-or was, as is evident^ the niateriabzec 
method of eouceptiou of pro- Christian times. 

But Mr. liocky goes much further than this. He tells uq 
that this opinion of the niatoriality of the human aoul — whicli 
if wo except at most two or three writers^ had certainly died 
out in the sixth, if not in thu Bfth century, — whs tho dominanlj 
opinion in the middle ages: — 



I'ndcr the influcDce nf tncHifCTnl hnhits of tbi>ii;;ht, eveiy spirit ii^il con- 
ocptiuii vfiw imili^rialixi'd, ami wimt al an curlior iiiiil a luter period rrxa 
jfcuomll}' detnaw] the Imi^jiutgi- tif tnetaphor, \xa» uitivorailly rpt^nloil »s lh« 
l«iij;itnf^ of fjicl. Tlii) rcitliaitiona of the people were «M derivvil from pnuit- 
ingt*, Hculptun.', or wiTiinmiwi tli«t jtppeidi'd to ilw wnnw, imd nil *nliject« 
were Ihcrefon? rwliitc*! to ]iiil]iiiWo ium^'es. Tho oiigel in Mk' lant jiKl^^iiicnt 
wtfH roiiHtantly rrprcsoulcd wtighinj; the wuls in u liUral Imlnni.-, vh 
dvviU cliii^'iiitj: U} the ucuVv emU-avuurcd tu dliUirb the (■'inilihriiiiiL Sotiu 
tiiOM lUe soul wan portnijud ;in n nexlosw child, riaiDj;; out i.f tlir mouth of 
thv i-urjHK'. Bui, above idl, tho doctrine of purgiitory arrc«:t«<l mid i'tu-bninwl 
the iauigiiiatinn. . . . Men wbu believed in a phj-sical sonl rendily beliovinl 
in u physical ptmiubmenl, men who inntorinbzedtbeiryicwof tho pmiisltuieRt, 
nmterinliri!*! their view of the soffercn!. 

•'Wo find, however," ho piweedn, "some tiiiic ItpfMro the rofoniuitioa 
evidoul si^nn of iwi endeavour on thu jwrt. of ti few writcn* t<i rwe I" n pnr 
LQUception of the fcoul,"' Ami bo j;«h'.s uti toaitribnto ibtB N* " tbe ;i.' 
writing that (lowed I'roiu the school of AvurrbovA :" iind lujis^i 



heek^t Htnlory of Httiionufijim. 61 

I <^rt>rit«i pmioMopli^ **th« final dovDfoU of tbi* niiiteriAlistic hypothMiH." — 
I ViL i. pp. 373-37ti. 

It w not too mucli to say thflt the whole of this is entirely 

I mwipiwiT*^*? by evidence. Any one who likes to glance over 

I Ihf ' >it'3 l)r Auiim'if the beginning of the PeconJ 

Ui- rirenees, the questions />'' Aitima in the Siimuia 

of >>t. ThonmSj the rocnpituhition of the scholastic theologj* 

on that subject lu tho third vohnne of Snarez, or the very 

nriiefif treati-wa Dv Atunili^, will see that, far from there 

hfliDg mpTfly ** a few writors" who TOaiutained the spintiiality 

i of iHe vniJ, the notion of imraateriality was as well defined 

Id r' ;mint srliolastic philosophy as ever it was by Des- 

cm, , w , .j^o dortrine tfant the essence of the soid is thonght, 

wu deftriy stated by the scholastics in the sense that intol- 

Irrt- ■ -t: only belong" to the spirittml^ and not to the 

nar lid tho extended.* The manner in which the 

Scbultt^* 1 the pijnishni(>nt of a spiritual being by 

ftmatrr U ns a test-qnestton on this subject. DIJ 

lh«r " intense reulixation" of this doctrine lead them to infer 
1 loikU'natit)' of the .^unl ? Certainly not. On the contrary ; 
kwA* all thoroughly realized tbo spiritnaUty of the soul, all 
tliia difliculty regardiufj^ the manner of its punishment ; 
although there was ttuDicient diversity among them as 
nationi not ono had recourse to tho niaterialii^tic 

lor ia Mr. L»H'Uy correct in stitting that the Arabian philo- 
hy had u Hpiritualiiiing inQuence on philosophy and theo-j 
I lonr. Thfti philosophy eminently favoured tlie " ntnltipliJi 
cah ' I'Hi (rino neccs-iitate,** than which nothing ih moro' 

Ul Aing. Some of those who hehl it expounded the 

dp' r matter and form in a manner ilnngemuH tu the 

•p< of t-lie soul.t They held the pfrilous doctrine of 

«vi uDil it would be qnito a mistake to snppoHe that 

iKe uew.rj|.iion of error which they tauj^ht had any conformity 
vf Kpiaii with the poetical and Bentimentat pantheistic theories 
off' *nt day.} 



* Aw a. TliouuM <^«nUn Opntilra. L S, c. 41), fi<\ Al, 6d, cf. (tU, iifa«n> nu 
• of aJini " T part, tif omne, draum fmm the pbi- 

jr, i* li> r ilie spiritiuUity uf the 4011I. 

Z TW |»f1 of tbf floctriiii- <>r Ar«rmoe* whUiti dxcilvil Um ^{Taateitt com- 
■rtiw VM hi! nRy«iiiilut(T, whidi, loin>th»r with \m ilociniic of iw«<»- 
^ 111.M the aDitrcv of iiiict <*f hU olbt-r rmir*. Ai^-^^'tiJiui! Iif tKo 
, iW MilMtaacel Mti'io'itlnu ,uid itii<lt-rl) in^ llio uitnbult^ uf tliiiiir* 
■M*t| ol tvo p&rU- I fonn, ultii-^li i* utttvo, aitil miilli'r. 



62 Leehfs Hi$tory of RationaUsm, 

It is chiefly from the chuvcter of the then religions artj 
which (of course) represented spiritual subjects by material 
symbols, that Mr. Lecky argues that the middle ages mate- 
rialized all spiritual conceptions. Thus, in a note to p. 232, 
vol. I., he speaks thus : — 

The strong desire natural to the middle ages to give a palpable form to 
the mystery of the Incarnation, was shown curiously in the notion of a con- 
ception by the ear. In a hymn, ascribed to S. Thomas h Becket, occur the 
lines : — 

" Ave Virgo, Mater Christi, 
Quee per aurem concepistl, 
Oabriele nuntio." 

And in an old glass window, now X believe in one of the mnsenms of Paris, 
the Holy Ohost is represented hovering over the Yiigin in the form of a 
dove, while a ray of light passes &om his beak to her ear, along which ray 
an infant Christ is descendins;. — Langlois, PeiiUwe tur Vem, p. 167. 

And our readers will remember remarks of a like bearing 
in the quotation last given. Such criticisms are, however, to 
us merely evidence of so many curious misapprehenBions. 
They merely show that an acquaintance with the history of 
religious art is but a very inadequate preparation for writing 
the nistory of religious dogmns. It is perfectly imposRible to 



Sub!itauti:il funim are either n]at«riul or spiritual : the material are '* tied 
down to q\iantity " or extended, in which they differ from the spiritual. 
But a far broader distinction than is now generally supposed to exist, waft 
made by the mediuival philosophy between intellection and the lower cog- 
nitive manifestations of the mind. The latter could belong to the material, 
imd be the result of orj^aniy-ation ; but the former was the proper and dis- 
tinctive attribute of a spiritual form. Such forms were angels, and human 
souls. In the properly intellectual process they supjweed two powers to be 
concerned, the intelhctus agens and the inteUectus possibilis. The initUectux 
ttgens was supposed to be an illuminating and i-eveallng power : it proclitced 
ideas, and it was the function of the vntelUctua pomhUin to receive and 
contemplate the ideas which it presented. Now Averrhoes taught that 
the human soul was corruptible and material. The only power It itself 
|)08sessed he a-sserted to be a cogit<itive power. This was all that pro- 
l>erly belonged to man — a function of the organic and corporeal soul But 
this soul was assisted by a higher order of intelligences. Tlie intelkftns agem 
hm{ pombilin, the operation of which we feel in ourselves, do not belong to 
u-4, but to certain separate spirits who co-oj)erate with the inferior energies 
of the human soul, and it is by participation of their intelligence that we 
have intellection. 

Averrhoes based his doctrine on certain passages in Aristotle's Ik 
j4}iim^ which are fully discussed, together with his abstract arguments, in 
S. Thomas's opusculum, De Unilat* IntdUettu. Their doctrine may be foimdt 
as umal, smumatixed In Suarez, De Anim&, X. 1, c. 12, n. 13, and Ae com- 
menUtca in Sent L 8, d. 17 & 1& 



Luch/s Bitftory of RailonnUmn. 



03 



I 



I 



repnsent spiritual things in painting and sculpture otherwise 
lUB bj material im&gcB. Nothing is more common than so to 
rapreaent them even among Proteatanta of the present day ; 
oothiog was more common in the Old Testament, the 7er>' 
stetmgDold of tho ancient anthropomorphites. We feel no 
tadinaiion to deny that it is oxccedlnpfly difficult for the poor 
ttd the ignorant to rise to the conception of a spirit, and 
alno«t all mankind represent to tbemaelve:^ even the very Deiiy 
nder aome refined material image ; but when such repceseu- 
tatioikB occupied a prominent position in public worships there 
waa an opportunity, and that frequently made use of, of cor- 
netiDgan untruthful imaginntiou. 

We hare no hcsitiitiou in saying that there is fur more 
BB0OCtaciou.<) tinthropomorphiMiu nmung the Protestant than 
aflioop the Catholic poor. 'I'he doctrines of revelation lanke 
known a worid akin to, yet not tho same as, this ; they tell of 
u order of things itself unacon, but possessing counterparts 
and akadows here. It is, therefore, not wonderful that there 
rdata a coostit^ ' noy to forget that these are but imper- 

faet ^Tpti and , and to remodel the truths of faith into 

noformity with what we see around us. To correct this ten- 
dency tA one of the funotions of tho science of theology; and 
tlw coodosiona of theology, inhlti-ating among the people, 
keep them from sinking into earthly and anttiropomorphic views 
of religion, these conclusions being communicated by the 
or&Uiiy reaoorccs inlhehaudsof the Chnn.h^which, certainly, 
■ni &r more efficadous in the Catholic than iu the ProteNtant 
vpXtm* Indeed, of all the reproaches which havi» been directed 
a^nat the theology of the middle ages, that of being in its 
ipirit groan and mati-rinl is one of tho most unfounded and the ' 
Boat aujnst. With far greater truth might such n reproach 
W directed ngainst tho Pi*otc9ttint theology of the Inst thrci- 
otn ttt ric*. In the middle ages, theology' liud a code and a 
■JBliilaid of her own ; she wan tho (|ueen nf the scienot'K; she 
i^gialated and moulded the ideas of the time. Now, condemned 
to ermpy n subordinate position, ahe is content to take her 
idMM from tho*c cmrent in the world, and to \ise her terms, 
aoC in ' ' ' ' /H'ol si^niiflcation, but in mean- 

WMn r! f their present use in physical 

•r lilf. An example of thiti occurs in the 

f-. '», the loss of tho theological menninif 

0^ lotestants has confused, if not obliterated, 

Ihr 'J *' inity. In PiotcKtantism, the bebff of 

ihr pt by ft tradition pri.im^alcd tbi-ough no 

rhunnel ; ii tradition which, con»e- 
bie uud lea^ deGmW ; ^WtfA^'\« 



nougi 



luort* 



6i 



Lorly*/! Hielonj of UtttionalUm. 



continually becoming more and more cormpted, more low, 
and ©artlily, and anthropomorjihous. Look at the coniraoB~ 
Protestant idea of the happiness of tho bloased. The prea 
Catholic doctrine which places the essence of the beatitude 
man, not in a prolongation and refinoraent of tho pleasures oj 
this world, not even m the sight of Christ's humanity, but il 
that viftioTi of (rod aa God which iw omphatically called beatifitri 
has almost faded out of sight. Tliey look forward to an earthl^ 
millennium; which is little better than a glorification of com- 
merce, material pro.sperity, and natural virtue, to be succeeded 
by a heaven of whicli the jnys vcr>' much resemble those which 
some Catholic theologians with Snarcz* assign to infants whc 
die without Baptism. But against tlie reproach of lowness 
nnd materialism of conception being ever directed against th^ 
theologians of medieval times, the doctrine of the beatific 
\naion, which they so fully and so beautifully evolved, stands i 
perpetual protest. For in what was this coarseness and lowne 
of thought more likely to appear, than in their conception 
tbe greatf»st happiness of man ? Or who were more likely 
teach wliat in far rernoved from vulgar and worldly conception 
than men wlui placed tho sum of all hn]>plnoss in the vision an^ 
fruition of the Divine Essence, which, according to them, couL' 
be seen by no corporal eye,t ftnd in which was, they said, tha 
joy which eye hail not seen nor ear heard, neither bad 
entered into the heart of man to conceive ? The whole of th^l 
scholastic treatise fJf Ih'n Htm is bat another nuigniJicnnt pn* 
test against such an accusation. Tho heresy of Gilber 
VorretanusJ; would never l>e condemned l)y the Protestants 
the present day ; nor has ever the conception of the diving 
simplicity in perfection been so fully realized ns it was by those 
iimdi abused theologians. The mctliatorship of our ble«sed 
Lord is now commonly apprehended by Protestants in a manner 
whieli makes a real dinerenco of character between the 
h'ather and Son; but no one who knows anything of the 
scholastic doctrine of the Trinity and the Incarnation can 
imagine that these theologians would have tolerated for a 
moment a notion so frightfully heretical. With respect to 
IVyohoIogy, the schohistic age saw Uic death uf Tmducianism ; 
aud any one vvho has attended to the earlier scholnstin opinion! 
respecting the manner iu which spirits aufler iu the penal firs, 



• Dif Pi'ccaU) OritfiaoJI. 
t S. TlionMB, in !*■ & 4. IS, a. 3 ; aud the uUa^r ulilor autlii^n iu Se 
i ]„ d J, & 1. 4, .L 49. 
Z MombanJuM iu .S*^iil. I. 1, d. 2'i, 'M : unA tW wnuumvUdAr* lul Uk. 



Leckjf's TlUtunj uf linlionaliem. 



«5 



P 



I 
I 



» 



will have seen that the)' are of a more " spiritaal " teadcucy 
than those of most Protestant theologians,* 

Mr. Lerky's criticisms on the opinion that the penal fire ia 
htcral and material, and ou the Bupposed general materialism 
uf niliuioas coucoptiou in the miudle ages, have led us into 
■omeDV'nnt of a dij^ression. Wo have yet, however, one more 
rt ' ' t make. While ho concedes that after the time of 
.\ .' " a few writers" endeavoured to rise to a more 

«bii-kiual manner of conceiving the truths of faith, be asserts 
tut in tho preceding period, before his influence and that of 
tach secta as the ifeguins had begun to be felt, the state of 
things wAJi infinitely worse. From the sixth to the twelfth 
centaiy mnterialism id religion was absolutely dominant. That 
Ike period pn-ceding tho advent of tho schoiadtic epoch was 
ODO of great doprL's.-fton of theological science, cannot be 
doubted ; and the amount of what may in a general way be 
called anthropomorphism current at any period is to a groat 
extent conditioned by tho want of general cultivation. But it 
is very easy to overratn this depression. Tho episcopal and 
synodicml letters, for instance, which were exchanged con- 
cerning the huhject of Adoptionisni do not present to ns 
theological scit uce at, by any means, a low ebo. The same 
may be said respecting tho controversy in the ninth century 
oa the Kncharifit ; and the controversy on Predestination, if it 
do not reveal any large amount of historical learning, at least 
exbibitfl considerable activity of mind. Such of the writings 
of natbors of tlmt period as the present writer has looked 
tDto, show an iiiiiount of learning and acuteness which was 
OMtainly unexpected by him. That period was necessarily un- 
critical ; but we regard the taste for allegorizing, then as 
formerly prevalent, to be an indication of something very 
different from a degraded and material habit of thought. The 
great ' ' of the pro-scholastic ago was St. Augustine, one 
of tht j»iritual of the fathers; and tho writer who was 

choAOQ to suppU-ment htm was B. Gregory tho Great, who 
went farther than, and improved on, St. Augustine himsolf. 
Ai>d, as to the religious art of that period, Mr. Lecky has him- 
self alloded to a pecnliarity which, strangely enough, seems 



* SffBMtioD snd "Mncitjre imwitiation** nppcurd to the Kholustics to be 

•ftOBMtcciiil B rhbrnrirr, ttiiit tticy wouM iiot admit that ttu^ae and ochcT 

wilin iffi iliiiiin 'TAD ''ti>t in n -I'lMriU >i|iiril : nnJ, confteqiicBtly. thow 

thmkciuu wbu cspl.' >' f|>inU bj theaaalogr 

qf Ubr «oal Ntiil \nAy, >- p^iii tiiiHtbtdiirenrQt 
mkifrd fniui the '*|ia>>'<i" 

vol. tji.^no. J fir. . 1 T 



06 Leeh/s History of Rationalism. 

to have given him no disqaietade as to his general oondnsion. 
In that periodj he says : — 

We do not find the Binallefit tendency to represent God the Father.* 
Scenes, indeed, In which He acted were frequently depicted, but the First 
Person of the Trinity was invariably superseded by the Second. Christ, in 
the dress and with the features appropriated to Him in the representations 
of scenes from the New Testament, and often with the monogram underneath 
His figure, is represented creating man, condemning Adam and Eve to labour, 
... or giving the law to Moses. With the exception of a hand sometimes 
extended from the cloud, and occasionally encircled with a nimbus, we find 
in this period no traces in art of the Creator. At first we can easily imagine 
that a purely spiritual conception of the Deity, and also the hatred that was 
inspired by the type of Jupiter, would have discouraged artists firom attempt- 
ing such a subject, and Gnosticism, which exercised a very great influence 
over Christian art, and which emphatically denied the divini^ of the Qod 
of the Old Testament, tended in the same direction ; bnt it is very unlikely 
that these reasons can have had any weight between the sixth and the 
twelfth centuries. For the more those centuries are studied, the more evident 
it becomes that the universal and irresistible tendency was then to mate* 
rialize every spiritual conception, to form a palpable image of eveiything 
that was reverenced, to reduce all subjects within tiie domain of the senses 
(Vol i., pp. 224-6). 

The most celebrated of the theologians of the middle ages 
is nndoubtedly S. Thomas Aquinas. S. ThomaSj however, 
comes in for an extra share of misrepresentation. At p. 72, 
vol, ii., wo read of him, that he was one of the ablest writers 
of the fourteenth century — ^ho died in the thirteenth — and that 
" he assures us that diseases and tempests are the direct acts 
of the devil, that ho can transport men at his pleasure through 
the air," and that " omnes angeh, boni, et mali, ex natnrali 
virtute habent potestatem tronsmutandi corpora nostra." 
Now all this is precisely what S. Thomas denies. In the first 
place, any one would imagine from the manner in which our 
author writes, that the great mediaeval theologian imagined 
that, in the ordinary course of things, diseases and tempests 
are produced by Satanic agency, S. Thomas never taught any 
such thing, but over and over again refers both the one and 
the other to natural causes. t Mr. Lecky ought to have 

* We cannot ourselves, na Catholics, admit that there is necessarily the 
smallest impropriety or inexpediency in pictured or sculptured represen- 
tations of GkkI the Father (See Denzinger, n. 1182 and 1432) ; yet we may 
fairly argue that the absence of such, at the period in qnestion, disproves 
Jdr. Lecky'a assertion that the dominant tendency of that period was anthro- 
pomorphous. 

t V. ff., Comm. in Ps. xviL, and in Arist. Meteor. L SI, lect xvl ; c£ 
Samma, L 2, q, 80, a. 2. 



Le^t HUtortj of Rntionalitm, 



«7 



I 



«rrittei3 " may bo;'* but tho meaning of the words would havo 
very difTerent, and their point would hare been taken 
■y. Secondly, wbilo S. Thomas toachesj in accordance with 
Holy Writ, that the demons can exercise power over inBterial 
tfain]?s, he nliio teochos that they cannot directly change the 
qualitie*} of things, nor produce any preternatural change except 
local motion : nor that at their pleasure ; for it ia a jjrineiple 
with him that God doea not permit them to do all that which they 
hMxe pfT 9** the |x>wor of doiuff.* Thirdly, a3 to their natural 
power of transmuting our boaic<i. We have not been able to 
find the exact words quoted above, but many similar phrases 
oooor in the nhjcciwna in tho ninth article of the Q>t<^&tio (/'• 
Dmmonibiig, which, it is sufficient to say, S. Thomas solves 
by toying :— 

littt OD the oilipr luuiJ, S. Augustiuct snjs, '* Non ioluu imii nfl m ud neo 
oorpu* qmil«m nulla ratioac crotlitU'riui dnrinouiim arte rel potesUte in 
hratalii Ihuauumta potsc L'onTCTLi.'* ... I reply thiit, as the Apostle uya, 
"«n things made hj Cod in order,** whence, &a S. Auj^istine says, '^Uie 
«iaeDanM of the nnivcrw I& the excellence ot order. . . . niiit therefuro SaUa 
■Ivayv tne* aatunl agenta as hiii irutniments in Uie production of pbjrucal 
«Si^ ud can bo prudiurc efTeclfi whii-h exceed the efficacy of tbe aatnn] 
■y nU ;X hat bv oinnot cniiM< the form of the htimnn body to t>e changed 
ivAo (hat of ftD antma], becauM this would be coatmry to the order wtablUbed 
by God ; aud all 4uch convcnioDs tkte, therefore, as AtignatiDe ahowa in the 
jjkm quoted, aeoonltng to phaatAatieal oppeannoe rather than tmth. 

At p. 3^0 of vol. I., Mr. Lecky tells ns that the medieval 
writt 't that God would make the contemplation of the 

caflei _ I he lost an ossentiul element in the happiness of 

the bleased. Ho does not know of what he writes. It was 
taught tliat tho easentijil element of their happiness — the 
Essentia BeatiiudlnU — is the vision of God; all else accessory 
and subordiruitu. In a note, to justify his assertion, he adds 
these words : — " St. Thomas Aquinas says, ' Beati in re^o 
c«el0Sti videbuut poenas damnatorum uc beatitude illis magis 
oompUceat.' *' The quotation is not accurate. After quoting 
iMiaa, ttlt. 24, he sa^s, '* Bespondoo dicendum ad urimam qaes- 
(;..n.,ii- qaoda beatus nihil subtrahi debet quod ad pcrjectionvm 
' . U eorum pertiucat ; unuuufuodqne aulem ac eomparo' 

r irarii inagU econottcUuf^ quia contrariu juxta Be potita 

m^i-^'u, ■ looeftcnnt; et ideu, at beatitudo sanctorum eia magia 

* QocatiocM de Malo, q. 1(^ art. 9, &c ; QuMtioiiM dn PoCaatiA Det, 
«!. B, art. &. 

* r», riv ii.-i, L 18. c. I& 

*x(^ Umr ortfiiMUT cffeota, becauM ha «Uk >aM \kk«ui 1 

1 1 1 



I 



'f.i 



V ^ 



66 



Ltfch/a Uiatonj of Italionnlxem, 



coinplaceat, elde ea uheriores gi'atiae Deo aaanl, dutnr eis at 
L pcenam iinpiorum perTecte intueantar."* The passage of St. 
f Thomaa, as given by Mi-. Leoky, i3 jusc one of those which 

may very well bonr either of two ueauings. It might mcaaj 
. something very repulsive and very cruel. But the uumutilated i 
Ipassage can bear but one interpretation. 8t. Thomas does 
not say that they rejoice in the sufferings themselves; but 
that they are permitted to see them, in order that they may foel 
yet more intensuly how pretMuus is their own beatitude, and j 
thank God the more heartily for their own escape. At p. ZVb 
of vol. I., Mr. Lecky quotes from Wall's treatise on Infant Bap- 1 
tismf a statement to the effect that St. Thomas asserted toe 
possibility of the salvation of the infant that died, without 
Baptismj within the womb. "God/' St. Thomas is asserted 
to nave said, " may have other ways of saving it for what wo 
know." No reference is given; and Protestant authors are, 
as is well known, generally uni'chable in their statements 
irespecfcin^ the Scholastics. St. Thomas teaches a contrary! 
doctrine m the tliird part of the Sumina Thevioijim, q. C8, ] 
Art. I. and II.; and Cardinal Cajetan, an eccentric theologian,! 
but exceedingly well versed in tlie writings of th^ Angelic 
Doctor, who held the opinion in question, was never able to 
produce, out of the multitudinous writings of the latter, any*J 
thing in his favour. \ 

In a note to his ebuptor on the Industrial Histoi^ of Ra- i 
tionalism, Mr, Lecky cliarges St. Thomas with what is nothing 
less thau moral obUquity. The Duchess of Brabant, ho says. 
Had a scruple of conscience about tolerating the Jews. She 
therefore consulted St. Thomas ; "who replied, among other 
things, that the Jews were doomed to perpetual servitude, 
and that all their property being derived from usury mighc 
lawfully be taken from them." Mr. Lecky is inaccurate both 
us to tho confiscation of their property and as to the perpetual 
servitude. St, Thomas does not say that all their property 
was derived from usun', and it would, indeed, have been rather 
a rash judgment in him to say so. But the Duchesa of 
Brabant had apparently desii-ed to impose new burdens on the] 
Jews, and in writing to St. Thomas had stated that all their ' 
property seemed to be derived from usury ; to which he replied, 
that if tfiis wvrv «'», they might lawfully be compelled to make 
restitution. Nor does this by any means imply that all their 
property was to be taken away from them, as appears from 



* SuTOilemetituiii nd tertiam partem SuDunie, q. U4, a^ 1- 
f Vol XL p. 211. 




Lecktf'g History of lialionalimt. 



69 



St, Thoinaii*s loitor among his opusciUa,* and from his general 
'ioctrine respecting rcatitution.f With respect to the porpe- 
Innl <*.rvituae, what St. Thomas does say is this: *' Atthoinjh 
*' > to the lt%w9 tho Jews be, or were, through their own 

fuuit iK.yined to perpetnol servitude, and thus princes could 
■ppropriate their possessions as their own, yet this is to bo 
understood leuiently, so that tho necessaries of life be by no 
DlMlis taken from thein. Bui mncv ivr. onyfit, as the Apostle 
dadart^t to lenlk honcufty in the si'jhl of th'jstf who are icithoui, 
ef Jmct, aral Gfintile», ond the Church of Godj ag the liws ifv- 
vian, roTtipvlsitry jp/tm*^ is vot io be required o/" thfim, which 
'' •' n'vi in time jyijtt," lie goes on to 

i ^ were taken from the Jews, it would 
l>. iiii -,^ lul for her to retain them, but they would have to be 
r» * : 1 to those (torn whom they had been uujustly taken; 
ti.'xi I II under these conditions ho declines to sanction any 
procttiUug i^ainst them, but only "si nihil aliud obsiatat.'' 
Mr. Lccky aUo quotes, he says, the "Uistriones" of St. 
Thomas, What the Histriones of St. Thomas are, wo h&ye 
not, we confessj the most remote idea. 

Mr. Ijccky professes to give the analyses of various theolo- 
gical bulicfs and tones of tLought which have prevailed in 
other times. Of these, however, he has had but little or no 
practical experionce. He consequently puts before ns only 
crrtain restricted points of view, which have strongly im- 
sed themselvoA on his mind in the courso of his studies 

d meditations. Wo are hurried along by his words as by a 

Hood ; but while the effects which some particular doctrme 

ihly mitjht prodnce if it were held alone are vividly set 

!i>ro us, he toiuUy loses sight of those other doctrines, 
which were orgauically connected with it, and modified and 
recnilflted its a<.-tion. To evade one difficulty ho falls into 
I bo concentrates his gaze on n point that he may 

. ;. clearly ; but, confining it there, loses sight of those 
hnnnooies and contrasts, which make up the boauty of tho 
whole. In ono direction this defect has had very great 
inflaenoc. "Veritas" is, it is said, "in medio;" the present 
1^ has gODO wrong all on one Hide ; and Mr. Lecky, who is 
•a ulrnnced disciple of the ]>resent age, consequently con- 
tidcm Chat preceding ages have gone wrong all on the other. 
V- - that there is a very great difficulty in adequately 
J I'hasea of thought so very different from those which 



• OpoK. xxil, in vakt Ojnu,cuH dc R^^minc Pnaciyonu 
_ t ^tOUOM^ g, 2, q. 61-02, Ac. 



70 



Lechj's Hiatory of Rationalwn. 



now pravail. And, becuusie of this, he expends his strength. 
on the points of difference, neglecting Tor their sake things 
nearer to his apprehension ; and the very natural conseqaonoe 
is that he gives us a diutorUjd and exaggerated picture in 
which the common elements are not sufficiently brought out. 

An instanco of this occurs iu lits treatment oi* the ttubject of 
eternal punishment. The general disorganization and want of 
order n-hich pervades his work is quite, insuflicient to account 
for the pertinacity with which he again and again recurs to 
the subject. Like the whole anti-Christian party, and very 
naturally, he detests the doctrine with his whole spirit ; and 
he allows this detestation to colour his whole views of the 
middle ages. He attributes to its influence whatever he finds, or 
imagines himself to have found, of a hard, cruel, and repulsive 
character in their theory and practice. He begins by misin- 
terpi-etiug the character of the doctrine itself. He sepai*ate3 
it from the conditioning doctrines which w^re taught along 
with it, and which regulated and directed its influence. He 
dwells almost entirely on the terrible side of the then existing 
Christianity, and almost altogether neglects the operatdon of | 
the concurring principle of lovG, the opposite pole of the 
Christian motives. And then ho concludes that to its iotiuenco 
was due the severity of punisljnients in the middle ages. A 
universal terrorism was produced. Tho sense of the divine 
mercy was destroyed. The sufiferiiigs of the lost were at 6r8t 
regarded with horror ; but as men became more used to the 
thing, the hori'or was changed to indifl'ercnce, and the indifier' 
Lance to a barbarous delight in the contemplation and even tho 
riiifliction of pain. It mil not require many arguments to show 
that such H method of treatment is monstruus. Mr. Lecky 
ought to have noticed that tho causes which in tho middle ages 
led to pecuhar streas being laid on the doctrine of eternal 
punishment, wero causes external to, aud mostly in direct 
opposition, to tho Church ; and that their tcudoncy was mot 
by a corresponding roalination of an opposite polo of Chriutian ■ 
feeling. 

We caimot better introduce whftt wo have to say on the 
ity of punishments, and the alleged callousness of dis- 
position in modiicval times, aud, indeed, on Mr. Lecky 'a whole 
ritioisiD of tho subject of etoiiial punishmeutj than by a 
»from a most ubio writer ;— 



One of Uw •ffociv uf civilization (qoI to mi^ onp of lhl^ inijrcdiciitA in itj< 
iiSf that till- gpect^ide, aiitl eren the rciy idea, uf intin, is kcfit in<itc uid mar 
otit of tho Htgbt of those clasttea who enjoy in Ihflr fnll iho bcneiittf of rtrflj*^ 
£aaaa. 33ie ntuU of pcrpettiol personal rou&icVt n:nd<:t«^ Twnwtn Vi^r *-hi 



Xwi-i/'» HisUmj of ItationalUm. 



n 



caMOHCMiOH of fimwr timcn, uid from which it wus hArdly possible for any 
poMio, io whAlever tuik of society, to he cxcoipl, nccettarily habituated 
•roij one ta'th« spectacle of kanhnces, radeacss, and violence, to the struggle 
of one iiidumilabiti will o^iwt another, nnd to tho alternate suffering and 
laAictian of pain. These thingH, couaoqucntly, were not aa rcrolting even to 
t&e Vsit and most actively b«QcvoIciU men of former days, an Lhey arc to our 
own ; and wc fin<l the recorded conduct of those men frequently auch as 
would b* unircTiatly con^i'lereJ vtry tiiift'oliag in ii penson of our own day. 
Tlkiiy, howTTTT, thought less of tho infliction of ixdn, became they thought 
If^ of pain altogether. When wo read of actions of the Greclc* nnd Ronuns, 
or of onr own anceatovs, danotin^t callnnsncM to Iniinan sufTerlo;:, we utut 
Mt think th;*t thoM who couiraittod those acttont were u cniet ha we mtnt 
braoBifr bcfoTT wc could do the like Th« pain which they inflicted, they 
wrrv In the habit of rolnritnnty undergoing &oni slight cauj»«)i ; it did not 
app«tr (o ihem aa gnat an evil as it appears, and as it really is, to us, nor 
ifid it in any way dt^rrade their niiada.* 

The scale, m fuct^ according to which dc^roos of pain were 
coapatcd, was much less mitiuto then tlian now. This aroae 
fitMn Iho imporfoct sabdivision of Inboar in society, and the 
couBoqaently moro frequently rocarring necessity of personally 
pntting forth powers of ondiiranco and of action ; from the 
conlinuid wars and commotions; from the imperfection of the 
mochaniuil appliancea which now alleviate suffering; fi'om a 
it«nior and rougher manner of living, necessitated by tho 
undevolopod state of tho social arts; irom the intimate inter- 
uiiwUag of tho civil and tho military Ufe, aiising out of the 
feudal system ; and from a multitude of other causes. To 
theme, however, we must add another of far more potent 
inflaouoe. Tho inchoate medieval nations were only emerging 
Irom a state of barbarism ; and tho associations of that barba- 
riam still tenaciously clung to them, in the gloomy super- 
•titiuaa common among northern nations, in cruel ordeals, in 
mteroccioo warfarcj in the whole texture of their social and 
Datiooal traditions. The cause»i referred to by Mr. Mill were in 
opemtioQ almost as much in the civili/.utiuii of Groeoe and Rome 

I in the middit! ages; but this circumstuncu, which is one on 
phich we need not diUti'i, incrciucn], and must have increased, 

» an ecormous extent the activity of tiio tendencies on which 
lis ruiuailcs. If, indeed, Ukto were two nations exuctly fdiku 
II I .1 '■ that the one believed eternal punish- 



by pain, so as sevcrtd 



and even 
iir.riiii:' iisly to punish utfence», while tho other diJ neither of 
Lhijao things,— wo should in that case plausibly assert a 
direct chuhI connexion betwi*L>n holding the et«mity of ftitDre 



I 



n 



Lechf'v B-Uioi-y of Hallonatisui. 



pmu&hment and a hardness and callousness of temper. But 
we cannot argue in this free and o&sy manner, where thei 
instaiiccB from which we have to make onr induction arc sol 
multifai'iunsly differvnt a^ are the social condition of the preJ 
sent day and the social condition of medioeval times. Wal 
must not thus arbitrarily single one from out of a multitadel 
of causes. Keaaoning from the known principles of humau 
nature, we can say with alt confidenco that the causes jnsn 
enumerated must have operated, and operated very poweiJ 
fully, to pi'oduco the many and severe punishments, the cartel 
lessuess for and of Buffering, the trials by ordeal and by 
tortni'c, which existed at the period of which we write. And. 
thus we also see that those representations of the torments ofl 
the lost, on which Mr. Lecky expends such a vast amount ofl 
rhetoric, must have produced these effects immeasurably losn 
than they would now produce ; far moi*u powerful means had! 
to be resorted to then to produce an amount ot feeling fon 
which gentler methods now suffice. m 

Nor has Jlr. Lecky fairly represented the docti-ine of eternal" 
punishment in itself. To contemplate the infliction of pain 
natm'ally produces, he says, a callousness and hardness o& 
feeling. This statement embodies only a half truth, and ihm 
reasoning founded on it is in the highest degree fallacious^ 
When tho Catholics of ancient times ouutemplated the auguish^ 
of the lost, tho habits which they endeavoured to form were 

I habits of horror for the sin which entailed that anguish. 

f There is a great difference between thus actively contem- 
plating suffering, and beholding it merely in a passive manner, 
and with a view to some other end. The surgical operator, 
the public executioner, the soldier, who look at it in this 
latter light, may and do in time become hardened and in- 
different. But it is far othenvise in the former case; and 

L there is a great difference between reBectiug on the pains oCi 

f others, and reflecting on pains which may one day bo onr own.f 
It is reasonable and natural to suppose, and it is found to be 
in reality the case, that one who contemplates the sufferings of 
others merely and purely as of others, and habitually uvoidd 
referring them in any way to himself, will in the end bccomn 
hard and cnicl. But the very essence of sympathy consistaJ 
in an unconscious association of ourselves with others in thein 
Buflerings. TheCalvinist, therefore, the believer in "assurnnce/fl 
who fancies himself to be one of tho elect, and from his socu4 
rity safely thinks of alt the torments of the reprobate as things 
in which it would be sinful for him even lor a moment t(fl 
iviH^ae that ho can have part, may but grow callous at tha 
thought ofHeil — may even delight to iVmV ul \t, ^v\i icotgV \ J 



LtK-ky'n Rintorij 0/ liaiiotmlittm. 



73 



the repreeeutation of the anguish there. But Rnch a spirit in 
altoeeOier opposed to the whole bent of Catholic meditation 
on that subject. Tho Catholic, when he meditfttes on these 
tormvDtA, tliinka of them as of others, only that the thonght 
maj more vividly come home to himself; he thinks of them as 
of what he may one day have to endure. And again, the thought 
cf our owTi 1 suflering can make ua hard and firm only 

when wo c< r, as a thing not to bo avoided, but to be 

brsrcd. U is almost a truism to suy, that those men are of 
ftO tho tnost soft and timid, who are conrinaally representing 
to themselves means of escape from vividJy -imagined dangers. 
And no Catholic would meaitato on theso torments that be 
might ncTTO himself to brave them, but that he might seek 
means U> avoid them. Catholics, of course, accept, on the 
ground of God's Word, that awful doctrine of our Faith which 
w« are now contemplating. So far as they argue for it from 
reason at all, thoy say that this doctrine is the necessary sanc- 
tion of tlie moral law ; aud the force of that argument will be 
fdt by none more strongly than by Catholics themselves, who, 
from holding tho existence both of a ftituro temporal and of a 
fatnro eternal punishment for mn, are better able tojndge 
what pflfocta wonld he likely to bo produced, if hell were, in the 
common teaching, resolved into a kind of purgatory. But it 
ranat nuvcr bu forgotten that in the Catholic religion the doc- 
Irine of otomal punishment is taught under certain nccom- 
paoqring' conditions, which intimately affect its practical 
fwaring. The firHt of these conditions is the doctrine of pur- 
galorj, oT which M. Comte thus speaks : — 

D unit facilp dc rficoniuitre ([no rin»tiitition, n auioremcnt critifjui-c, ilu 
pniyumn tiit, an conLmLro, trua-heureusemcnt introdnite, dons la itr^lUiuf 
•nciU* du C«tl)olicUm^f h titro d'indiKpcucJible corrcctif foDdaiuontal <lc 
l'd«niit^ tit* {•ciuM Aitum ; oir, atitrcuiciit, ci-tli< ^trntit^, miu Ltqudle lc.> 
pn»cnpllotu rflii^niKs ne poavaicnl Hrv effirncers, cUi ^videmrnvnt d^tor- 
miae »urciit ou un rvlAchciurnt f\tnMt«,mi iin elTroyAhIc di!$«spnir,ej;nl(^me&t 
iliilgnvitt Tnii *t TAntn* jxHir nodiridii vl \yottr \n accUtif ft cntn lesqueh 
k gteis CbUtoliqtie wt parvenu k oixanuMT cetu* inKcnietiAC issue, qui [ht- 
MMiUl dc padaar fanuMLttviiiPTit, svec imp 3rnipulciuv piiki'<i«n, I'lippU- 
ation eShdh* da pruc^^ relijfieux sux conTcnanoes de chiMXuo cms rM * 

In reading this quotation, it must 1>e rnnembered thut 
M. Coata was not a Catholic, and regarded the Catholic 
Charoh as merely a hnniiiD institution. Bnt, tho truths to 
whtch that onhappy thinker here draws atteutiou, arc so 
evident, that thoy hardly reqaira proof. If tho sole future 



74 



Lechif's Misiory of Itatinnalism, 



pDniBbmenb of sio be believed to be an eternal pumsbment, 
such as is that of hellj it is not difficult to perceive what oficcts 
will follow. The timid, and those who are naturally religiously 
minded, will foim a gloomy and anstero notion of rebgion, wfaicn 
will produce some of tho effects noted by Mr. Lecky, and in the 
end, by provoking a necesaai'y reaction, work tho destruction 
of all religion whatever. Those, on tho contrary, who are 
irreligiously inulined, will be still further moved to give up all 
idea of reUgion as impracticable, and mil bo disgusted by its 
tone and spirit; while the doctrine of eternal puniiihment will 
I06Q ite force by being applied to Light and trivial oB*euces. 

But we must also notice another condition of the realization 
of this doctrine, which is provided in the Catholic system ; and 
which, like that of Purgatory, has been rather neglected by 
Protestantism. It has been noticed by some writers that 
the sacramental system of the Church provides an admirable 
safeguard, and one in on especial manner necessary in tho 
Middle Ages, against outbreaks of fanaticism. According 
to the teaching of the Catholic Church, the Sacraments ar« 
tho great moans, channcla, and conditions of grace. And 
this produces u system and ou order, a dofluite method 
of procedure in the spiritual life, which, assisted by the 
asceticul and mystical theology so minutely cnltivated, aban> 
dantly directs enthusiasm and represses fanaticism. And 
we do not doubt that if Protestantism, with its doctrine of 
private judgment and private direction, had been the fonu 
of Christianity existing in the Middle Ages, Christianity 
would have sunk into a condition of which Paganism and the 
Gnostic heresies alone afford a parallel. But this sacramental 
systom has also another, though a co-ordinate effect. Grace is 
insensible and nnfolt j to confound it with tho natural religions 
feelings and emotions is to make religion no longer a discipline 
and a duty, but a sentiment. And because it is nnfelt, it is 
necossary that it should ordinarily be given through somo 
extemid and sensible rite, in order to ward off ui 1 

pernicious doubt and onxiety. Now, according to ' >. 

teaching, while, on the one hand, it is impossible for any one 
to kuow with absolute certainty what is his spiritual state 
before God ; on tho other band, tho doctrine of confession and 
absolution supphes all with a incaus of knowing, with a 
greater or less amount of probability, what their real con- 
dition is. On the morally beneficial tendency of tlic tirst port 
of this teaching it is imnccessory to dilate, and any scrupulosit; 
or vain ten*or which, if it stood alone, it might excite, 
amply provided agninst by the second. And thns, throu; 
tho correlative dvcinQua of purgatory, ol \ixe «m'6CA\yLtu.t. 



* 




L^hfs History of RaiionalUtn. 



75 



I 



unction between mortal and venial sinsj of oonfeftsion an 
abeolntion, and by meana of itfl moral theology, Catholicism 
providea that the doctrine of eternal puoiuhment bhall preaa 
wtUi Ipruater or leas force, exactly as its influence is more or 
1«M rvqutred. It does not leave the believer to tho diseased 
tinaginationa of his own mind, but provides an external code to 
which be mnat fiubmit, And an external direction by which he 
will be guided. It provides a means by which he may know 
w)i«tfMr he is or is not in a state of sin, and a definite remedy 
wharaW he may extricate himself from it ; while it holds out a 
hope of ealvatioD to all, and teaches that no man ever existed 
wboae caae waa so desperate that be could not, if he co-opcmted 
with gnusei aa he haa the power of co-operating, look for 
pardon. With thf ' I Hocta the case is widely different. 

ilie wry name of ( . n calls up associations on which it 

would be painful to dwell. The conjnnctioQ of the doctrines 
of etenifd ponisbmcnt and ncceasitariamsm must always, even 
where theao doctrines are but to a very inadequate extent 
nabsed, produce a type of rchgpous thought and feeling ns 
ropukiro aa it is degrnoin^. Of this it would be supertluous 
lo apeak. But Protestantism repudiated the practice of oou- 
fiMMOn and ihu doctrinu of absolution. Then, indeed, wherever 
the eternity of punishment was realised, it produced a diseased 
and unhealthy titato of mind. Anxiety, doubt, terror, were 
neoewarily the prodomiuiiting feelings in the minds of men ; 
an aaxie^ which could be calmed no longer now that there 
waa BO confeesionul, and a doubt which admitted of no direc- 
taoa oow thai rach man had to be almost entirely his own 
0OtinM-ll'>i-, while ail were faltoriug and divided us to the 
"<1 : of the ways of life." The *' doctrine of final 

" was, indeed, put forward to remedy the evil. But 
ino only wrved to aggravate it. For to one class 
it only supiilicd a new caubeof terror ; and to auotbcr 
it flave a \vry fmitful occasion of cultivating a disposition 
p^Mps tbe rnott detestably proud, calloos, and selfish, which 
mm ever appeared among mankind. 

Wo mast not, however, bo supposed to deny that, through 
character of which may partially bo gathered from 
^^^^^^ " _ remarka, tho doctnuo of eternal ptmishment waa 
va^prosnnent in tho middle a^ps. And how, it will be aske<1, 
£d tA« Church of Ihoao agca moot this extraordinary' promi- 
DOSOeT To have mot it bv merely insisting on thu blcftsudnoss of 
b w wfeD,wpuld obvioualy have been most inadequate. Our natnral 
ooaatilTitton, and the rircuustancos of our life here, aro such 
tint Dttf idcaa of happiaese, and eflpeciully of pormiuiQn\. Vvb.'^- 
anwai^ Mre, aa U has oileo been urged, far leas do^iut^ «Xk^ W 



fmcdsi 



76 



Lechfn Siftonj of ^oUi/nalistn. 



less acnto thnn onr ideas of pain ; and for this reason it ha.^ 
been wisely brougtfc aboat chat what has been made known to 
OS of the bleaaedness of hcaveu is far less definite and com- 
plete^ than is what we know of the jiunishmont of the wicked. 
Bat for this very reason, the prominence of the doctrine of 
their eternal punishment could not be cfficocioosly met by in- 
sisting on this blessedness, Bnt there is another set of ideas 
and feelings directly opposed to the despair and unmitigated 
fear wliich would be produced by the sole contemplation of 
the torments of the lost ; and it is a sot of ideas and feeliugs 
which nowhcro find so natural a home a£i in Catholicism. 

From the manner in which the doctrine of the Incarnation 
is dwelt on in the Catholic system, and from the consequently 
almost human character which is given to the love of God 
and to the contemplation of the Divine Perfections as set forth 
in Christ, there results an ardour, an intensity, an active con- 
tinuity of that love, which is simply incomprehensible to those 
who lire external to the machinery of the CathoUc Chui-ch, If 
it be asked, thou, how did the church of those times meet the 
extraoi*dinary development of the doctrine wo have been consi. 
dering, the answer is patent to the most superficial render of the 
mediieval saints and tlieologians. They met it by an, at lua^t, 
equal development of the doctrine of Divine love. S. Bernard, 
Hugo of S. Victor, S. Anselm, all especially breathe in their 
works this swoet and devout spirit. The writings of S. Ber- 
nard, and those |)assages of such exquisitely tender devotion 
which occur in the writings of S, Augustine, became, in particu- 
lar, the texts on which succeeding writers cx])!Uidt.'d and 
dilated. A spirit of meekness and tenderness of i-l«?votion, an 
intense and fervid love of God, aro the themes on which they 
pecoharly delight to dwell, and the virtues ou which they 
peculiarly love to insist. It w»s this ago that ])rodueed the 
'* Imit^ition " ; toward the close of it appeared the " Parudlhus 
Aniiua3:"and whocvorwas (be actual author of the former work, 
it possesses remarkable atiinity with the spirit and even the 
style of Gei-aon. Nor was thit* temper of mind confined to purely 
mystical writers. The writings of S. Francis of Assisi, of iS. 
Bridget, S. Catherino of Sienna, and others, attest, iadt-ed, 
that the type of sanctity was, in some sense, changing under 
its influence; but it passed on to the great theological teachera 
of the age. ^). Thomas of Aquino, the best and greatest 
of them all, lived and struggled in the very midst of the 
conflict with infidelity which was thou agitating tho Chiu'ch, 
and yet even he found time to write a number of short 
^jjritun) tiYatises which display the most tender and tho 
moat delicate devotion, Thia ia oapetrnW^ ^(;eT\ 'vtv Vw VjooV 



Jif^ky't Uistortj uf HaiiunalUm . 



I 



" De Bc»titudine." Richard of S. Victor wrote a work " De 
OradibiM Violentio Charitatts/' "On the degrees of violent 
chwritjr." S. Buuttvenlurc received the name of "The Se- 
raphic Doctor" from the ai'donr of his piety; the titles of a 
few of his works — " Do Septern Itiueribus ^teniitatis," 
"StimuIuB Amoria," " Amatoriuin," "Itinerariam Montis ad 
Dsani *' — will bo sufficient to show its character. The tender 
ftad lorin^ spirit, which those grcut doctors maxiifested in their 
dcTOtioQ, broke ont also in tboir correspondence with their 
IHcDdft, m8 may be perceived even from the extracts from 
the lettera and .sermons of certain of them which the Count do 
Mootalembert has inserted in his ** Monks of the West.'' 
Other momenta of a more genenil nature show the operation 
of the same tendency. For the first time detailed lives of our 
blened Lord c&uiq into general circulation. Devotion to the 
Puskm assamed a far more prominent position than before j 
oC the spirit which animated it we have a most touching ex- 
ample in the little book attributed to S. Juliana of Norwich. 
The Ciuiticle of Canticles suddenly took a pla(*c in the affections 
of the pioofl, which even in the primitive Church it had never 
ksown. S. Bernard oomposed on it his celebrated " Sermones 
fttper <.'antic4^," S. Bonaventure and Kichord of S. Victor 
boCb wrote commentaries on it ; S. Thomas has left us 
two, ftnd it was while dictating the second of these that he 
pa«Md out of this world, celebrnting the blessedness of divine 
kive« Nor can .ve altogether omit to notice three devotions, 
two of which certainly exercised a very considerable in* 
fiottOM. In an ago in wliich the spirit of love and duvo- 
tioo to oor nietised Irord had assumed such laree propor- 
tioiQt, in which the doctrine of tho Incarnation was for the first 
tioM conipU^tvly treated in a scientific manner, and in which 
the ntbjcct of original sin was more profoundly investigated, 
and the questions concerning the Immaculate Conception con- 
a«qnontlr br^i-jn to bo cleared up and to assume a dclinite 
Ibrtn ai ql«j it was nutural tliat n great devotion should 

aanJf. ..; to our Blessed Lady. And of tho tendency 

u< - i^-td of this devotion Mr. Lccky has himself spoken. 

Xh' tor of the devotion to S. Joseph, also, is suffi- 

cki '.'■ known, and it was first, we believe, treated at 

J»ii, Magnus. Devotion to the Blessed Sacra- 

nn -finite extent stimulated by the iustitution 

of 1 ; na Christ! ; and it, of n truth, is a devotion 

wh.,.j- ..; .... ^L... . . breathes a spirit of tendeniess and of love. 
I We oan now only make a few concluding remarks. Wo have 
lotriady f[ivon a goticm) estimate of the ^ >i a Vt^w i^\'u>A 

^fwijeh trv Aai'v htiro touched ; for we •. ^ >.'i\ \t WV.\«T Xo 



78 



Lerh/s Htfihry of RaHowi!i^m. 



speak of t^'o or three connected subjecte more fally, than to 
distract ouraelves and onr readers by fiying comments on tht? 
manT and very diverse subjects there treated. We have only ex- 
plicitly to add what we have boforo implied^ that we cousider it a 
very dangerous book. It is all the more dangerous, because Mr. 
Lecky is not a forioua fanatic ; bocauso uf his spurious candour ; 
beoanse of liis partial admissions; because of his engaging 
style. And in an aso like the present, when the dogmatic 
principle is so bitterfv attacked by those withont, and sits ao 
lightly on the necks oven of behovers, it ia exceedingly 
dangerous. For, as was to bo oxpectodj it sets the dogmatic 
principle utterly at doOance, and frora beginning to end ia a 
continued protest against it. Mr. Lcoky's idea of education, 
and histheory of the manner of formation of reUgiona opinions, 
are alike thoroughly opposed to it. In education he would 
have the bare principles of morality only, as far as possible, 
inculcated; dogma, as far as possible, excluded; and if any 
amount of dogmatic teaching is unavoidably admitted, it ia to 
be taught only so as to rest as lightly as possible on the mind, 
and with the proviso that tho opinions then taught will have to 
be reconsidered in after-life. With respect to the foniiation of 
religions opinions, his book teiiches a kind of Uogclianism. 
Society is continnally changing, and the beat thing we can do 
is to follow the most advanced minds in society. There is an 
everla^ng process, in which we can never be sure that wo 
have definitely attained to the truth. Tlie end of this, of 
course, is to make all opinions uncertain. We may know what 
we like best, or what tho tendencies of society incline it and 
us to believe; but wo can never, as to religious opinions, know 
what is objectively true. 

It is not very difficult to discover what ia the nature of this 
process which is called Rationalism. In former times the 
religions spirit predominated over tho secnlnr ; but from a 
variety of causes, and in particular on account of the immense 
development of secular science since tho time of Bacon and Des- 
cartes, the secular scientific spirit has since predominated over 
the religions. And Rationalism is merely one of the results of this 
predominance; a consequence of the application to religious sub- 
jects of secular habits of thought. This may manifest itseil', 
now in one way, now in another ; in the denial now of Tmnsub- 
stantiation, now of the doctrine of the Trinity j but its root 
and origin is the same : it tends (and thia quite takes ihe 
romance out of it) to the oUmination of the religious ideas, 
and it is strengthened by whatever strengthens what we have 
called the secular •scientific, or weakens the religious^ 5^1 
Hence that dialike of authority and Uiat. o\ev.c\tia*iix\% • 




PfUht*r UyiictnUu^ Bcsfon, O.S.D. 



• of religic 



79 



rath ; hence that distaste for the 
steriotis, and that tendency to put into 
the bnckgTOUud, and even to deny, the doctrine of ^race; 
tad if the intpmai wants of tJiose who have just "escaped 
from thu wildcmo.sH of Christiunity^ and still have Bome of 
the tb-ctrns and braintilcs aticking to their clothes/' make it 
nttoeM*ry that something should bo substituted for that which 
is hein^ taken away — a baseless and often unreal seiiti- 
■iBBtetisin is snbHtitntod for honest religious duty and earnest 
daTOfeicni. It ia only tuo much to be feared that the world 
will edaoite itself out of this also ; and that, in the case of 
ihosc vrho refnae snbmiasion to the Catholic Church, the 
nctilar spirit will more and more |^row towards its full 
MOffulency^ and thorcforo towards a total extinction of the 
I iln nilj weakened rcligioos ideas. 

I An. 

H ITii Rtli^ieux DoMtnicain. ht Ji. P. JTtfonnthe Btssou. 
■ L(tlrt4. Pur E. CAarieit. Paris : 1605. 



An. IV.— FATHER HYACINTHE BESSON, O.S.D. 



Sa Vie et »e» 



My original purpose," says the anthor of this most 
intereatiu^ and edifvnng Memoir, "in writing the life 
of P^ Besson was dimply to perpetuate hid memory among 
his Tvligioas brethren, and to preson'e some personal remi- 
msceore^t connected with the establi.-<hineut of the urder of 
Priara Prmchprs in Franco; but, an I studied that sweet and 
baaatiful countenance, 1 felt a glowing desire to make it more 
gaaenllv known. It seemed to me that to make men ac* 
qamotod with P. Besson was to promote the glory of God. 
Whta he was on oarlh, tho sight ot him touched men's hearts^ 
and made them bettitr. Wliy not, then, make him known to 
those irho never met with him in life ? Why not recall, as far 
sa punible* the charm of his presence and the unction of bis 
woras? lid will still teach the lesson which be had so well 
lesraod of hi»t Divnne Master — to be meek and humble of 
heart. Neithi-r wari his a life devoid of external interest. It 
WM associattxi with alt things holy in his time ; it flowed like 
a porOt transparent stream amid widely-varjiu^ scenery in 
Fnace, Italr, and the Kast. As an artist, a reV\^ou%, ^t;^ ^ 
mi a sion srTV 1m wum alike ciijtjugui&bed by the bt&ftuV^* o^ \^ 



30 



F'lihvr Htfannfhe Beaton, 0,S,P. 



intelligence, the activity of his zeal, and the derotednesa of h'a 
charity. Hia virfcaee won for him a place in the great heart of 
Pius IX., and the infidola themselves venerate the spot where 
his ashes repose in the land of the Patriarchs and Prophets. 
To write such a life is to farther the cause of truth, for the 
most pcrsna.sivc ovideuce of truth is holiness." 

The portrait of Hyacinthe BesBon 18 traced with a loi'ing yet a 
discriminating touch, by the hand of one who know and loved him 
as a brother. Tlie Dominican of the nineteenth century stands 
before us, like a figure in one of Fra Angelico's frescos, which 
he seemed destined to revive no less in his own person than 
by his art, — with the lily and the torch of S. Dominic going 
forth in tbo might of his gentleness, conquering and to 
conquer, by the threefold power of charity, purity, and trnth. 
The MonachfUa, as our Holy Father loved to call him, in 
allusion to the feminine gentleness and purity of his character, 
was endowed by divine grace with such u masculine vigour 
and straightforward singleness of purpose, as commended him 
to the choice of his superiors, and to the illuminated eye ^^J 
the Sovereign Pontiff himself, as the Attest instrument |^^| 
cope with contending wills and opinions in his own Ordei^^ 
and to gi-applo with the still more pcri)lexing difficulties 
attending the relations of the Holy See with the Christians of 
the East. 

The father of Charles- Jean-Buptiste (in rellgiou, Hyacinthe) 
Bosson, an old soldier of the army of Conde, died of th© 
consequences of a wound received in the service, a short time 
before his birth, in 1816. The first years of his childhood 
were spent under the roof of his maternal uncle, who soema 
to have belonged to what in England would bo called tho 
class of substantial yeomanrj'. Ho lovod in after-life to recall 
to mind the images of that holy and happy household, in 
which customs lingered, long since swept away from all save 
such lonely and primitive spots as hero and there had escaped 
tho effectfi of the revolutionary volcano, or had been preserved, 
as relics of happier days, beneath the crust loft by its scathing 
lava, Tho evening ])rayer of the assembled household — the 
men on one side, the women on the other, with tho master and 
thomiatress at the head of each division — the children kneeling 
to ask their parents' blessing, ere they went to rest — ^the 
abundant almsgiving — the reverent tending of Christ's poor 
by^ the wealthy and pi-ospei-ous housewife, who counted it an 
honour to periorm for them the lowliest and most ravolti 
offices — all these are so many pictures from the ages of fei 
but the most touching, perhaps, is that which belongs to 
HSTp of tmboltef — the renerable re\ig\ou* Oa'weu ?oti\\ ^x^^m 



Father Jlyaettdhe Ik$son, O.S.D. 



81 



I 



I 




> 



I 



conveot, fiuding her cloititor beneath her nephew's roof, and 
ber work in U'acluuj^ Urn Chrisliau doctrine to the inerry- 
kewicd children, who with husliod voices and soft tread 
gathered romtd tiie door of her quiet room. 

A sudden reverse of fortune broke up this happy home. 
"The prosperity of this Chriatian household vanished, without 
exciting a marmur." Aldme. Bcsaon was driven to Paris to 
■cek ft aabcUtanoe for hersulf uud her child by tbe labour of 
fat*r huods. In oue of his taucLiug letters to that belovud 
motbvr, P. Bossoa thus remind-s her of those days and nights 
of mil and sulTenng : — 

Mt Good Momxi, — Our Lonl lonp; ago marked you with tlie nign of the 
CkOMi, u one ai the eboseii stieop of Hts fold. I have never lost the awe«t 
itmilibiMiCT of all that we went through together in the street Trois Frira, 
ffcoo^ I wu too litdo ibm to undentand lUl thjit you sulTeredT wntchiuK by 
■t^ flU» Ed those cold, long winter nij^htH, with only a Ilttlo chaufferette (o 
inr poor g&rret. You Buffered it all with joy. Oh ! my poor mother, 
1 PMnanber how yon would take off some of your poor clothed, cold and 
««wy H yoa w«r«, to cover me. my heart swelU with teuderuetH and with a 
dHtra to Diak* yon a return worthy of your love. Your nnahakea coiifideueo 
itt Piriiia Providence jfaro you coanige to overcome the hardest nnd moit 
dHOiMiiig iriala. 

T^Me d»ys of anxiety and privation were not of veiy long 
eontinuance. The mother and son found generous and faithful 
fhenda^ by whoso assistance, iu the coarse of a few years, they 
wccepUcvd in a position of indopondence. The foremost of 
thcAO WHS the venemble Abbe Leclerc, for whom P. Bcbsou 
trrr hnrr- a filial aRV-cticm onl}* second to that which ho 
cl '. fwr his tnothor. Undi-r tho guidance of this holy 

p.. _:- .^udo made his first Comtuuuiou, and from him he 
learned that lovo of the poor which, tlu^ughout lus af^er-life, 
diatiDgaifthod him, as it bad chai'acterizcd liis benefactor. 

Thty Abbr Lcclcrc earnestly desired that tho talents and 
bigk ^, of which he discerned tho early promise, 

ikovt' nHccrnted tu tho immediate ser^'ice of God. Ho 

propoaed to Nadamo Besson to place her son at the pfltit 
^,... ,.>;,j.^ ^th B view to his training for the priesthood. Tho 
T htiart ihrnnk from tho eacrifice, and sho sent him 

iasii^oii lo a school, where he imbibed miuiy of the theorivs of 
ihff day, driving fartlier and farther fVorn thv old ruyuliat 
tnditiona of ! home, and nufauppily from the sacred 

tnlliB of the . tiich in his mind were inecprirnbly con- 

nected with Ibmn, Yet the grace of his Bapli»w and tho 

V*-',- r»f his first CorjimnojoD were never di'SocTiLWtiL V^ 
dc imikge of hi-* motJior, " tho onAy woman \ie t\*il 

'"- r//. — ana xtit. [Xew Sfrtt^J] a 




82 Father Hyaeintke Season, 0.8M. . 

loved/' sullied by any lower affection or dimmed by tbe 
atmospbere of tbe seducing world of Paris. The light of faith 
was eclipsed indeed for a time, but it was living stilly and 
ready to leap into a blaze, when the fog-damps around it 
shoiUd be dispelled by a fresh effusion of light from on high. 
From school Claude passed to the study of the art which was 
with him a passion, and we may almost say a reU^on ; and 
with many of his companions in the same pursuit ne became 
a disciple of M. Buchez, the leader of " the most Christian of 
all the socialist schools of the day." But the heart of Besson 
could find rest in nothing short of the truth of Uod. Wearied 
out with the search, he and somo of his companions fell back 
on the lessons of their childhood. "A party was formed for 
' the study of the Catechism;" and in the month of May, 1837^ 
a deputation from the young republicans sought an interview 
with the venerable Cure of Not re-Dam e-des-Victoires, drawn 
thither, it may be, by the prayers of that marvellous con- 
fraternity. 

More than twenty years afterwards Csays M. Cartier), the venerable AbW 
D^genettes related to us under the shadow of the old trees in the garden ti 
the Cannes, whither he had come to celebrate the Feast of S. Thomas vl 
Aquin, his first interview with these young socialists, many of whom were 
then gathered round him in the white habit of S. Dominic. They wanted at 
first to lay down some conditions previous to their submission to the Chnrch. 

"M. L'Abbt^,'" said their spokesman, "we all acknowledge the truth of 
Chnstianity, and we all desire to follow Ite precepts. But we must tell you 
first of all that we are Re))ublicans, and that we desire to remain faithful to 
our principles." " My friends, that need not prevent you from being 
Christians ; I hear the confessions of republicans, as well as of legitinusts." — 
" What ! you will not refuse us the Sacraments, though we are republicans }" 
— " Religion never asks to what political party men belong. She tolerates 
all opinions, and yours may be that a republic is the best form of govern- 
ment. Only if a disturbance should arise, and you come to consult me 
before you go out to the barricades, I may, perhaps, advae you to stay 
at home. Meanwhile, you can confess your sins, and receive Absohition." 

The young men were chai*med by this spirit of toleration, 
of which they had not believed a priest to be capable; 
and the good CudJ of Notre-Dame-des-Victoires, delighted 
with their uprightness and sincerity, conceived a particular 
affection for them, and soon overcame all their remaining 
prejudices. 

Claude Besson had visited Home before his conversion, but 

it was with far other feelings that he made a pilgrimage thither 

in the autumn of 1838. " He looked back with a feeling of 

remorse on tboae sancta&rieB wbere ^e \iBA uo^ kcu&U, on the 



FntJicr Hyaeiiiihc Bason, O.S.V, 



88 



4iut of tho martyrs, tho boly nud historic earHi, wliick he fand 
Dot Tonerated. Ii seemed to bira that ho was bound to mako 
a pt?;^mr»cro to Komo to ntono for tho past, and to satisfy his 
fell U as his lovo of art." 

^.„ -. . . i*s of tho followinjj summer were spent at Assist, at 
the shKne of the Saint of Poverty, to whom ho hod a special 
derotion, in the study of the works of Cimabuo and Giotto. 
ft«m this period dutos his vocation to religion. He kept it 
oomcnJed for a tune ; but his mother's nnxious eye detected 
lot MProt, and, moved by tho night of her anguish, ho gavo 
hor « promise never to leave her without her consent. In 
DeooiDDer, 1839, P^re Laccn^iro writes thns to one of his 
ftiendt: — 

** B«aon H couiag hero «arly in March to make a copy of the Madonna 
4* U QutniOy ft mitMculciFiu inugo consecrnted hj more tiun three centurieii 
of Tfcwntlion. Wc Iwre cboaen her fur our Patroneaa, and mean to caTr>' thti 
jitr' ' tw wfat<revpr wc ^o, until the day when we shall be able to 

ia*.. . mnly in oiir first French conveat." When ho had Raished hit 

yiminj urtiat knelt down at the feet of our B. Liuiy. and, layiufi; hU 
^Mud bnuhoi on her aliur, he made a solcnm tow never to touch them 
lyiia, if onlj the woqM obtain for him hia niothct's pcrmluion to enter 
ioo. The flftcnfloe waa heroic ; for, such vns his intense drrotton to hia 
. he «M vont to aay that he coiUd scarcely imagine tho happiness of 
withaot tu His prajcr was at hut heard ; he hod returned to Borne 
Ilk* PwtirtU of KoHter, ntirl, not withstanding hia vilencc, hia mother had 
the wuhm of hia heart. One mnming, after « laat Ktnu^le with her- 
■fcaaaugfat her ton In hia studio, and aoid, ''Mychild, I know your 
wUmo, aad will no loagcr oppoae them ; I hare but few yoon to lire, and it 
will be happincw cnoofih for me to $ee you happy." 
Bklbra Claode b»d time to reply, thA door-bell rang, and P. Locordaire 
fnxn La (jnrrcia to thank the young artist fur hia oo[iy of the 
Baaaen repeated tn hini ilie wordH juHt uttered by hia mother, 
"Fitthvr. will you hare me I' Three days aft«nrards bs ww 
at S. Sabina. 

Perhaps tho most interesting portion of M. Carrier's book 
is that which opens with the hifitory of the Noviciate of tho 
fonreni little nunpany of French Dominicans at S. Sabina 
and at Ht»«co, so full of tho ineinories of S. Dominic and S. 
He ti-uoos with a f^ympatbising (thotigh, as it seems to 

, n "inejiilfirly impartial) linnd, the struggles, the failures, and 

til f the work of restoration which they were called 

hi 1 R-'J9, P. Ijficordaire, by an heroic venture of fnitb, had 
Wl the ndmiring crf»wcJs wliich Rurrnunded bis pul^iit at NotWS 
Diam«v t<f »?f-ume Uw pro.^crihcii haltit of S, tkimuttO "\tv ^ft 



I 



84 Father Syadnthe Besson, 0.8.D, 

Chapel of tho Minerva, at Rome. Ten years afterwards^ P. 
Jandel, one of his first companiona^ lind, like P. Besson, a 
former disciple of the school of Bachezj was appointed bj the 
Sovereign Pontiff Vicar-Genoral of the Dominican Order. With 
a view to carrying out the reforms which the Holy Father 
had long been anxious to eti'ect, P. Jandel immediately sum- 
moned P. Bosson, his dearest and most trusted friend, from 
the dii'oction of the house at Nancy, where the first noviciate 
had been formed in Prance, to aid him in his arduous fmd 
difficult task, by his singulai* gifl of prudence and power of 
conciliation. During the time that he spent at Rome as Prior 
of S. Sabina, P. Besson resumed, under obedience, the prac- 
tice of his beloved art, and began the series of frescos which 
now adorn the restored chapter-room of S. Sixtus. The work 
was one of especial interest to Pius IX., whose first visit to 
the new Fra Angclico is thus described : — 

He chose, withuut giving notice of bis intention, the Convent <^ S. Sixtos 
as the object of one of hiit duily drives. The entrance of tho Holy Fathei's 
carriage and escort into the deserted court before the Chapter-room &iled to 
distract the artist's attention from his work, and ho had to descend from hia 
scttfTold, with liis apron before him, and his palette and brushes in hia hand, 
to receive Pins IX., who enjoyed his snrjirise, and made him tell him all hia 
plans as to tlie restoration. Ho then conversed with him for some time upon 
Fnince and the reform, ending with these memorable and characteristic 
words, *' You Frenchmen are full of zeal ; yon are excellent for action, but 
you hiive not sufficient prudence. Komc has tho gift of pnidenc« because our 
Lonl has endowed her with it. Do you sec ?— aa a man, I am not worthy to 
grind your coloiu^, or to serve you as a lay brother at S. Sixtus ; but as Pope, 
1 feel within niy.-'elf tliat I have an enormous power. 'Sento in me un 
pczzo enorine ; ' " and then, turning towarda the cnicifix, ' It is not I who live, 
l)ut JesiLs Christ "Who lives in nie.' '' 

P. Besson was soon called away from this labour of love to 
sterner service befitting the great missionaiy name which he 
bore in religion. The peaceful labours of Fra Angelico were 
to give place to the hard con6icts of S. Hyacinthie. 

The Dominican mission at Mossul, near the site of the 
ancient Nineveh, which dates from tho days of the holy founder 
himself, needed a hand of no common gentleness and firmness 
to save it from destruction. 

The Monachv.Uu laid aside his colours, and went forth into 
the old regions of tho East to restore tho tarnished glory of 
tho Catholic name by tho sanctity of his example, and to win, 
by tho sweetness of his charity, the heaits of the Chaldean 
Christians, who, though restored to Catholic unity, still bore 
the marks of their Jong-continued Btate ot acXaam, wad <jf the 



>W/«r Uijiiciitf/ie ScMoitt O.S.V. 



85 



ddgraditi^ ofKw-tfi of MiiRsiilman nilo and MoKsnlmnn exnmplo. 
Here was : ide enough for the enthusiastic philanthropy 

Aod ardeiii ^ ism which tho young socinlist of former days 

had Ifroni^kt with liim into'the true home of all high tuid holy 
tupirnttozui, and consormtod to God uuder the bnmier of S. 
Docntinc. It had hoen the dream of his boyhood to sec hia 
Cti ik« tho leid iu spreodin^ tho doctriuca of uuivcrsal 

tr.. The wnrk of his manhood was to labour at her 

rcftioratiun to her true posiLiou, as the ddeel daughivr of the 
Ckmrrh, and to work with bcr and for hor in extending that 
tntu brotherhood, that celestial liberty, with which Christ alono 
can rnnke nn free, to all the nations within re-ach of her influence. 
Bj raasin^ the tone of the P^tem Christians in Union with 
BiooM he hoped to act upon the wide-.spread communities still 
in aeparation, with whom they are united by tho strong bond 
of m ccmraon origin and a common ritual. 

P.Bcuon was recalled to Rome and S. Sixtus after two years 
of ordaoufl and suecessfol labours in the East. " He had in- 
cnaandf" Rays his hiogT^pher, " tho number of schools, and 
niMd tho lono of education ; he had laid the foundation of a 
■ for tbo Cluildoan clergy, with whom he hud established 
most friendly relations^ and* installed four French religions, 
full of aea! and activity, under the enhghtcned direction of 
Mgr. AnnantoUf in the Dominican Convent of Mar-Yaconb, 
which he regarded as tlie centre of all the future triumphs of 
the Church in those regions." 

P. Besson mode a pilgrimage to tho Holy Places in Palestine 

00 hiB way bock to Homo, where tho severest trial to which 
his »enstttvo heart could h:ive been exposed awaited him. 
Daring his absence a question had arisen concerning reUgions 

, on wliich the twn men whom he most loved and 
earth, P. Lacordairo and P. Jandcl, were divided. 
la own convictions had been originally on the side of P. Jandel, 
by whom ho was now sent into France to use hiis well-tried 
JD<]gni4!'nt and ]>iiticnt charity in tho settlement of tho question. 
fly earcful investigation, and by long conference with P. La- 
eord&Jre, he camo to tho conviction that the first father of tho 
refortn hwl carried it as far as tho present state of things 
rtmderod prudent or posriblo, and thiit tho more perfect obser- 
Tii [irimitivo rule desired by himself and P. Jundel 

01 to be enforced. By this Kacrifice of hia own 
!•> i view he was the means of restoring peace to 

tU. : , ....1- at tho wicrifico of his own. P. Jandfl received 

him on hia return to Komo with unabated afT"i.-cti»n, but the 
foar uf having lost in pome dciT't* the conftdcnCQ oC \v\* qVA 
fri0tui rnatl su/jon'ur hy hoa vy at tiia heart, and WW tk^ignbVtkk^ | 



86 Father Byacinthe Benson, O.8.D. 

by the kuovrledge that iiis conduct liad been represented to the 
Holy Father aa the result of a weak subsemency to the over- 
mastering will of P. Lacordaire. He returned with a heavy 
heart to his frescos at S. Sixtas^ and worked hard to finish 
them with only one farther desire — to end his days in some 
quiet cell in France. But new troubles had arisen in the 
mission at Mossul^ and his heart responded to the earnest en- 
treaties of the brethren there for his return. He obtained 
with some difficulty the consent of the Holy Father, who 
desired to keep him near his own person, and who gave him 
his parting blessing from his sick bed. 

" The ave bad just rung," writes his companion, Pire Rouard de Card, 
" when we were brought into the Holy Father's room where he lay ill in bed. 
' Here is P. Besaon,* said his Holiness, * who has set his heart upon going to 
the £ast. I should like to hare kept him in the West, but what can be 
done \ Spirilus Dei ubi vull spirat.^ 

" We remained for half an hour with his Holiness, who was pleased to ask 
us rarlous questions concerning the mission at Mossul, France, Belgium, and 
Holland, and to converse with us on the present position of the Church. 

" ' It seems to me,' said Pius IX., ' that our Lord says to me as He did to 
H. Peter, Due in altum. Like him, I am on the wide sea, expKiaed to every 
wind aud every stonn, and, like him, I am tempted to cry, Domint, acUva 
Hos, perimus. But then it seems to mc that our Lord reassures me, and bids 
me walk upon the waters. Poor S. Peter began to sink when he found him- 
self on the water. If I had been in his place, I should, doubtless, have dona 
the same. After all, what matters it, so long as my faith fails not ? 

" ' If our Lord docs not help His Vicar, whom will He help ? Et porta 
infcrni non pr^r'aldmnt advcrsiis cajit,'" 

The Holy Father finished the audience by this heartfelt 
benediction : — 

"I bless the Dominicans of the mission of Mossid, of Belgium, and of 
Holland. I bless the whole order of S. Dominic I bless the religious who 
are weak, that they may become strong ; and those who are lukewarm, that 
they may become fervent. I blesa those who are strong and fervent, that 
they may become stronger and more fervent still. I bless them all, that the 
Holy Spirit may perfect their hearts more and more in the unity of faith and 
charity." 

Pere Besson left Rome in 1859. Two years of unremitting 
and of (humanly speaking) unrequited labour followed his 
return to the mission which ho had left so flourishing, and 
whither he had now returned to see his work neutralized by 
the factious intrigues of the Chaldean Patriarch aud a party 
among- the bishops and clergy. T)iq \ustoT^ ol ^2bAa Wti trial 



of his Ufoj and of the unfliucKing conrngo and loyalty with 
which, iiti cheered and unsupported, he inaintmued the rights 
of Homo, while the misrepresentations of hia eucmics cuutsed 
her to look cohily upou him, is full of }>aiuful interest and 
iiutractiun. WolUniah spent with the unequal struggle, he 
btfgfto once more to sigh for a cell in France, when a Tirulent 
^phas fover broke out at Mossul. This fearful scourge roused 
Vhre Beason from hia depressiun, and Bccmod to revive his 
bfling strength. He devoted himself with heroic charity to 
Umi Cmrv uf the sick. At iirst he restricted his visits to tho 
poor, leaving the rich to the care of the physicians; but all 
ftent for him, and, nnable to refuse his help to any one, ho 
tniver&ed the city from morning to night, oearing remedies 
■nd consolation to Catholics, schismatics, and Mussulmans, The 
kouBM which no one else dared to approach were his especial 
c«ro ; he sat for hours by the bedside of the dying, breathing 
thD infocUHl air of rooms crowded with the sick, and left them 
only when uigbr obUged him to retnm to the convent. His 
life was consuming away unperceived by himself alone, so joy- 
folly did he sscriftcG himself for that Chaldu>an Church which 
had mflictod so much Rutfering- upon him. 

Pfre Bcsson was utruck down at last by the pestilence, and, 
after ten days of patient Kuftbring, received tno crown of a 
mnrtyr of charity. One only brother in religion, one only 
of the Latin rite — Pere Marie Augustin Rose — was at 
t bed, and he wiis too much exhausted by labour and 
\ be able to ofliciato at hia funeral. The ollice was 



\iy Choldiean monks around the lonely grave, where 
ionar}', aays M. Curtier, *' took possesaion of tho land 
which ho had laboured to convert." Over it has been erected 
a rhapcl to hta patron 8aint, " which stands like a beacon hght 
to guide the sona of H* Dominic to follow in his path." 



88 



aet. v.— hush writers on university . 
education. 

Universitij EiluceUion aiid UUramontanitm. By John MacDevitt, DJ>., 
Dean in the Citholic UniveHity of Ireland. Dublin : Kelly. 

University Education in Ireland. A Letter to Sir John Acton. Bart, by 
William K. Sclltvan, PLD., Professor of Chemiatry in the Catholic 
University of Ireland. Dublin : Kelly. 

Freedom of Educniion : What it means. .By Jakes Lowrt Whittlb, AB., 

Trinity College, Dublia Dublin : Hodges & Co. 
A Letter to the " Daily Nem" of March 29, 1866, signed J. D'Aicy, AB., 

Trinity College, Dublin. 

WE Kavo no intention at this moment of entering on the 
general question of Irish Unirersity Ednoation. It is 
not till the episcopal negotiations with Grorcmment hare been 
brought to a satisfactory termination^ and the now ^atem is 
finally determined, that the time will hare arrived to consider 
its various bearings on the spiritual interest of Ireland. At 
present we shall but make a few miscel^neous observations, 
on the various brochures named at the head of our article. 
Nor should wo probably have done so much as this, had it not 
been for the comments made on this Rsvisw in three of their 
number. 

Of those who most cordially approve the general principles 
which we advocate, none (we imagine) have ever examined 
our pages one-half so carefully and exhaustively, as Mr. Whittle 
has done with the view of protesting against those principles. 
Our articles, oiu* notices of books, our record of foreiwi 
events, have all been diligently ransacked by that most dili- 
gent and unwearied gentleman, for every thing which may 
enable him the better to frighten Englishmen with the bug- 
bear of " Ultraraontauism," Dr. Sullivan in his reply cites 
Bishop Clifford's straightforward remark, that "the views 
which wo advocate are worth just as much as the arguments 
with which we support them, and no more. If the subjects 
we treat," adds his Lordship, " are open questions, they re- 
main open subjects after they have been treated just as much 
as they did before" (p. 49, note). If, indeed, we were to ex- 
press any regret at the Bishop having so spoken, it wonld only 
be because his words might be (without his intention) nuder^ 
siood bjrsomo aa implying, that wo bad'pnfcfo'rtii.w>ms f^reatcr 



of authority than he horo concedLw ; bnt our readere 
m well awnro how far this is from being tho cuso. Wo may 
CQEpuid the Hishop of Clifton's language somewhat iis follows. 
Tlu*re are varioiu open (|ueBtion8 in tho CathoHc Church, on 
which we have as mnch riglit to our opinion as Mr. Whittle has 
•o bin ; Hnd on which wo bavo argued to the best of onr ability 
for ono partictilttr side. Such, c. tf., before Rome and tho 
Kn(»!i!»Ii Bishop:* liftd aothoritattvely spoken, was tho question 
* ' ilic coUc(^ at Oxford. On all such matters iho views 

ft J humbly adrocate "are worth just ns much as the 

wrgnmvjita by which we support thorn, and no more." There 
ire otlier questions, which Mr. Whittle indeed may consider 
pipoDj bat in regard to which wo maintain that the Church 
hka iof«llibly pronounced. Should any Cathohc contravene 
l«r teaching on any subject whatever, — and should ho not have 
the plea of invincible ignorance, — he would commit a grave 
oflvnce ; not of cdhrac (how unspeakably preposterous a 
netiooit} bccanao ho differs from the Duulik Keti£W, but 
bocaoso be is rebellious to the Church's voice. 

We will illusiraie his statement from a topic, which is 
mentioned by Dr. Sullivan in connection with this Kevikw. 
Nothing can be mure Chi-istian than this distinguished philo- 
ftophor'a whole tone and temper; and we tender him our best 
thanks, for the courtesy with which ho has throughout treated 
a poblicntioa from which it is evident he so decidedly dissents. 
V. ''iirther particularly glnd to observe his language in 

p, , i. For ho seems plainly tboi*o to imply, that ho con- 
nticn the "Mirari vos" and tho " QuantA curu" — whether or 
no as strictly infallible — at all events as possessing a legitimate 
daim over the Catholic's interior conviction. And certainly the 
noCiou ia rxtravagant, that n Catholic university or college 
oonld tolerate any tenet, which has been condemned in either 
of thcae two Kncyclicals. Dut Dr. Sullivan [p. CI) uudur< 
ctaodi tho ** Mirari vos" as referring not to " political," but 
to "religious" toleration; in other words, as proscribing 
tt».!.-. -^ (h.j tc:iot of iudid'erentisni, but as in no respect pro- 
iL on the citril toleration of religious error. We are 

I Mifit ^-1 able tt man and so dispassionate a thinker 
h;.\L ..' )j L-L-ed in a view, which is abjiolutel}* irrecuu- 
c&vsble wuii the Pope's express woi'd*;. \Vc urged this in 
Janunnr, IStiu (pp. 59, GO), and wointrent Dr. Sullivan's 
n to tho urguuiont which wo there drew out. Ho 

] indeed (p. 03) to add a certain qualificntion. "If a 

t ty," he fOiya, ** prvfess but one form of religion, 1 

f ■ lio* Stale f>I( I ' ' i- inexpodvrncy ^t \wt- 

h liuotion of which, vxuiVct cuN^it «$( 






90 Irish Writers on University Education* 

religious propagandising may originate political and social 
disturbances." But we cannot admit that he thns succeeds in 
bringing himself into harmony with the Church. Every reader 
will understand the above passage as implying, that the civil 
power has no right of repressing religious error with a view 
to the people's religions interest, but only with a view to tho 
prevention of political and social disturbances. Now Pins IX., 
in his '' Quanta curd/' expressly denounces a certain tenet, aa 
contrary to " the doctrine of Scripture, of the Church, and of 
the holy Fathers." What is that tenet ? That " that is tho 
best condition of society, in which no duty i& recognized as 
attached to the civil power of restraining by enacted penalties 
oSenders against the Catholic religion, except so far as publio 
peace may require." Tho Pope, you see, sharply censures 
any notion, that " oficnders against the Catholic religion" 
may not be punished as such by the civil power, except so 
far as may be requisite for the public pe&ce; i.e., for the pre- 
vention of " political and social disturbances." 

Has the Pope then, as Mr. Whittle seems to think, proscribed 
all civil toleration of religious error, as being in itself unlawful ? 
On the contrary, Perrone points out (quoted by Dr. Sullivan 
p. 63, note) that under certain circumstances such toleration is 
*' not lawful ouly, but even necessary." On two previous occa- 
sions (to speak of no other) we have argued that neither Papal 
Encyclical isin the slightestdegree inconsistentwiththisopinion. 
(See Jau., 1805, pp. G2-G8; and April, 1865, pp. 487—492.) 
We cannot express our reasoning more briefly than it is there 
stated ; and we can only therefore refer Mr. Whittle to the 
passages themselves. He is, of course, thoroughly well 
acquainted with them j as ho is with every proposition, great 
or small, which has been put forth in the new series of this 
Review : and we think, therefore, he would have acted more 
fairly, if among his other extracts he had introduced the 
following: — 

We are very far from heiug of the number of those who blindly admire 
everything mecliajval, and disparage everj-tUing modern ; on the contrary, we 
think that the Catholics of this day have many inratimaUe advantages 
denied to their forefathers. But we must ever contend that the relation 
between Church and State which existed theoretically in the middle ages, 
is the one normal reliition ; and that hod the Church been enabled to 
continue her work of civilization under the same conditions, the superiority 
of modem times would not be (as it is) very questionable, but would 
have been incontestable and most signaL And just as the dvil 
power in these islands would act rightly and laudably in Tepressing all 
attempt at the introduction of polygamlatic or atheistic error, bo in thoRfl 
cbjv was it the sacred duty and 1^^ ptiviVeed tA & Q«!OuQ>\i& xansnundL to 



Irish 1Fri/tT« on Umverstty E<lu<^aii<»i. 



91 



14JI iMni&fiftl innndi ou CntboUo pcttoe and unity. 80 mach mittcrial 
r viMt, At nil Frenta, legitimate, as iiii;:^lit suRico for the purpose of repres- 
nI, in estimating Utv ile};n.*t,' of tliis fnrcir, c>ue circumstance sliould 
r ba ftngotten, whichf ou tho couimr}', tiet.')U8 avvev reinuiubenHJL It ti 
[t«T idea of iiUDi«hmenc, tliAt he whu undcr^foes it ahail b« in a far more 
I cuoditiuQ thou othcn im*. At a time, therefore, when the ordiiuuy 
titwa of htunaiiitj viu that of scTcro and continuona suficrijig, it was aa 
I nKcuity tliat punishiucDt for every kioil of uffeiice should wear aa 
L of piltkuattui nod stcruouu, which yury luiturall^ appala the uodom 
I of Eilgtanil *hu livH at huiue »t ewm.^ 
al M aooD a» the unitj of Chriatoniloui wiut ivaIIj at au end, and Pro- 
tvlntiiRi look pennancnt root in £un>pe, the whole |K>licy uf represMioii 
iie«dc«l to be rvcuniiiili-ivd. And puusg to the present day, let tu sappoac 
CaiKotia (0 be eter to predominant in nnmhtrw tkroughout a ijivm eouutry, 
m long ai tliero ^xista in that country «:c» one hn-tdilanj J*roUtiant ted^ 
wr>- ■-- •■ ^"-tiutiou in affimiiti}; llicso three propOBilioiw : — (1) CnthoUcB ur* 
prp- liT the " Mirari von," or by any other nuthoritatirc teoching, to 

wiuiljjia iruni that sect full " reUjoous liberty." (2) The^ \coutd txci jmhU 
vmwimt^ taul (in faei} unjvjity hy attempliny fo v^thhold it. Nor (3) wniild 
llw PopM nrgt thoni in an opposite direction. We admit that in such a 
( of Uun^ a pertidn ciril pro-pminence on^ht to be giren to the Church, 
I in wuia rMpect« to thai ciijoyeil in Kngbuid hy the atate rcUgiau. 
MBHUii that it ou^ht to lie the one rero^fnized nationnt re)i;^uii, enjoying 
I pnrikgca aa an impliM in that condition ; piiTileges, however, uhich 
L b* petfeclly rompatiMe with tbo most complete tolera^on of other 
I dajiuminalioua. Certainly, Itiatf m viake no unreatonaUe dtmaud 
I w Sn^hitd, vktn 1H c/otm lAn/ tihtrty /rvm our I'tottttwA coimtrynwi, 
\ (fciy «ro/<f M0«< owitrMNy rvm'cv /rom tu iixrc nrrNinitonoi* rvwTNri. 
i the CMC) beooiDM eran stronger when we coD»i<ler that if (as is reBB0Q> 
abl«) ihoM only ebould bo r^gaxded as ooustitutiu^ ouu ri'li^'iouti body who 
BgTM with each other on «h.it they couaidvr esftcntioi, it ia doubtful whether 
ai^ *in|[le religiotu bod.v lu Knghuid in lar^ter than our owu. Wo have 
•pokm of Eiii^aiid : us applied to Irtdand, of conn>e» the whole aignmeat 
beesBMB indeftniiely more powerful, m in that cotuilry tlie State Church ean- 
aot ley an; colottmblc cUtbu to being the Church of the autiun (Jan., 1865, 



Wo implied at starting that this topic Affords a good 
iHmtrtttion of thoso inataacea, iu whicU we have Bpokcn with 
a oortatn pcromptoriness, which wo aro as far as possible from 
ngnCtiiig or 1 tig. \V''o have never to ibis momont 



aoen the sligli 



ipt fftirly to confront tho '* Mimri voa' 



and tho *' QuautA curii/* luid to explain their phmseology otht^r- 
wiae than na contleinning in princijylc tho liberty of worahipa 
and of thit prx-o. 'ITie Church, we say, fully permita any 
(.'-■ I * 1 '' 1' under the particular ciTCumft\A.XVQss» q1 

IJ. 'ifltrj-,— <wfor iuBtaucow\lM«YwA«*\ttJ^ 



92 Irish Writers on University Education, 

sects have an hereditary existence — such liberty is a far less 
evil than any practicable alternative ; but she does not permit 
him to hold that it is in itself good. We cannot then consider 
this an open question.* We hold it an obvious duty to speak 
with much severity — not, indeed, of indivlduah who may have 
indefinite excuse for misconception — but of those Catholics as 
a school J as a diss, who refuse submission to the Church's plain 
and indubitable teaching on the subject. Dr. Sullivan indeed 
cites the Bisl^op of Orleans (p. 61) as interpreting differently 
the " Quanta, curfl, " : but there is no ground whatever for such 
a statement ; as will be evident to any one, who carefully studies 
that prelate's celebrated pamphlet. 

In a similar spirit we would comment on Dr. Sullivan's 
implication at starting (pp. 1, 2), that he is opposed to the 
principles advocated in this Review, because he is one of thoso 
" who believe that it is possible to combine a sincere attach- 
ment to the doctrines and practices of the Catholic Church, 
with the fullest and freest cultivation of all human science, and 
the honest adoption of tho political principles of free nations." 
Now first as to the latter part of this sentence. We are not swaro 
of any Catholics on the face of the globe, who consider them- 
selves precluded by their religion from " the honest adoption of 
tho political principles of free nations;" so long as they refrain 
from regarding liberty of worship and of the press as positive 
blesslnw-s, and so long as they renounce one or two other 
kindi-ed errors which the Church has also condemned. But as to 
the former part of the clause, we desiderate fuller light. Tho 
Holy Father has ruled in the Munich Brief that "the 
Catholic cultivators of natural science must have [over] before 
their eyes divine revelation as tJteir (juiding star : under the 
light of which they may be protected against quicksands and 
errors ; where in their investigations and arguments they may 
perceive that they may bo led thereby [as is very often the case) 
to put forth matter more or less opposed to the infalUblo truth 
of thoso things which have been revealed by God.*' More- 
over we would remind our readers, that the Catholic Episcopate 
throughout tho world has accepted, not only the Munich Brief 
itself, but also the *' Quantil curA," which testifies to that Brief 
as authoritative. When Dr. Sullivan, then, speaks of " the 
fullest and freest cultivation of all human science," we shall 
be glad to know whether he does or does not claim, for such 

* It has sometimes been su)j;gcst«d that it ia at all events imprudent to 
bring before pitblic attention the Cliurch's teaching on this head. We would 
entreat our reader to look at some remarks in our last number (p. 44&-7) in 
re/x/jr to such a snggestioo. 



Insh WrifcTt on Vnivoj'sily Educatlou. 



93 



aetenoe, a f^'e&ter liberty than tlie Pope has couceflet} to it. If 
ho do fii>/ claim n gi'cator liberty for it, we can ace no diflbrenco 
to this rcsbpcct bctn'oou liia priuciplos aud our own. But 
if be din^f bis opinion is uol consistent with " a sincere 
»tt- V-" -:t to the doctrines of the Catholic Church," bccnnse 
it rontradicta ono of them. We uuiy add also — which 

b- ' 'lO first to admit — that the doctrine (if really 

tilt _ . ' ':L"h) inofmoat vital aud niLspcakable inipor- 

fabDcCj in iho present aspect of tho philosophictd world. 

Mr. D'Arcy writcsfromTrinity College, Dubliu, in opposition 
to hi« fclluw-collogian, Mr. Witittle ; bnt his language towards 
lb ' * ■ i:w 13 by no moans so courteous as Dr. SuUivuu's. He 
Cv' that we "foist" onr spoculations "on the public 

Ax .' ' ■ (,. ■ ..'/p/-', I / •touncfituiiU of Ciilhvlu- opinioii;"iindl\\&tWQ 
"o.i-lit. tit 111 i[.!iied with tho neglect, if not contempt, which 
we doftcrve." Wo choUenge him to produce on© singlo instance, 
in which we have put forth our articles as "pronouucements" 
of any opinion on ciirtli except our ownj still lesa, "infallible" 
pronouQoemonts : and wo willingly concede to him, that hod 
we d<mo po we should dosorvo contempt. WTiat the writers in 
t!i w may think, mutters extremely littlo to any one ; 

bu- the Pope aud Catholic Episcopato may fatrh, is a 

•ooiewbiit different atl'air. According to Hr. D'Arcy, it is 
becMiso the writ«r!!t of this HEriEW are chieHy Oxford con- 
vert*, tbnt wo '* preach down," us he expresses it, "liberty of 
the press wid toleration of religious disst-nt." It so happens 
that tho majority of onr writer.'* are neither Oxfoi-d converts 
nor conrertfl at all. But apart from this, is tho Pope, 
Ufeco, ftn Oxford convert ? Arc tho CathoHe bishops through- 
out tho world — aro tho writers in the "CivUta" and the 
" Mondo" — Oxford converts? Have //kwi: men "bU the zeal, 
all ihe credulity, all tbe intolerance of neophytes ?" How can 
ilr. D'Arov bring liini5ieU' tn write so foolishly and absurdly? 

Mr. D'Arcy is hpecially unfair in one extract. He says that 
wo ** hold most strange language," bocansc wc consider it to 
bftTO l>t*n minchievous, that at a certain period Galileo and 
otbom seemed to regnrtl Copemicauism as really true. Our dis- 
tinct MViii I'l, that at that period the Copemicaii theory 
fTM main. . . by Galileo on grounds soientitically falla- 
okm ; and iltur. .srii^ntific prnb:ibility was then all on the other 
sido. An Ultrnnionlaue writer must of course always bo in 
tb<* wrong. Hut if Dr. Sullivan, «•;/., had made the obvious 
mn&rfc. toat it is mischievous to regard a theon.* na scientificidly 
proved at a time when it is actnally opposed to scientific pro- 

l>orft\ in bi* uAwnV '. 



94 Irish Writers on University Ed^ieaMon. 

At last, however, it is better to point ont wliat Dr. M'Dovitt 
haa implied; viz., that this Beview, notnith standing its name, 
has no special connection with Ireland. Of course any Catholic 
periodical, published in these kingdoms, should pay careful 
attention to Irish matters, because Ireland is the only Catholic 
one of the three. But the Ddblin Review is no more an Irish 
publication, than the " Edinburgh Review" is a Scotch. A 
Review, called the " Edinburgh," is pubhshed in London by 
Longman ; and another, called the "Dublin," is published in 
London by Bums. Accordingly our theological censors are 
responsible to the Archbishop, not of Dublin, but of West- 
minster. Neither Archbishop Cullen nor any other Irish 
Bishop is more responsible for whatever may appear in our 
pages, than for what may appear in the " Monde " or the 
" Correspondant." 

From the mention of one Quarterly we pass to that of 
another. We observe with great pleasure, that Dr. Sullivan 
has inserted copious extracts from an admirable article on 
Irish University Education, which appeared in the " Home 
and Foreign Review" for January, 1863. AVe are delighted 
that he is in agreement with it ; for it is to our mind conspi- 
cuous, not more for its great ability, than for the remarkable 
soundness and religiousness of its principles. The former 
qnalifi cation was very far oftenor found in the pages of 
tliat periodical than the latter; but this article unites both 
in an unusual degree. Dr. Sullivan, however, almost seems to 
imply that this particular article, in tone, temper, and opinion, 
is a fair representative of the Review in which it appeared. 
If he docs mean this, wo must express our own earnest dissent 
from such a judgment, but have no wish to pursue the dis- 
cussion. 

The following admirable passage is one of those extracted 
by Dr. Sullivan from this article : — 

It would require too lai^ a space to cany out an enquiiy as to the dia- 
racter of the education ■which is given in these institutions, even to those who 
complete their university course ; it is enough to say, that modem histoiy is 
not taught, and that if it were, the religious sense of some of the pupils 
would infallibly be offended. Catholic youths could not be required to listen 
to Protestant versions of that period, 

" When love first taught a monarch to be wise, 
And gospel truth looked forth from Boleyn's eyes ;** 

and the witness which history, impartially investigated, bears to the pouti<ni 
Mtd ptvrogntires of the Eoly See could not be Wsteu^ \a Vi^ PiotMfeant 



Irish Wviter$ on Viiiver9lty Education. 



S6 



I withcmi (U]if!«r to sorac of their rolixious opinions. Some attempt, 
, It oade U) tettch monil pkiloBophjr. We do not cn^-y the pro- 
f anor who appraiichM the Kicnccj vrhich tuiro reference to freedom of the 
viO, the Uv of duty^, nad the othej- Riilijects tr«at«d of by Locke, Clurko, 
JRiiU» Cooibi, and thoae uthcr pliUo^oiihcrs to who«u work^ reference u nuide 
: exiuniiuUioq-iqiK<»tioiia at thr ^M-'Vcrul Qnccn'4 C-oUes«^ with » siDCpre 
' 10 avoid evifrj-Uiiti); iLiit can 1)0 otfetisive either to Frotestant or to 
C«Uu>!ie Rnrs, Jn pobt of fncl, the examination -papers appended to the 
rvporta of the presidcnU of the coUc}^^8 show that even controversiiU qucstiona 
•ft? uol KTutJi'd. AV'e yire a single example : " WTiercin did Authntiy Colliiu 
I Joiutthac EiUrariLi aifrto, and wherein did they dilfer, ua tii freedom of 
rill i * Are ibe work^ uf Joiuilhun Kdwiinls iinitahio rending for Cutholio 
rnU i They are |ire-*nunrutly controversial ; and their cud and object it 
iiltRi'C'tdvinlsm. lu uue word, moral jihUvsoptiy aiui ttulajJiyBtci 
Ic properly tawghi in inixid enUegea, any mart Otan hi/itory and 
To nbntmct theie KienccA from cducutiou ia to j^u n^ainAt the 
sotboritjr of all agea^ against the pmotioe of kll countries, and to ttdte away 
\ and most effect iiaI meana of dvreloping the inteUeelual fnoultteu and 
the mind of youth. " lufelix opens Buninii, quia ponere totam 
j^ i> the motto which ooght to he placed orcr the gatee of the Queen'a 



f 



And lua owD remarks to tho samo eQuct ore no lesa striking 
and important. 

IfeJther cm there be a Catholic or Protestant hgir, rnddpAytwu, eMt<v, 
flkOompkie htMnry, or }>olUiral r^mom}/ ; for the rational fldenrea are, all 
alQce^ tlw toaepamible inheriUinre of lniman reiiaon, wherever it in to W found, 
a» tomh iladf ii one and itidivinihle. Bui thrne sciences hare this Hpecial 
, chat, unlike the phyaical »ciences, they do not induce from the 
ot aenaihle expcrienee, but dedoce from premlnea of a wholly 
ditfennt ordFr, and eonctrttiitg irkieh tiny nmounl of plausibU rrmr may 
hmfptm te ht rMvwnwvf. For tiiia rca«oii, ]ireciae1y, the uulboritiea of the 
Oalbolie (litirDh wen deurooa of having itueh mbjecta Uugbt to CathoUa 
I9 pmoBt in whoap o[dniona thoy could have coufidenoe, and loWt knovh 
Itift 9f CathiAir diWriiM* ikf^ anrndtted aouiut So loing as any one admita 
the pciaciple of a ' miuf admit ih* reoJona&InKM 0/ this dsmand. 

Tba opponmt of ii>-«, and the advocoU) of emancipation from all 

wligiiHaa authority, does not, uf coti^^e, admit aiich a right on the port of any 
dajgr t bnt ho luuat admit thu right of peraona to hold imy opinion tlu>y 
^«oae. and to e<lucal« their chtUlren w they Uiink fit. To autwtitute the 
vfiaUm of tbtf State, which is the opinion of n certain number, for tliat of 
ike i«rent, wnnhl Im tyranny, and wone than any apirituat tynumy. If 
f^thriira, then, cboooe to a<lmit tlie ^i;^-Lt of tfie clergy to have an Influeuce 
Mpai Iht moda of tMtcbing those ndijccta which (tr* inHmatUff OMociaUi leilK, 
iMf, ftrf*ttftf intfjKLFabU fromt riHgioHi do^m^ 1h«y are perfectly entitled 

Dr, SaJIiimxt thoa &unkly ftdmita that " logic, meUvW'SW 



4 



96 Irish ^Vrifefs on Vniversiitf Educalionm 

ethics, philosophical histoiy, political economy," are all " inti- 
rnutelvassociated with, nay perfectly inseparable from, religions 
dogrna.'^ It is plain that if all these subjects are absolutelj 
inseparable fi*om do^ma, ecclesiastical authority is of right 
no less simply supreme in deciding how they shall be tanght 
to Catholics, than in deciding what theological course shall 
be given to clerical students. Yet we find Dr. Sallivan, 
iuimctliately after the previous extract, saying (p. 25), that 
'* the Irish bishops and clergy" hare " overstepped the limits 
of their own province.*' But how can this be so, even on his 
own showing ? It is their exclusive function to preserve from 
injury the Deposit of Faith ; and Dr. Sullivan admits that the 
Deposit of Faith is not more injured by false teaching on 
theology itself, than by false teaching on ** logic, metaphysics, 
ethics, philosophical history, and political economy." But, 
in fact, it is even uwiX vitally injured by the latter than by the 
former ; because the evil is so incomparably more subtle, and 
more di£5cuU therefore of detection and denunciation. 

Here, then, we part company with Dr. Sullivan. All onr 
renders aro well aware of his great eminence in the cultivation 
of physical science; but his present pamphlet will show them 
that his intellectual power extends over a far wider range. 
1'he work is characterized throughout by great ability and 
thoughtfiiluess; and we would particularly recommend to 
attention its comments, on the different manifestations of 
public opinion in Catholic Ireland, and on the weight respec- 
tively due to tliem. His narrative of facts also is extremely 
complete and valuable ; and somo gross mistakes of Mr. 
Whittle's aro put right. " Talis ciim sit, utinam nostor asset." 
Dr. Sullivan writes in so Christian a spirit, with such large- 
ness of view, such nuflagging power, and such full information, 
that it is very piunful to bo reminded from time to time, by 
some harsh and jarring expression, that he is not one of those 
who yield that absolutely unreserved assent to the Church's 
wholo body of teaching, which we claim as her due. 

Dr. JI'Devitt's is, in fact, the only one of the three 
pamphlets, with which we can express uni-eserved sympathy 
and agreement. It meets Mr. Whittle's arguments and asser- 
tions one by one, and signally overthrows that shallow and 
pretentious writer. The following extract both is in itself 
iiii]>ortnnt, and also ntfords an excellent specimen of onr 
unthoi-'H mode of doing business. 

TIhi8 liirt niyiiiD^nt rests entirely on a Jact, and will of couTse stand or AH 
w/l/i It : viz., that the Cntliolic buihops »nd thoK ^^ui \A'^e «ieted vlth thent 



Irinh WrUiTM on University EihtcutioH, 



97 



I 



k 



^HHnflurit towAitU thn <sublishnient of tbe C!nl))olic UnWcnily hold thr 
H|fa^m? whirli Mr. WliitlJ? cnlls " LTllramntitamHin," and that thin dm-truie 
lilft* principle, the begiuninfi, and the end, of their action m tbe matter. ]f» 
thtti, UiH '* Uhamontaniflin," which he has deitchbcd m a fact, ii, in tiuth> 
ft Setion, hi* entire a^ment br^^s down. 

Mr. Whiitl« makes an amertioa, deltnite, clear, distiiicL He asKerlA with 
nracdi nophiwia Uio eriatpnce of n public fact hcn> in our own coitntiy, 
liiilinil. in oar own timp, and under uor own eyea. He dettcribee fur us with 
■iMiidMrt ftllflaw a doctrine, or "set of principles," which he calls '* Vltn- 
iiiiiMllaiiiiiii* md vhieh he telli tu a the creed and principle of what he t«nns 
^ ** incnuuontiuie ' party— a party which is a foTmidablc power in thiH 
oomtiy. He givos the name* of the lcadin{( " Ultnunnntnnei ^ in ItvUnd ; 
tlM>y Afv tlir Iriah Catholic biahopB, and such mcnibt^ra of Parliament aa harp 
ibakr Mippoft a( elections and such >^oUanen of the preaaoa they are able to 
uunrnrc 

It ii, then, fonnuit* that wo liave not to go op to the ildn or to cnw the 
■ou to look for a test of the truth of thla statement. For as the biabopa and 
Uw nwmben of parliamvul and the gentlemen of the press are all well known 
to tbe pnbtiCf Mr. Whittle )uu bad no better opporlimitios of knowii^ their 
|wlliiii|il>i than any other nuin iu the coautry who has boon a careful obscrrer 
at {Ming erente. Kow we hitre failed t^ see nny rcaaon for uyinR, that 
Umm gfOtleiBcn hare been what he describes ax *^ Ultnunontonea." He 
fai Knand to prov* hiti amcrtion. The pbiin way by which be ooiild show 
that h« ha* rvprnvnted their opinions truly, vonld be to get from each of 
thoB an afflmiatire answer to the following qncries, which contain the 
prindplca ho hu aacaibed to them. / tale than iror<J for word from ku 

l. I>o you hrtld "that the Church is the henTco-appointed nilcr of the 
Mrth and all it rontninx " } 

t, Ik* ymi bi-M Ihitl *• what men call Uw, liberty, philosophy, are but the 
tiWtnrra nf their uwu iKcnliuus inui'finnttniu'' \ 

3. Do yoQ " rr^pinl hiiniHii reaxuii lui the grtwl vjnxM fatutts of man," und 
that ** freedocn of thoii^t, fraedoni of action, were new and terrible inven- 
iia«»''r I 

1 Do y«a ** profeaa antagonif ni to our whole sMctal syatem " f 

Jk. Do yoa toodi oar nnhappy people " that there ia no safety for their aouk 
bat ia biwyaif! every thin^ English at a dutance " ? 

41. Do you hold that '^wera it pcaaible Ut extirpate Prot««tanls or inde- 
fm4mt OUbottea barv by extreme measnresv the Cimrch woold be bunnd to 
pncatd. If neceaiary. to thi* penecntiouB of the Inqnlftitinn " t 

7. Do yioo think it ri(iht and proper, when tweRU fur the cause of ritruion- 
taalm. to ^^ raglilat* or inlvriwUte" aulhon? and to hare rrcourve to an 
**iapHloua CaUiilcntiun of hixtory " I 

la oar author willing U> take their answeis to theae (fuesttons aa tbe Una < 
TefdM tm Ua aaaertkin I If be is. I shall shully sbi.te liy the dedakm. Bat 
if b* win sli^ to his ftjUenient, in spite of anytliin^ tbeee qpnUMMA, Siotne \ 
arfra suy aay to the nMCnijr, be u bofind to produee cAwi uu&. 4«diifei« 
mdoDcv e/lAi* truih of hU amntSott^ otberwiao he is open to % otAAmuiiiaaa , 

rot^ rtt.-~KO. xjit. [/ieuf ^fm'rs.J w 



98 IrUh Wriiert on {Tinuwfiiy EihicaiiOit. ^^f 

from ereiy man of honour more wren thu luijrUiuig I wQl a«y of hiui 
(pp. LM3}. ^ 

Id regard to tbo quosfcion itself of the arrann^ement contom- 
plated by the IriaU ripiacopato and the Engliali tiovormnent — 
ftfl between CathoUo and Catholic, we can well understand 
there being two opinions on ita advisablenees ; bat, aa between 
Catholic aad Protestant, the objecfciona rniaod against it (wo 
can nso no milder word) aro simply HhumoleHs, 

When wo say that, ae between Catholic and Catholio, two 
opinions are possible, wo moan thia. The present scbemc is 
avowedly a compromise. The Irish bishops hare abandoned 
what they think a higher ideal — viz., a chartered Catholic 
University — for what, under present circumstances, thoy hold 
to be more attainable, or more desirable, or both. Considering 
that they act in fullest communication with Rome— *nd con- 
sidering also the various conditions of the problem — wo quile 
believe that in this thev judge correctly. Still it is imagin 
able that a "good Catholic may think othanrise ; tli 
of course, now that the bishops nave determined their coi 
Ho would not droam of publicly obtruding an oppoaito opini 

All this is iutelligiblo enough. But what amazes and 
gusts us, is the opposition with wbich certain liberals harf 
encountered the proposal ; nay, and on the very ground of 
their liberal principles. Nothing can be clearer than Vr* 
M'Devitt's arguments^ or more simply unanswerable. 

lu the ciMC of In-Iaml the pnptiliilion U <tivttleil Into two gre&t Mid diitjaofc 
bodies, Catholics and non-Calhollcs, the (.uthuUcd biMny lui inim»DM) majority. 
Among both dassea thei« sra w>m* who hiive no objecbion to go for Ihdr 
edacatlon to mstitutioiu eatabliahed ou the toUcd principle ; bai Ou grwt 
bv.\k of iht naiion have a decided oltjteUon U> tku «ya4#M. Thiu the uonl titi- 
portant section of the noD-CathoUc body, otul almoat tiu tehoUof Ote CiuKotk 
bodyf hare always shown a partiality for the denominalional HyvtcDL. The 
statesman may regret that there is not a veWm preferenoa for Uiu mixtd 
systeiQ, atill he cannot but take th« &ct aa h« finds it. Now the LegifiUtun 
haa detemiined that auch a proYisiou shall be made for fiist>daaa cduoation^ 
aa will meet Oie wants of the entire body of the Irish notion. And u iha 
ftyatcms &re niiulc for the people, aiiJ out tbe {Koptc for the sytitvma, bi it U* 
bo wondered nt if a fltatceman ahoulil ttiiuk it better, ou the wholes to grre 
them tbe uutitiitionH for which (hey hnve so dedded i\ prefvivnca t Then 
thoAe IriHhmen, of whatever cIush, who elect tbe mixed syHleni, have nlnady 
ample provision in the (Queen's Coliegei, while thoae of the BaUbUebnl 
Churoh, who prefer the tlenominniional system, have in Trinity CoUae> a 
richly endowed detiomiimtional Uuiventily. TU frtal Catholic btidf, uKo 
AfiM tMs degMd r^mgna^u la mixed iiMtt/iiKofM, aikfor Uuir C^iMi* Uni- 



I agin - 

atu-«^H 

ddiS 



/rwA Writers on University EdticoHon, 



90 



I 



tantfir itu power of framliiif degrtu.* One would nappoae Uiert is nodking 
''iilwiipBliO iraotaBl" n lliii dminand, «r anfthinfc oppoMd to Hm peiuei* 
plM af hm tad euU^lMed gomnttenk The wont that oaf maD* btch th* 
wwtmit^ ftdminrr of the mlxod i7Bt«ni, con reAttonably iny of the Catholic 
W^t i% Ikftt ibey ahan a oetlain preferenoe with the ProtMtant public uf 
Graal Bfitain. And fei Uie mar* hope that ro ohoap a privilege may be ac- 
oovdad lo Um OathoBa paople of InoLuul, " kaa axoitad niviinBa and alarm * 

In the oonrao of the fipring a deputation of liborals waited 
OD Lord RoBsell ia behalf of their vievr. We remember the 
Muuul purport of the conversation which cnsaod ; bnt wo 
Dftre not been at the pains to look back at its record. Rather 
we hftve thoaght it well to draw out an imaginary acono, 
"fomsded," indeed, "on facts/' bnt ombolliahud to exhibit 
more tUmtlj Uiepoinft at iasne. 

Dipv/oiwn. We hare called on yon, my Lord, in roforonoe 
to Inah University Education, for the purpoae of oppealing Lo 
jroa in Uu name of liberal principles. 

L&rd Russell. I am glad to gather from your words that you 
bare called to withdraw all ihrther opposition to the Uovonuncnt 
pl». 

D* On the contrary, it is against that plan that we protect 
_ i& 1^ same of liberal prinoipTes, 

B Lord R, You protest, then, in the name of liberal principles, 
^■MMJMl the carrying out of liberal principles ? 
HHHJpl ia noL the carrying out of Liberal principles but of 
" ttafr oonfcradictories, to sanction an educational body, which 
^doH not open its door except to one particular denomination. 
^^Hbvrifl £. What then do yon mean by liberal principles ? 
^^^V. Tbo principle that no man shall be placed under temporal 
diaadrantafre for his rehgions opinions. 

I/ttrd S.l Ao folly aCTeo with your principle, that it hia in- 

kdooed zno to promote the measure which you oppose. 
D* BxcloAivo education, aupporu^ on liberal principles ! 
Lttrd R, PreoiBoly. I oak you this plain qnetition. Is it or 
if it not a religions opinion — and one prevalent among vast 
nomlMira both of Kn^hshmen and Irishmen — that mixed edu- 
oataoB infiicta on their children a moiit serious calamity ; and 
tLfi- E^ta is tolenbte axoept the denominational? 

j' < 'cUev* thin» ««« vaat numbers so iUiboral aa to hold 

llui opinion* 



* Or ea^im now, 6tjr the attaiaableiMat of dt-tdtxit Iv iu nwiubtn aa vo&V 
HW. DiiWwi Bsriti^ 



100 



TrUh WrtUrs on UnivttraUjf Education. 



I CO 



Lord B. Here then ia a certain religious opinion. Liberal 
principles then requiro that tboi^e who hold it shall not be 
Bubjectetl— in consequence of huliling it — to any temporal 
disadvantage. 

D, Certainly. We have no wish to inflict on them any 
temporal disadvantage, for holding it as strongly, and pro- 
claiming it as loudly, as thoy please. Liberalism forbid ! 

Lord R. Well, out tell me. Suppose that a Methodist 
v.g. were allowed indeed, without molestation, to hold and 
proclaim that Methodism ia true; but that ho were placed 
under serious temporal disadvantage, so soon as ho betnin to 
fremicnt a Methodist chapel. Could such a procedure do 
fended on liberal principles ? 

D. Of course not. 

Lord R. Or suppose a Roman Catholic were allowed indeed, 
without molestation, to bold and proclaim that the Host is 
the very Body of Christ ; but that he wore placed under Beriona 
tempoi4l disadvantage, if he fell down m adoration before 
that Host. Conld mteh a procedure be defended on liberal 
principles? 

J). No more than the former. 

Lord R. Liberal principles then require that men shall 
permitted, without incurring temporal disadvantage, not m- 
to hohl and dinKemhiiite those rehgious opiuions which thi 
honestly entert-ain, bnt also to art on those opinions ; toj: 
tfufm in jrrarticfi. 

D. That is so, no doubt. 

Lord R. Let us go back then to the particular religio' 
opinion before us, "ilixed education inflicts on children 
most sorions calamity, and the denomintttionnl SYStom ia 
alone tolerable.*' Thaso who honestly hold this opinion do 
not (you will admit) enjoy religions liberty, if they art? 
placed under temporal disadvuntnge by putting it into 
practice. 

D. Wo cannot but admit this. 

Lord R. Now will you explain to mo how this opinion ran 
be ]>nt into practice? A Methodist as such puts his religions 
opinion iato practice by frequenting a Methodist chapel ; a 
Roman Catholic as such puts his religious opinion into practice 
by adoring the Host. But how cnn ho who disapproves mixed 
education put that religious opinion into practico ? 

1). We can see no other way of his doing so, exocpt sending 
his children to a denominational system. 

Lord R, It is required then by liberal pHncinlea, that, bo 
shnll not he placed under temporal disiidvantago by so doing? 
^. Certainly. 



TtUm-cats of the Catholic i*aw*,'..^ 



101 



Lord R, Bat 18 not the ctrcumstanco of his** t^dren being 
ooable to attain diyvfcSj a moBt serioaa disadvat^'tnge to him? 

v. lu cnfty cuaeB^ nu doubt. .'*' 

lord R, It is required then by liberal principles; *fhat every 
inao, who honestiy thinks a denominational system of education 
the only tolerable one, may Bend his children to such a'syirttm, 
witiioat incurring the consequonco of their being unab]^-\<} 
atUin degrees. In the name of liberal principles you hArtf 
to mo against a mcasorc which those principles iin** 
ivoly demand. I am engaged in the great work of tuy 
the carrying ont of libcraUsm ; and in the name of liberalism 
you warn me to forbear. One thing you show very plainly ; 
vix., that you have no real notion of what is meaut by the very 
pnociplea which you rlainoroualy profess, '* Solvpntur risu 
t«biihc ; tu mtfl^UH aliibis." Or mther " vos niissi abibitiH." 

So the nioinbers of the deputation "depart" looking ex - 
tiaoMly smnli. • 



R VI.— INTERESTS OF THE CATHOLIC POOR. 

AnDtiatiim of Um Satrni Htart jtfr lA/ KtUtmt\*i^\ o/ the ChUdrtH of the toor 
t* iAmihm. Ibitgned, llnvur Kuwaiid, ArLltbuhop of WontinituU'r. 

W0tmiMt*r DioMMM i^tw/. Sigiwd, Hknrv Kdwaru, Archbiabop of 
WMiauiiiter. 

ONIB characteriatic of our day must strike every man who 
combined a study of history with observation of the pre- 
Uiut : wc moan» the nso nod devclopmunt of what is tech- 
biadly known ns " ^>uciul Scieuce." This may be detine^l, 
iofBciently for our present purpose, as the application of 
modem experunent, diiicovcry, aud general uocial progress, to 
improTo tue condition of tho humbler classes. Wo say the 
inamlnirr clauses, to diatingaiiih it from the mere development 
<|f tbai Kptrit of luxury, which in the sphere of the "upper ten 
" ifl always hulding ont a prize, like the Koman 
txX of old, to biui who shall invent a new pleasure. With 
perverted application of human ingenuity and toil we 
I, of euurse, leas than no sympathy. Wo do not refer to 
it, except by accident or contrast, m spL^aking of Social 
Hdancst. Kay, w« nitut regard aueh over-po\\8\v\Tvg mv^ 
•doramvu/ of thtt merti »ar&c43 of Ufa with gr^vo (\i%tt.Y^ti)Ni!\, 



lOfl 



^tnietvgU of the OatMoUo Poor, 



even with gr%To.anjdety. Bad in itaelf^ it is the foramnnar of 
worse. Not -the Oatholio xaoralist or essayist alone^ bat thfl 
general philfluthropist, nay, the general observer, must b©p in 
the fti^read And intensity of the " Social Science" of luxnriood 
living a moral and political ovil. It is morally evil, for li 

I enorvqjtea the character of the individual : hence, too, it be- 
COtn^s politically evil, as it deprives the State of her master- 
tru^-kmen, and weakens tho corporate life of the wholp. 
Tjoxury, and the development of the arts of Iniury, can faardlji 
coDHist with vigorous thinking, with tho self-denials dl 
genuine patriotism, with the toU of brain, unflagging offortj 
steadfast aim and will, by which man has over wrought ou^ 

I groat results for his brother man. It hardly consists with th» 
tempered domestic enjoyments and cheerfully accepted dnkiea 
of family life, which reproduces in unnumbered homos the 
miniature of a great ideal of the patriarchal Crovemment and 
State, precious in the eyes aliko of ethics and of politioal 
economy. In proportion as the men of a stat^ decline from 
the old simple, grave, and self-denying pubhc life, which in 
Pagan times was u rudo foreshadowiDg of tho Christian polity, 
auu iu Christian times was the type of mind and of man 
produced by the Church : when 

Phvatus ilUtt oensua ettA brevis, 
Commnue nugnum; 

when great things were done, great offerings made, for ihi 
body politic, out of the staid and generous economy of th 
I individual — in tho same proportion has that state too Borel! 
entered upon the period of dechno. it may be poasin 
through a splendid vestibule, a gorgeous banquetting-hall ; 
l>ut that passage leads out to the scaffold. Bo it the age of 
Augustus ; and through a vista of years we see the uortuem 
barbarian at tho gates of famished Rome. Bo it the ago of 
Louis XrV.; a gianco forward shows us the rabblo of Paris 
drnnken and maddened with the blood of their ancient kings. 
The throne-room of tho Gi^md Monarquo molts, as by a dis- 
solving view, into a picture of that altar of Nemesis, the 
Nemesis of the spumed and neglected poor — the Guillotine. 
In pursuance of this train of thought, let it be permitted to 
. ns to Bkotoh a character. Tho name shall bo of the paat; but 
I the character is of all times. London will do for toe baok- 
[ ground of our portrait as welt as ancient Athens ; and he has 
r spoken in Westminster quite as probably as from the Pd_ 
Aloibiades, then, stands before us, type of the handj&ome ani 
rot ijugifloti lounger of heathen refinement ; a boin^ not witi^ 
out uJetttB, not Without bravery \ a tnaAv oi v'wiu vVoia.^^ w 




Ini^ctU of the OaihoUc Poor. 



103 



• 



ofpnbUo or prirate virtue; a dilitiUmU and a dabbler in mauy 
thuigH he does not carry llirough, and wbo can talk brilliantly 
with Socratea himBeir; a diajoint^d mecbaniam of mere possible 
iiavsaa, withoot a xnain-eprmg, without a motive power beyond 
Iha moment: who has never worked consistently since he 
b^aa to be, nor ever wiU, while the world endures. We 
oead not go back into a chapter of history to say this : for 
Alcibtadea, or some one ver}' like htm^ perhaps with less 
ftalrnt, with not more diwhing cournge, not more Hstlt'ss good 
ktuTQ and /aijvfs /'i!rf, is at thiu moment polishing the flag- 
of Pall Mall witb hit boots, or yawning in the bow- 
of hia club in St. James' Street, or making up his 
booln for the next Derby ; or, iu some brilliant aaloon, dis- 
^■jing a wit that outahines the avimSftnv ylXaafxa of the 
(HamoDda, sparkle they never so cuctiautingly beneath the 
blaa»of thoao hundred-lighted chandpliers. Contemplate him 
ondsr any of these phaaee of his existenoe ; speculate u }>rityn, 
boforv the Qroat l)ook sliall oontain the history of the actoal 
irrecoTerable deeds of the lifeth&t he is throwing away. \Miat 
will he effect, what will he etore up in any gamer, during the 
analgetic portion of his threo-scoreyears and ten ? He may 
Jaad a daabiug charge of the 10th Husaara at some Waterloo 

Balftklavn; for ho has the energy of a lion during a full 

irterof an hour, till sloth, like the father-in-law in the fable, 
to draw nguin his teeth and claws. He may take np 
Ins pen for aljout the same space of time ; and the very effe- 
minaoy of hia habitual thongnts, and the practice of an ear 
attmied to the cadences of articulate music, shall give a soft- 
noaa to hia syllabtos and t-ctach hia numbers a flow, to wake 
■a hjuk »t him twice, in doubt whether it is the Laureate we 
bear. He ia ttinging somo " airy, fairy Lilian/' or achieving 
a atansa of somo dreamy "Lotos-eaters." We cannot stay 
lo draw him fulUIenj^lh. l^j^ p^ih TTercuhm. Hen) ia a human 
mstop, encased in a boot of Hoby's beat; whence (if you, 
ytfai reader, aro n Curicr in comparative anatomy) you may 
maatract the life size Alcibiadca of Belgravia, the votary and 
diiBcipIo, not profrsaor — hr give lectures I of the Social Science 
of i«nr : ■ -I'd clnsst^a. 

Vo ^tufum, ft omnui vnniina, this "strenuous indu- 

leucv" iuivl iiiiptincBs of all result, in Vanity Fair! 

W« lunst plead guilty to a griovona digression from the 
UiOQght ws atarted with, into which we ought by this time to 
hftvo maile sone way. The Social Science we are now to say a 
few words about, is the science that aims at benefiting the 
suns and daaghton of toil^ hard-handed mccVi«xv\c%, ^'^^ 
eoaUwar^Tff, waa McmptUmaea, and the yet tnove ik(^ca2i\\ «xw^ 



4 



i 



104 



Int^ettt of the Catholic Poor. 



miserable classes below thorn again. It developea a blessefl 
instiucb that enables man, in ease or independence, to care ^tsA 
bis fellow-man, overtasked^ ontwearied, underfed, and nofl 
taught at all. It enables him to look on that brother by fftitld| 
not by sight, and efficaciously to resolve, at the cost of what-| 
ever physical or moral repugnance, to do him a benefit. It 
leads its disciples into the haunts of squalor and fetid misery, 
into the hotbeds of contagion, and rookeries of abject want ; 
if not into the very dens of crime, at least into the solitary oel^J 
by wliich society panishes that crime. It breaks through thflj^H 
barricades which custom had built up, impervious as a castle-^" 
wall, between the several classes. It bridees over those 
increasing divergencies whereby excessive wealth and extreme 
penury, an over- fastidious refinement and the repulsive coarse- 
uess of misery, hopeless, ignorant, brutalized, and abandoned, 
conspired in an ever-widening breach, to a rautnally disastroos 
result. And thns, by tending to provide better subjects aa 
the material for legislation and government. Social Science 
has made itself a poweiful auxiliary, and an acknowledged 
benefactor, in the cause of public order, pubhc safetj', and 
national greatness. If such results are larger than what fell 
within its primary scope, they are not the less real or important. 
And it has 'effected them even more by its moral tban by 
its mechanical appliances ; by avrakening among intluc-ntial 
members and sections of the community a hearty fervour aiid 
well-directed energy of benevolence, for which legislation and 
Government cannot bo too grateful, since no legislation is 
competent to enact and no government to enforce them. 

From all this, tM'o consequences ore plain ; one, that social 
science is either a synonym for, or a humau luiitation of, that 
organized system of charity which sprang up with the Chui-ch, 
and is ever inherent in the Church. The other, that the 
condition of tho science itself in any given state or king<lom, 
the degree of its advancement or decline, its cultivation or it« 
neglect, may be taken as a gago of the religious life and 
national healthfulness existing there. Of these two proposi- 
tions, the second concerns us now : with the first, we hope t^ 
dual in some future number. fl 

See, theu, how it was at the fatal change of religion inj 
Kngland three hundred years ago. Tho social science o^ 
the day was real, and sound, and not unsystematic, tboughJ 
not gaged or tabulated by human systems. Social sciencM 
was the unknown name for a well-known thing. It mcnnfl 
Catholic charity, and it wont out with CathoHcity. Mon^'M 
Vloifuj sounded almost the last note of Catholic htcraturo id 
En^lmid, before the devastating couviila\ou that rent thM 



InUntti of the OafhoU'e Poor, 



105 



I 



we 

^ am 

m 



mlsoo from the centre of uoity^ and bo from the aoarce of 
ckftrity. And from the publication of that beautiful dream of 
Cbritttian polity, ou throu|^h tho dark three centuries of reli- 
gions coldness that succeeded, the topics with which Social 
Seienoe deals become more and more obscured and forgotten. 
Nor was this to be wondered at. A new system, a new 
Uieozy, was inaugurated with what was complacently termed 
" the now loaming." Tho spoUation of tho monastcriea re- 
peated in the Schedule A. and iSchodulo B. of Henry Vlll/a 
godless " reform,'' woh the groat disinheritance of tho poor. 
NoC only they who hud renounced all for our Lord's sake and 
His gospePs were expelled from their poor cells, and mulcted 
of the Bpore meal in their common hall, evicted and turned 
oat on the bleak world they had renounced in the fulness of 
their strength, and with all the forco of their will. Not only 
the vested iutere^tB uf a lawful adoption into communitien 
sod A blameless usufruct of tho rights of the monastic life 
were disregarded. The cmelty, the injustice, went further. 
It drove also the involufUftnj poor from tho desecrated gate of 
the cloister. The dole of temporal assistance for which 
porerfy of the inferior order waited at the threshold of 
poverty elevated and con»ocmtcd, was snatched from the hand 
of tho dispensing monk or friar, but not in oi-der to feed the 
■eeolar mendicant. It was a simpto diversion of things ccclc- 
siestkial to purposes altogether worldly. The vast treasure 
swept by sacrilege into tho royal coffers, was lost at dicing to 
such courtiers as Sir Miles Partridge, ur (squandered upon 
masks, banquets, rioting, and bribery.* In all this, there 
was no thought of benctiting any but the king and bis imme- 
diate favourites, lather, where the royal nand dispensed 
aoj portion of the spoils, the simple purpose was to buy the 
courtiers, and so benefit the king. The people were unthought 
of. They hiul lost benefactors who had been trained in the 
old school of Catholic charity; and they might look round in 
TUB among the |)Artii*An9 of " tho now learning" for any of 
tll0 modem ui-^unixutious of social sciL'Uce. Quite as dreary 
wov their prospects in tho following reign. Lingard, in 
avmming up his account of tho days of Kdward VI., says : 
"'Dw increasing mnltittidcs t)f the poor lH»gan to ivaort to the 
- n.s ill sfnn-h of that relief which had been 
d at lilt' g:iti.'s of t\w monasteriert." Tlien, 
m a oulo : " 'i'hus Lever (one of tlio preachers of the day) 



* Rm ih* iMtamony of Balov an ardent Kfonnvr, i\iUlU<W3 Aitm^a^ 
[ ^ V. /L 117, note. 



108 



JntetcaU <^f the CafhoUe Poor, 



exclaims ; ' 0, mercifnl Lord I what a number of poor^ fMbla, 

Lhaltj blind, laino, sickly, yeii, with iiUo vagabond! and din-j 

I Bembling caiciDs mixed among them, lie aud creep, beg^ng in\ 

the miry atreeta of London and Wo«tminBtor/"*— Lingard, 

vol v., D. 366. 

Wo leave the student of history to pursue this train ofj 
I thought. Ue will find that wherevor the Church hoa OGted] 
I freely, from the days of S. Lanrenoo, the deacon, downwardfiil 
the poor have ever been reckoned hor omaments and treMnre«. 
WlierOTer her free action has been controUod or paralysed hj 
the soonlnr amij the poor have been by that arm thrust aaideJ 
or brought under logialation more cruel than nogleot. Bat," 
on the oafiis of these two propositions, wo may advance two 
more. Wherever the state has had the upper luind, thoro has 
boon the undue accumulation of private wealth, the nbject uid 
L ruinous depression of tho poor, tho sovcrawco of classes, tbel 
I loss of a common boud of interest, tho disiritogralion ofl 
I society. And wherever tho Church haa exeroieod her healthful 
" sway, there has boon tho true politiool n^encration of man, 
the "liberty, equality, firatemity," not of revolutions, but of 
charity ; not ot brute force, but of balanced, ndjustodj and 
hallowed rights : there has been all that sciolists have aspired 
to, and empirics have striven to bring about : there havoJ 
Bpontoneously grown up and ilouriahod, bv a virtue inhoreud 
in the soil, more than all tho laboorod results of mero human 
social science. I 

The time, however, is come when a Oatholio review, proJ 
L fossing to rottoct the subjects of tho day, would bo more thaul 
Fever deficient wore it not to speak out on Social Science,' 
whether within or Iwyond the Church's pale. An iutonse and 
incrcasiug energy iu practical chanty is among tho U'oding 
features of om' time. Did wo not oven thankfully ocknow- 
I ledge it, we must bo purblind not to pcrooivo it. And wu 
I hasten to guard ourselves against a possible misconception of 
I the portrait above sketched, as though it represonted Any 
r average iu the English aristoci'acy and upper olaasot. f^w 

things could bo further from our thouglit, as few things coald 

. be more untrue. The landed gentry of England are, as m 

I class, kindly, to s&y tho least, towards their poor dependantu;] 

I nuiuy of thorn actively charitable, up to (sometimes oven 

f beyond) the conventional standard. If thei*e are few JohuJ 

Howards and Elizabeth Fr^'S among non-Cathcilics, cither ioJ 

town or conntn*, it is because the scale of charity inculcatcMfl 

or encouraged lu their system seldom reaches the licroic marla 

of person^] self devotion and sacrifice. Rich and good innto-il 

r/jih Ajv thcro; the heartiness and "^T^c^dcoX vasti of thM 



JmiereaU nfihe OatkrAic Poor. 



loy 



I 
I 






IhIi ohAiwiior, prepared to carry ont poraistontly the 
of good which it shall clearly see. BQ^liahmen in 
MOMvl, howover, h*re no adequtttc inoarw affonled them ta 
oevcJope or to oonioUdftte the gcnerons impulaes that might 
l«ad Bome even to saoritice themielves for the love of tha 
brethren. They put thoir hands readily into their pockets 
whan an appeal ia made and a tiubscrtption openodj witness 
ib« ooble instances reported almost daily in the cohimns of 
tlM.'"riTnea;'' witneas the sums netted annually by the various 
■ooiettM for home and foreign operations. This is a mode of 
bemg charitable easily appreciated, readily acted on, by a 
gMAb oommercial people ; and encouraged, certainly, by their 
ivtigiowi teachers. But the E^Btabhshed Chorch cannot be 
Hid to hold towards ita more sealons children the langnage 
wkioh St. Paul addreftBea to his converts : " 1 ueek not youra, 
bal yCNB." A cheque for £100 ia the thing: whereas, a snp- 
peeed ▼ocation to a single life in order to " attend upon the 
Lord wilhoat impediment" is (or was, beforo the lato City 
peaio) fhr more likely to be a delusion than a balance at the 
iMUtker's. Macaiilay long ago complained of that religion that 
il did not know how to uso onthuBiosm ; that Wesley and 
oUmm were driven from its pale because they could not fit its 
IVocmiteen standard, while tho Catholio Church wonld have 
wMed the enthusiast with a rope, shaven bis crown, utilised 
hie Tery eooentricityj and sent him ardent and barefoot to 
pretoh her doctrines where men of more mcasored tread 
would not have found their way. It ia the same story still ; 
~^ ~'. we may be thankful for it. Protestant aisterhooda are an 
io anom&lv as ^rreat as were Wesley and Whitfield 
they left the eetMlialunont. They, with Mr. Lyne and 
Anglo-Doncdiotines, form the perplexity and discomfort of 
tbe aatboritioe whom, in turn, they doubtless consider aa 
" kighlr unsatisfactory bishops." One by one, they Cud 
IhemMlvee not at home. Give up their aspirations they 
cannot ; it would bo to part with a chief section of their in- 
telleoiual and moral nature. Yet they find around them no 
fotw fw m on which those aspirations are to bo nourished. An 
■Ifiiatiiu ia before them. They must subside into tho pre- 
•oribed itetnre of the genuine sons and daagh(«rfl of the 
Mibltelied Chofch j or they most grow ou, be aci-ounted as 
gieatt and monsters, and be expelled. At present, like the 
"ugly duck" in Uans Andersen's siory, the undeveloped 
evyoet ia, by its strange and rapid growth a paiale> ftO aver- 
noo, e terror, to the ducklings around it. 

Under Boinu f^nr of thifi being considered tk to\Uidiii\»c3i^ 
papm W9 rOam io Qur U>xt If, m we Wkve Mit\, Wo issHt- 



4 

t 



m 



Interests of the OiUhoUc Poor, 



lopmont of soci&l acience (under whatever name) be a hopeful 
symptom in the gtate of a nation, then may we have hope for 
the present day. Our poor have become au object of public 
charitable attention to a degree unknown to our gniudtiLthora. 
Not only are " the claims of property " aa involving grave 
responsibiUty to landed proprietors, making themselvea heard 
throughout the country. Even in our large cities and towns, 
the great swarming hives of manufacture and commerce, uu- 
l inviting, most uupoctic, yet most produrtive fields of charitable 
labour, the public mind is atirred with the same thought und 
care. London itself, whose squalid alleys and partial squftrea 
and gardens present the opposite extremes of human liie, has 
felt the movement, perhaps we may aay, has inaugurated it. 
Nor is it only in public meetings held, brilliant papers read, 
titled lists of BubscriptiouB, that the impulse is shown. More 
unobtrusively, mtsanwhile, hard-worked professional men and 
delicate womeu, whose hearts have been roused to see with 
their own eyes the misery of their fellows, have made 
way into the filthy courts and up the rotten stairs, that 
to the crowded garret and to the pallet of squalid sickness. 
There they have learnt the rudiments of social science; nobly, 
too, in muny instances, have they served their apprenticeship. 
And from the facts so leai'ned they have framed inductions 
that have come with the startling force of truth, new and ap- 
palling, before the uniniated and the inexperienced. Other 
I sciences have been worked out in the study or laboratory of 
Ithe " painful " student, over the alembic, by the ray of the 
midnight taper, or amid the trying eiitounujc of the dissecting 
room, till the principles of knowledge there gained, tentative 
at first, and empirical, have resulted in well-appioved and 
scientific systems for the relief of humanity. And so, the 
science which aims at raising tho abject pauper to that share of 
the decencies and physical comforts of life to which ho may 
lay claim in virtue of his being man has proceeded, not on 
subtle theories, nor a prior! reasonings, nor unpractical opti- 
mism, nur unproved statistics, nor unreasonable aspirations, 
kit has been worked out, carefully and painfully, detail after 
'detail. It has consolidated into a science, not pure and ab- 
stract, but practical tuid ofHoacious. It has produced uur night 
refuges for the wanderer, our homes for the homeless, our houses 
uf safety tor servants out of place, for young needlewomen in 
Ijvanl and therefore in peril, uur soup-kitchens, model lodging 
Hiouses, shoe-black brigades, night, " ragged,'' industrial aud 
cripple sehools ; with other ingenuities of energetic oharity : ' 
for we hare by no means exhausted our list. j 

'^*ruv, our praise of these efforts, ttud \\io genu!mc%d\iv\niion 



I ana 

with^j 
thedr^H 

leadH 

nesa. ^^ 



fntfiresfs of the CathoUr Poor. 



ion 



I 



thoj excite, mast suffer one chief abatement. They have 
o(t^ become engines of prosolytisra. Unintentioanlly, it may 
b« hoped, in soma caaea, and with no moral fault in the original 
prozttoters, bat by the mere force of the current of popular 
opinion, th^ have drifted into this. Non-Catholics are wealthy, 
and haTO boon able as well as willing to found charitable m* 
■titntions on a costly scale. Their doors lio open to all comers ; 
and, among those who present themselves, come the Catholic 
poor also, childrea or adult ; because the Catholics of London, 
as a body, are too poor to compete with their neighbours in 
this race of lordly raiarity. They have no doors which they can 
fliog so wide, and no means whereby to invite so many. In 
other oaaes, however, wo cannot sheltor non-Catholic inntitu- 
tioDs under the same plea of mere uuconscious and mechanical 
proficlytism. They bear on their very front the brand of that 
atrocious design : imitators, with more or less consistency of 
the hospital in Dublin, named (or mis-named) after a royal 
lady, now deceased, whose lifo was marked by a gentle and 
bbex^ charity. In that hospital, as wo have lately read in the 
public prints, the poor Catholic, whom even a sudden street- 
accident drives within its walls, finds himself, when refttoi*ed 
to consciousness, utterly denied the miniBtrations of his religion. 
He has the choice of being carried ont in a blanket to receive 
them in n neighbouring house, or dying the death of a meri> 
animal within its walls. 

\Vp end these desultory remarks by laying before our readers 
the two doonmonts already named at the head of onr article, 
and which speak for themselves. We hope on future occaitions 
to trmt' at length, not only on the particular topic of tho 
C(]omti<.m of the Catholic poor, but alno on tbo many kindred 
I ' ' i-ts wliit'h that t^pic suggests. On one of these kindrtid 
I u — the treatment cndnred by Catholic cliildrcri in 
KugUah workhouses — we have peculiar pleasure iu referrinj; 
to two inimitable articles, in Tht Muntn of last March and 
April, which have appeared under the title Ve ProfundU, If 
tbero be any one of our readers who has not already studied 
Ibaao articles, let him lose no time in doing so. More forcible 
n««oiung, more persaasivo eloquence, more telling facts mora 
Itfllingly told, we have never seen. 

And we sincerely hope, that God may requite the excellent 
writ*ir with that earthly reward which he most I'ovets ; full 
■Qcoess in his momentous appeal. But we will detain our 
readw ii no longer from the terse and snggefltire heads con- 
trinatt in the following papors. 



110 



JfUerartt of the Oatkolic Poor. 



ASSOCIATION OF THE SACRED HEABT, 

POa THK EDUCATIOX OF T«K CUTLDRB!* OF THS POOR 1)1 LOHDOiT. 



0^ the intli nf October tut tiie followiog petition vm prewnlod tal 
UoUiie«5 Piiw IX. ;— 

"Holt Fathxh, — 

'* In order to promot* Uw «ompnM»tt)n nf the Futhftil tat Uie thouMuid* • 

of children exposed to danger Mid duilf pcmlung in the ctreits of liuiidoo, 

and to kindle mor« and mora « md for louls among m, the A w h b iahop of 

Weetaaiunter humbly pmyt that your Holiness will graciooaly bestow ou «uh 

ind all of the Faithful who giro their uanw to hini to furllier ihu wvrk a 

L plenary Indnlgcmoo on the ostud ooDditioos^ on the dny of eaztdmeni, and 

) on the Pofttor Boni» Sunday, the Second after Eaater, on the Feast of 

[ the Epiphany, and ou the Fca«t of the Maternity of the Blened Vu;^ Macjri 

I BO long OB they ishAll persevere in the A^Bociation : and moreover, ft hu&dnd 

[days' Indulgence as oflfu as they Hhall tn any way oo-opemte in tho salnttiou 

of childrea. 

"Fcart of tho Maternity of thoB.V.BL, 1SI55." 
In beilowiug these Indulgeucea, Wm nollofied deigned to write willt hii 
own hand Uirne wordii : — 

" Cirajit«d in the uaiuil form of the Ghuirh, 'Suffer UlUe od« to cmxe to 
Me.' * For their angeU behold the lUce of the Father who is In UeAven.' 



"Oct. 16, 1865." 



"PiubPP.IX." 



Ibo Mttditlons on which tbo above indulgences nuiy be obtained i 

I. ConfMAion, ConiiQunioQ, and pmyer ibr the intention of the Sovmign 

Pontiff, AS usuflL 
II, Enroliuont in tho Auooiation,by ^ving the name to mf, either difvoUy 
or indirectly, through the first priest of any Mission, or through any 
religions who may be the cohfeseor of the person to bo enroUttd. 
in. Co-operatloii in the work, in whatsoever form each penon tntf 
choose. 
In Qidff thai this co'Opention may be real estd effeotual, the fldloiriflg 
predee beadi are gi>-en. Any one perMnally naalMJng in tay of iheie or 
I rimOw works wiU be deemed to falOl thla condition. 

1. Seeking out OatboUc ohildnn who are not in achool, and tnaU^f A 

cennu of them. 
& Vkiting the houea of their panutta, and uigisg then t« ioad iMr 

children to schooL 
3. Taking charge of one or mora ehildrea or *■«■»**— j and waUihing over 
the ottoodaaoe of auch children at wAuxiL 



IiUereaU (\f the Oaikolic Poot* 



111 



^ JaiMuliiig childnn who nuij be Iroin luijr cauno kept frotu oobixi), or 

vbo DUf hftTe Wft it, Ai thair own h<aoee or elsewhere. 
& Foaung or aaiMtipg in Ni^^i Mko<^ e^MciiUlx tlwae for btqri, 
V C OsDdtMtiiig duldnii to Mm* oo SondAjr* and FfMta of obligftitom 
I 7. TWoUfeg in OoofiBtinufciM of Ohnstiia dootrine, and iho like, or iu 
BuzuUy Mhook. 
B. Visiting >iud cnoourtftiii); Um TeMihen Of eabool*, bj sbowing intorost in 

thrir work, niid bj jircsente of books, &c 
0. Eoconnpng thp cliildroti, by ginng rewuda and annual recrGationa. 
10. A]i«l»tliig anf cMldrcn who show a Atneas or dcairo to become School 
Tondhen. 
_11. Watching over ooe or more^ wbctlier boya or g:irl«, who hare entered 
liilo employment and Beirice, by comnitmicatiug with thoni through 
tlirlr mutezs or employenu 
\% Ptovidiug uinuiif for making the daya of first Communion and of Con- 

firniAUon more marked and solemn. 
13. Dislnbtiting good booki, roaarioa, and oly'ocU of piotjr among children. 
1-L Profidiu^ moMU for rotrcala for chtl<lren in conrcnta or otherwise, 
IS. SulMtrribin;,' to any oxisLing C»Lh<ilic school, parochial or other) an 
Rafonoator}* or ladnstrial echoobs to Or|)luuia{{(>K, R«fiij;c«, the Im- 
macohite ConcoptitHi Charity, or any other work for the bcnoili of 

I6> Abating to fbund new sehoobi or hoiui^ nf rcligiotu for tlm uira of 

cUtdrcu. 
17. BufaacrilMog to the Ccntrul Diocetiun Funit for Educatinii. 
1^ Employing lime and pfLs, natunU and uctiuinnl. in work of any kind 

'' '' '>- benefit of UuaAvDciatioit. 

10. ¥ nnanent system by which nich works sliall 

-^<.m1 for ule. 
£0. Y-: . .ons to ooUeet abu for any aidatlug 

Sdvol, Reju){e, or Ur^ihanagn 
XL Teaching and directmg Sohoob ai Manigen, Maston, Mbtreaaea, 

Pupil Tuich>-n>, or AMiatantit, 

I 1 uc«d nut cxjjIiciUy wy that iho lurt condition in already abundantly 

1 by the Clei^^y SrciiUr and Ro^.tilar, and \rf nil ItcUjirious of wbataoever 

IT, -mho at this lime are ao naknuly and oompawionatcty tabonring to 

I and to Mire our poor ohihlren. No further enrolment of their nAioea 

iMvdad thu that which already buorilxM them In (he Bftrffrfattirel onler 

iTdwIHoocM. 

Tn aDantrs a i«al iMttdpati^jn In nonic unc or luorc of thcae w»y« of eo- 
•pMBllail to Ike woriE of Ihs j>oor rhildren, all pt-rsoni nnodating thmuMelrs 
iHtl J atei Uly rtx u|>mi tbr kind of fliarirtanrn tbry wiD ondntakc, ind will 
mm Iha mm» to Iha B«rtor of Ibe Mbiftoo in whhdl they mide, to theit 
ftw lB . or to tta SMntaric* of Uit Aaaoci kl io n . 

Ibi diwclii of t)w AjMMlMte ti MilUBteA to tba Dim nii Obttadlof 
EAMMtiOtt, wmaAvX ly the Diooemn Iiupoctor, ibe Bev. & O. M a wifll aa, 
lUB«r. W.Bufhr, Uw K«r.W. fi. AiiMoa,tiw Bw. V.l!U)V>n%k,uAa. 



I 



m 




112 Interests of the OathoUc Poor* 

I refrain from all other words in calling on you to help me in this wrak <rf 
mercy, which must be perBeveringly done firom school to school, street to 
street, house to house, save only the words of onr Divine BedeemOT : ** It is 
not the will of your Father who is in heaven that one of these little ones 
should pensh " — S, Matth. xviiL 14. " And whosoever shall give to drink 
to one of those little ones a cnp of cold water only in the name of a disi^de, 
amen I say to you, he shall not lose his reward." — S. Matth. x. 4S. 

4< HENRT EDWABD. 

Christmas, 1865. ArMnahop of WtdmintUr. 



^VESTMINSTER DIOCESAIJ FUND. 



The following figures represent, with as much certainty as is at praeDt 
attainable, the extent of education among our OathoUc Poor, and the needs 
which are to be supplied. 

1. The two following statements are made by as accunite estiinatea as we 
are able to arrive at 

The first estimate gives : 

Population of the Diocese 176,000 

Children of age to be at School 29,000 

Children well educated 11,000 ) 

Children insufficiently educated 11 ,000 S 29,000 

Children without education 7,000 ) 

The .sccoud estimate givcti : 

Population 15(i,(KH> or 160,0(K> 

Children 3(>,(H>0 or 35,0(H) 

C?hildrenof higherand iiiiiUllc cliisa 5,0lX) ) 

Poor Children who oujjht to tw in > 3(,>,000 or 35,000 

School 25,tHXi or 30,0f)0 ) 

Poor Children well educated 15,000 

Poor Children really or practically 

uneducated 10,000 or 15,000 

Z may here olKierre that the 148 Schools of the Diocese cannot oontain 
more than 15,000 Children, so that there is not School room, at this time, 
for more than one half of our poor Children, if attending daily. 

As to Children who may be called uneducated, the second statement gives 
as a mean number 12,000. But in order to avoid all risk of exaggeration, I 
will take the first estimate; and, passing over the Children insoffidentfy 
educated, who are put at 11,000, will take only the 7,000 Children who, in 
this estimate, are stated as altogether without education, that is, witJioat 
means of education. 

In order to provide for these 7,000 Children, 35 Schools osq^le of hddiBg 
^f)0 each would he required. 



TnieresU of the CafhoJic Poor. 



113 



Ib order U> proride 35 such Schoola, at least ^200 n ynax for oush Scltool 
«milil be rcMpiirr^l, or an anniml income of iTT/MX). 

i. It U mnrc tluui prolHible tlint nhctve 1,000 CnlhoUc Children am now 
d*Uumd ill Worklioti«e Schools. 

Uj the Nimc compaUtiou iire Schools of 200 each irould be ncciled to re- 
cfive IhU MKnod cIah; but iiifinuuch lu thexe Ohildreu would W, not day 
but entiroly nuuntniuctl, a Urgor sum voiiUl bt* ti(-cded fnr mch 
>L tiuppoiing tbe mAintcnnnce to be provided out of the public mt<», 
not Ins than £400 a year would be further tvqninHl fur the rent and 
mtiutpnwnt of each nf mch SchooL-i, or in other wonbt il:i,i)4)U a jear. 

X To thin mnH bo iiddeil tiint wu imwsou in the DtociM one B«foniiator>' 
SdKNrf lor Boys, oiie Indiutriol f^chool for Both, and ono for Qirb. 

Wtt an ftt this moment compelled to refuse both Boys and Girls for wont 
«f room. 

To rrmler tlie« throe cxinting Tostitntlons adeqnate to tho needs of Lon- 
4aa, at leaat an income of £1,000 a year would be required. 

T p«k by* for the present* all other subjects rt^Utiii^ to our Schools, for 
whkli an Income it noodcd, Roeh as the cucoonif^meDt of Pupil Teachers and 
Mwterv, who arc now oflvti loxt to Ufiiby the sinAlhiets of their remunerntiuu. 
I ennfine mywif to the ritid neee«sity of saving the poor Children who ore 
nady tn pcruh. 

Frum the figatta above given it in evident tliat a aum of XIO,000 a year 
wmihl barely ■lulfic*' for the present neeibi of our deatitHto Children, putting 
Om ntmiWr of thcui at tho lowest li^re. 

Now t Itave slender hope of seeing this saui mixed in my lifc-timo. Ttiit I 
have a perfect cnnfidunco tlmt it nill U* raised hereafter. My succciMoni will 
■re tile fulAtruent of whnt we now \K-o\n ; but if we do not make the br^^in- 
ai&y, Llieir wurk will b«< irnleflnitely retAnUiL I shall be content if I may 
■M tlie Fund cif&teil, and tho work bo^n. 

It nia/ be aafsly affinnetl that every £100 canso* the expenilitnre of £iiv\ 
tiUa^ tntn Oovcminent Knmts, weekly payments, and local conLribniions. 
IflcovU T*i*c an income cfX*l,(^K^> a year for this Fun<], I rlo not doubt 
th*t a Amhcr nun of £2.ins> a year would b« called into uctirity. If tho 
I^bhI mrn raised tn X3,ntKi » year, probably the whole i^um of XIO/hM) 
a ysar would 1m) oddtMl to our wurk of educatiou. 

It is to aid me ui this vital work that I uow app«ttl to yon by every motivo 
tf th« Kaitli : above all, for the love of aouU. 

I>anUioas will, of ciounie, ba of griat Mnrioe in parchaaing^ or fitting np of 
1l«iaea and HchooU 

Bal Sitbacriptiaiu to crtat* an annmd Income are fiir mor<' neretaaiy. 

I vmU aak of yon to pv your name for as laijio an umual sum as it li in 
7air|«nRr lu affurd for tho first formatinn of this work. After a f#w years 
I tmt it will luiro inithetvd to iisolf mffioient contribution* to mmrf ita 
pl|*(ilitv and is ''(trUBion. A> in ihc rone of a Rrfii^ or (>r\^hatm(£;p. VVa 
('i' '•-I Btr st tltv tmbH'f. ifjt can Iw aastslnl for tW ihrrr m fix« 

-Jfa JCJI/. [Ac/f AVivVj.J I 



114 Interests of the OathoUe Poor, 

first years, it con altnoat always thenceforward go tdone. So it is with Uie 
first creation of this Diocesan Fund. 

I would, therefore, with all the earnestness and urgency I can, b^ of the 
charity and generosity of the Faithful to render their fullest assistance, by 
contributing for three, five, or seven years, as large a SubecriptioD as they are 
able. 

Every hundred a year secured for three years would probably enable me to 
establish a School, which, once in activity, would gradually gather to itself 
the means of its own subsistence, and thereby set free the original grant for 
the founding of another SchooL 

And I would ask of you the further kindness of a reply as speedily as yon 
conveniently can. It would be rendering a double help to this effort if you 
would enable me to announce your name and contribution at the Meeting to 
be held at St. James's Hall on Thursday, Jxmo 14th, at One o'clock, to which 
I ewTiestly invite you. 

I will add only the words of our Divine Master, for whom, and in whoM 
Name, I ask your help. " It is not the will of your Father who is in heaven 
that one of these little ones should perish." 

if* HENRY EDWAED, 

Arelibiahop of Wetlminsier. 

Almost while these sheets are wet in the printing-office, & 
meeting has Taeen held in St. James's Hall which cannot fail 
to give an impetus to the especial department of Social Science 
referred to in the preceding documents ; the Catholic edncation 
of our poor neglected children. Under the presidency of his 
Grace the Archbishop, a series of resolutions, moved and 
seconded by influential laymen and priests, pledged the meeting 
and the Catholic public to strenuous exertions to rescue our 
poor little "Arabs" from ignorance, from vice, and from 
proselytism. A correspondence, as our readers are aware, 
had previously debated in the Catholic papers a question 
comparatively unimportant. That question was, the figure at 
which were to be placed these wandering tribes. We call it 
unimportant by comparison, because, as the Archbishop has 
most truly said in his late pastoral : — 

It may be safely affirmed that thousands of Catholic children in London 
are without education. Two very careful and guarded calculations have been 
lately made of the number who may be said to 1>c practically without educa- 
tion. One of these estimates tbciu at twelve thousand, the other at seven 
thousand. We refrain from giving our own conjectures, wishing to avoid 
all semblance of exa^ration, and earnestly hoping that we may be mistaken. 
But if there be twelve thousand, or even seven thousand, or so much u 
one thousand Catholic children growing up without Ohristian and Oath<dic 
education, we ought to do penance unlesa ve mxAu vii«^AV»«iif%M^tica. 



hiUrt«U of the CuthoUc Poor. 



115 



That thtw ttn not one Uionttuid only, but seven Utoosand at least, may, 
! belivre, with prrfcct certAUitj be nf!lruicd. And if so, it La a fuct suffici- 
llr i«mbl« ftod Rppalliog tu tin^ all needless Hlf-indnlgonce vitb bitter- 
, U)d to brenk our indulcnt peace diky and iiigbt The rain and depravity, 
f the perrendon «nd apoctocy of one Utptiaed child is a Borrow which braika 
tb* Iwul of a Cfttber or » molher. The Iom of one wul, and that one of God's 
littW oooB, oaly the other day innocent and in iiniuu with God, luokpta 
vouad in the ncnd betrt of Je&os. Uow us it that wc can cot and drink, 
U> iknm and riw3 ap in nQconscioiuaeu and insensibility at the apiriUial 
daatli of thourandii bcfom our eyes i 

If la any un« |)Lu9e u thousand cJiildren without education were to be seon 
tpgatber, wc ihould be borriliod. But though scattered, they exiat, and they 
•R aa deatitulc lu if they were all congregated in one of our maze of courts. 
Bnag divpenMl, they ojv hidden by fives and by tens here and there ta onr 
tiuonging popuUtiuu, tmd tborrfore escape our eym ; and because they are 
B04 saan, some doubt uf their i^ttatcnce. Let us tliorefore lay well to heart 
that wm ace bflt lilllf of that which, by its vety nature, ties ^thdnwn &oni 
tbe fyas of Catholics, nuinely. the Oitholiw who, neglecting their own souls, 
ORgbct also the flonlH of their children. 8nch CathoUcs keep out of our 

Wo have only space to add, that the responso to an appeal 
thos calmly, though most earnestly made; based, not on 
rhetoric, but on facta oa proved by statistics, and falling by 
their own weight on the public mind, has been most en- 
Conmg^ing. More than a thousand pounds were announced as 
the imiDodiate result of the meeting itself: making up, wo are 
iafonnGi], a total uf some £6,700 since the first of the tiro 

_^ f*goinjf papers was issued. But the good elicited will go 
fcrther thnn this. Even money falls short of the value of 
public opinion. Wo live in times of strange disruptions, and 
■tranger coalitions. Tf we can establish the fact, tliat while 
our neods are groat, onr grievances are yet greater; if we can 
thow that our children, with no crime but poverty, ore left to 
the alternative of the open evils of the universal street, or the 
Mcladed evils of non-Catholic institutions, we shall ultimately 
hsvo the pub'i ' r England as a Minos to pronounce on 

_Oiir bclinlf u m arhitrium, and the Tiwif* newspaper 

t n. Morcnry oil' most eloquent pleading. 



i 



\% 



116 



Art. Vn.— the NEGRO IN AFRICVI AJ^D THE WEST 

INDIES. I 

The Albert Xijanz<i, Great Bfuin of ifm While NiU^ antl Exptorniion* i>/ 
the NUt Sources, iiy y.viiUKi, White JjAKiiR, M.A. With MapiJ 
IlliiiLmttuiiti, mill PurtmiU. 2 Voltiincs. MnciiiLllftu. Iii>(t6. ' 

IN two most intcrcstitijv rolumes, whick it is hardly posBiblaj 
to lay down when onco tnkon np, Mr. Bukor recordflj 
Bimply nml unafTectoUl^'j Iho history of an importunt gco-^ 
gitiphicfll discovery. Speko and (Jrant had iilready proveci 
that one source of the Nile was from a vast lake, lying 
exactly under tho Equ-itor, in longitude 33° East, and whicHi 
they called by the name of oar Queen. They had traced tht^ 
river which ibsucs from tho north end of this luko almost con* 
tinuonsly ahcnit cno hundrtHl and fifty niilos, to tho ^eat Ka» 
nima Full^, at which it suddenly turns from its southerly course 
and rung due west. In that direction thoy were prevented frctm 
penetrating by a war among- the natives ; they therefore pro- 
ceeded to Uio south, and Btruck the Nile again after goinj; 
about one hundred miles. Tb waa then flowing towards tho 
south-east, at a level near 1,000 feet lower than that of thu 
Victoria Nyanza. What was more important, it had beea; 
Hooded when Spoke .ind Grant left it, and was free from fiood.^ 
when they a^iin mot it. Tliis circumstance alone would hnvo 
convinced them that it had passed through a lake whicli, not; 
having as yet beeu oveiiiiled, had absorbed the flood. The 
native accounts, moreover, stated that (after passing tho 
Karuma Falls) it i*au westward for several days, and then fell 
into what thoy called thoTiuta N'zige, or "dead Locust Lake.*' 
Speke, on their authority, believed tliis to bo a small lake. 
41r. llakcr has explored a considerable part of it, hut withoat 
ascertaining exactly either its sonthern or tiortliern shore. It 
is at least aa large as the Victoria Nyanza itself, probably 
much larger. If- extends 170 miles farther nortli, and 
accordiu;^' to tho native accounts, nmch farther to tho South 
also. This vast inland sea, not improbably as large as any 
even in North America, is called by Mr. Baker the Albert 
Nyanza. It lies about Boventy miles west of tho Yictorift 
N>anza, 2,218 feet above tho sea, and receives the torrent* 
which flow in abundance down tho lofty mountains wliioh 
bouad tho prcat Nile basm to the west. These wore seen 
from the lake, towering at least TjO^t) fe(A, f^\^ \V, o^ud arc 



I 



7V»<! JVryro tw Africa and llto West /jitfiW. 



117 



gMlnoct to tho full violence of tropical rains. ITic Nile may ' 
Bvtibably bavo other feeders, perhsips some from other great 
HiJcos; be Ibia, howoverj as it may, KugliyU adventuivra iu 
bur Atw have solved llio problem which has puzzled the 
leivilize<l world at leOHt eince tho davH of Herodotus. More j 
BfMBf kable ftii\, tho last, and by no means tho least, im- i 
Jfaftfciit diHcuvery, hnx been Hbared by a lady. Mrs. BaVor, 
r irhose life yet dawuud at so early an ago, that womanhood 
nraa still a future," replied to all the reprcijontatioDS of her 
Basbaod as to the dangers of the route, iu the wards of Kuth, 
P" Entreat mo not to leave thee, or to return from following 

aAtir th.eo ; for whither thou goest I will go, nod whero thon 
Ljodgert I will lodge ; where ttou dieat I will die, and there 
Bvill 1 be buried ; the Lord do so to me and more also, if 
hu^t but death part thee and me." Accordingly she actually 
Pbovo hhn company through dangers compared with which, 
kkoee of a series of gcncml engagcmonta would have been 
biigbtj and after multiplied hiiir-brcadth escapes returned with 
nim in safety. Mr. Baker delights to tell with a generous glow 
bf admiration, how the expedition must have failed more 
llliBn once, without her presence of mind and rcivdy wit. How 
ifrvat the field opencu bv otir modem explorers has been, is 
raUin enough by merely Itroking at tho map. Thirty years 
Bgu Kntce was believed to have discovered the sources of tho 
CKilo. Tho southern shore of tha Victoria Nyanza is nearly 

twice an far from the Delta as is the source of Bruce's Nile. 

It is possible that tho extremity of the Albert Xyanza itself, 

or some other source, may be much farther still. 
L Wo mast not allow ourselves to accompany this daring couple 
nit Ihrrjiigh theirdangers and discoveries. On the point of start- 

i the limits of European life, they detected a plot among 

lliii.r V.M1U followers to mutiny and murder Mr. Baker. Dangerit 
uiid difficulties seemed to multiply at every step. Impoasi- 
tbilities met them everywhere, if they had not resolved, with 
rKapulcon, not to ndmit the vile word. Nothing less than nn 

ob«tinjicr. which woidd have boon called mad if it hnd not 
-JBlcocipdcd, conld ha\'e prevented their turning back nt every 
|bll^« Everything had to l>o overcome, and there were no 
HMMiBfi of overcoming it. They are over and over again 
HPbdon*^d. br-travpd. and plotted ugaiust by their own follower;, 
Bofrr -;, iind far worse, by the Turkisli slavo 

Km]' <( thorn OS spies,) cxhnnRtod by starvation, 

■baked by the sun, nnd misoncdby multiform mi«emota. Nu- 
Miri'"- — nld havT> cfrectrd their success excopt an'irouvcwAuNlwc 
[ I (7 in »pito of nn/KWyibilities. Mra, Haktr W* ^ %v 

btA^ir *rhub prodacoa hnuxi /over. Her husbn,ui\V\m&Q\^ J 



118 The Negro in Afnc<i and the West Indirs. 

ill a^ bardly to be able to walkj " morcbed by the side of J 
litter" without sleeping for seven nights. 

Nature cuitld resuit no longer. We reached a village one erenlog. 
had bceD in rloleat connilsioDs sncccasively ; it vnta all but over. I laLd he! 
down on lior litter within a hut, covered lior with n Scotch phud, and fell 
upon my luut iii-ienailile, worn out with sorrow and Citi^c. My men [mil 
new tinndle to my pickaxe that eTening, and wiught for a dry »pot to dig ] 
grave. The sun htid risen when I voUc. I bad slept, nnd, horriii«l u ' 
idea lloshrd upon mo that she mn.it bo dead, and thai I had not been wifl 
her, 1 storied np. She lay upon her bed pale as marble, and with that mini 
sercnily that the features a^snine when the cares of life no longer set np 
the mind, and the body rcetit in death. The drcadfiil thought bowed 
down ; but, as I gazed upon her in fear, her chest gently baared— not i 
the eonvuUire throbs of fever— bnt natnndly. She was aalfpp ; aad, wfal 
- at a suilden notsc »\i<'- opened licr eyn, they were calm and olenr. She ^ 
Raved. When not a ny of hope remaloed, God alone knows what helped ua 
The gratitude of that moment I will not attempt to dcBoribe [roL u., p. 80)«j 

Tiiiugs are nearest mending when they hare come to tl 
worst. A few dnya later, Mr. Baker " rushed into the lokfl 
and, thirsty with heat and fatigue, with a heart full 
gratitude, drauk freely of the Bourcea of the Nile." The 
ostabiished themselves at a fishing WUage called Vacor* 
where harjxjons for the hippopotamus were as coinmoD l*^ 
nets at Ha±!tiug». 

The bench waa perfectly rioar aand, npon which the waros tolled lika tb<w 
of the sea, throwing up wcedM precisely as ueawecd may be seen in England. 
It was IV grand ui^^ht to look u^jon thia reservoir of the mighty Mile, and to 
watch the heavy swell tumbling upon the beach, white far to the aoalh-vest 
the eye searched as vainly for a bound oa though upui Uic Ailimtic. 

The shore was strewn with the bonex of bumensa fish, )iipiK>|K>tanii, and 
proco<1ilea ; but the bitter reptiles were merely caught in revmge f 
rage comtuitt*d by them, m their flenh was looked upon with di-- , 
nntives of Uiiyoro, They were so immerous and vorurtim« in the Inkc i 
the ualivcH cautioned us uot to allow iho women to rentura into the ^ 
CTcn to the kneca when filling theu* wate^]nta. 



.''y. 



At Vacoviaj where all the party suffered from fever, he at 
last contrived to get boats and began hie journey home 
rowing southward along the east coast of tho Inkc. T! 
crocodile and hippopotamus flwarmed in the watu!-, aud t 
olephunt upon the shore. Xliey came to a flontinjr promonior 
A mass of vegetable matlor had accumulated and jiapyrus " 
grown upon it, till the muss was Giou enough to eup^ 
a man, who could walk "raCTo\y s\wVto%thW?q Vwi unkles 
ao/l ouzo. Ueiieath this raft of vegotoXvou-wtt& eiXTam^sVj ^i 



lupo* 



TheNttjrc in Africa tmd the West Indies. 



119 



tremendous gale of wind and heavy sea 
Lroke off largo porti'onfif and the trind acting npon the rashes 
like fici ' ' -iod floating islands of somo acrea about the lake 
to be i wherever they might happen to pitch." After 

meeting uuu furions Htcrm in a navigation of uhout ono 
hundreu miles north, they came to Magango, the place of 
which ihey had bo long heard where tho Nilo enters the lake, 
iit)..,-t .i.-i-teeu milea from tho outlet by which it passes north. 
A; ^ up tho river far enough to prove its identity with 

thai I- ! by Spehe, thvy began the really terrible task ; 

the III ioy north to Gondokoro, tho village and slave 

dc] ■': 1 1 ill which they had, started. The details of this 
jouiu-;, ivhich are moat interesting, we omit. AYe copy, 
nowever, with real rogrot, part of tho following pa£sago, 
dc — ;' ■'■r- their plans at a time when they were both nearly 
dt en famine and fevur. 

We had DOW given iip all hopr of Gondokoro, an<l -were perfectly rwigned 
to oar£itc. Thin, wc felt 9nre, v&n lu be biiriM iii Chopi. 1 wn>to iiutruc* 
HOM In my JounuU. in ci»t> of deatli, and UM ray heftd-man to bo uire to 
ddhrrr my map*, ohn^-n-Hiinrw, »nd pajwr* to the Enfrluh Oonnil at Khnr- 
tgann. Thii wm mj only oitr, tut I fcarfnl tliat nil iiiy Iftboor nii;,'lit t>e loht, 
If I ilvmld die. I HatI no foor for my vir<>.im ih>; «*» ({ulte iw had oh T, uid 
If an* ihDtUd die Ibo olkor wonld ^'criaiiily fuUov ; in fact, tiiu bad been 
i^mdnpon lent thp should fall into ihu hnmLi of Kanirui at my dttUi. 
W € had vtni^lrd luinl to wb. nod I lluitikcd Uod w« hnd woo ; if dMtIt 
to Iw tho price. Rt all cTcnls wt' wprc at tlie gax\, and we Imtli looknl 
dtftth mtlwr u n plmiufv, «a atTording rut ; there wmdd l>o no raoro 
DO frrcr, no long jonnwy bcforr tu, that m our weak state wis im 
ioo ', the onlf wish ww to lay down the bnrdcn (toL ii., p. 161). 

At last tho king, Koznra&i, who had leil them to come as 
tks tnight bo to actual death, in order to make his own 
I, i«nL fur them. )Ir. Baker baved him from TorkiBh 
inradors by hoisting the Bntisli Hug, and declaring his country 
asneaed to the dutninion of Qu<^cii Victonn. He recovered 
Kunaelf from the gutcs uf death by manufacturing whisky 
firosn Bwcct potutoea to the groat duligbt of King Kamran, 
who will be likely enough to poison luuiself and his people by 
Uio lue ho means to make of the secret. At latit ho managed 
to start one« mora homeward. Bangor still dogged Uicm by 
water and by land. Tho boat in which th«v descended the 
Kilo ^ *< d wHth the plague. Their followers died ono 

«ft«r c> ITio vcBtol waa so horribly ofic-nsiw as to bo 

anl)«amblL>. " All night wn could hear the sick, muttering 
and rsgin;? in dtdiriam; but from years of AMOCMkUuu V\vn. 
di«apTC«*hW. we had no fi»r of infection.** 

7w cxtracta ire imvc given will bo cnougU to ^tO'*© 







120 TfiQ Kogt-u m Aj'riai ami the West Indies, ^H 

Mr. Bakcr'6 book if* a contrast to most bouks of A/noUl 
tmvtil, whicli nro usimlly as dry and luonotouous as thoJ 
deserta thoy describe. Mr. Baker must have had t^^diousuGssI 
enough, but he does not bestow any of it on his readers, UaI 
has givL'u us one of tho moat readable and interesting booksl 
■vrc hnvc seen for a long time. Tbis is owing both to thai 
Bpiril with which he tells his adventures, and to his nndor-l 
standing how to leave untold, as well as how to t<:ll. Uifl 
whole voyago occupiod about four years and a half, front! 
March, 1861, to the autumn of 1865, when he once more camo 
into Kuropcan life at the ffrcat Kuglish hotel at SaoXj and 
found himself uiuong a crowd of his countrymen and country- 
women. 

There are phases of savage life which exert an irresistible 
attraction over nny who have once become habituated tO| 
them. Such is not the life of the African savage. Mr. Baker's 
Journal says, " There is no difference in any of these savagcs-l 
If hungry they will fawn upon you; and when filled they willl 
desert. I believe that ton yeare' residence in the iSoudan and'1 
in this country would SfJoil an angel, and would turn tho besfel 
hoiirt to stone." He believes, on insufficient grounds, tha 
these nations arc without tho idea of God or of a future states 
and apparently he would udd of good or evil ; and this leads! 
him to suggest tho strange theory, that they ai*e the romaina 
of a race older than Adam. He says, p. 316 : — 

Whether the niou of oontral Africa be prfr-Adomito is unpo±«tbIe Ut 
I doUnuitjc. But the idcA is sag^estcd by the foUowiiig datA. The hutoriml 
r ori}(iu tif umn, or Adam, commences with a knowledge uf Gad. '^b^ou^hoat 
the history of tho world, from the creation of Adam, God U CL>nuect«d with 
mankind iu every creed, whetlier wonihipped os the niiivcrsiU Kubhrne Bpirit 
of Omnipotence, or shaped by the forms of idolBtry into represcntacioiu of a 
deity. From the creation of Adtini m/inkiod hns acknowledged its infcrioritr, 
and mmt bow do^vn and wonship either the true God or a gmvon image a 
Romethiog that is in heaven or in earth. The worid, as we necept th^t t^nu, 
mu dwftyB acttuted by a natural religious iiiBtinct. Cut otf from thai world ; 
lost in the myisteriotts disniiiee ih.tt AhrouJed tho origin of iho K;;>i*<iiuiJ 
Nilo, were t»c^ imkiKiwii that bid iitiVcr lieen reckoned in tho greiil suiij oil 
history— ra*"ea that we hiv? hrotif;hl to light, whnso exialffncc hnd l»cea | 
bidden from mankind, Hnd Uuit now appear before its like tho fosail I 
bones of anlo<lih)VLan omuials. Arc they veittigcs of what existed in a pr^.j 
a Adamite creation 1 I 

I To do him justice, the author docs not seera to have bccnl 

f ftwaro llmt ho wftii touchinj^.m important religious qncstinu ; on 

thnt any vnc vou\<X Ijo shucked at his theory i)n rc'li'^iutis ^rouudsJ 

CuasidonDg^ tho prevalent tone ol' VvoVcaVouuVj ttjv:^;^^ Sx^^ofl 




diy, this ta not noudvrful. But wo do wonder tlmt he did uufc sue 
tfatti the IhcNjry of race, which he suggests in this and another 
posM^Br would underminu the first principles of tho greatest 
aad most important difference, between the soeiul couilitiou of 
Uie Christian and the hcutli(>n worlds. Ancient hcatlica society 
WAS built Qjion the theory that each rHco and nntion wa.s the 
growth of its own soil, and had its own gods, its own modes 
of worship, it« own rule of right tuid wrong. Hence, the 
moat civilized nation of tbo heathen world ucliborately held, 
thut towards men of any other race they had no duties, except 
»uch ns they mig^ht voluularily huve undertaken by treaty — 
men tii<frov^oi hod no rights. Tho first principles of modern 
society, on the other hand, are built upon the great truth 
decUivd by S. I'aal to tho Athenians : Dcus fecit ex uno 
[Greek t^ li*^ o7/juroc] om»& genua hominum inhnhliate 
suiter t»»M-r/-«<iiit jiKum tiiT(n : and on the restoration of that 
troth to practical power in tho Christian world, nbt non est 
Orutilit ct Jtfl'Jtiix, circnmcisio ct j^nvifuHuiu, Intrbarua el 
St^ylha, Jtcrviiit it tiber, sed uniuta ft in omnihits Chriniiis. To 
destroy the belief in man's unity of race, is not only to asHail 
& most vital and fundamental truth of Christianity, but to 
ondorminc the rery foundation of European eirilization. 

It is only natural that those who assume that different 
human families ore distinct specieSj should go on to infer that 
like the difU-neut species of brutes, each has its own nature, 
aud however it may be trained cannot rise above it. Mr. Baker 
accepts this consequence in tho fullest sense. His estimate of 
negro nature ia : — 

k^n*flffT^ 1 belicTf the iwgn) to bo in advuncp, in i&t«noctaiil quick- 
jf tti vUle child of a ainular a^, but the mind iIoc« not expond— it 
las frail* bnt doct not ripen ; aoA the Degro qi w has grown in b<Mly, 
_ hn not a(lT«ne«4l in iiitetlcct. The pappy tf thrcti luontlu ot<l ii 

toperiur in tnt«llii^ai' tu a diilii uT the Bune o^ ; but the niiml of the chihl 
vx|Mndji, whi)'' tluit of the dog han Arrived at its Hmit. In the grrot (lysteiQ 
f4 awtifio ihnt diridnl rBCvn »nd kubdtvulcd thrm Accordinif to nijKterioai 
knr^ apportionin^g operial f]na1itirK to mch, the \tu*icttn of Iho biuimn ntco 
nduNi cvrtain cWrjirtt^r* anil •iimlificitttonA which adapt thrm lor eiMX>ilic 
lucmlitioL Thr uAtuml ctianic't«r or thuM nuxn will not ultrr with n chitu;;o 
•C looitttT, but tlir iiutincLd of c-Jich race v-ill be iit.<ri>lu|H'<l in &iiy countiy 
wkrrv ihfT niiiv Im> jomird. Thui, tin* Kn^lixh an 0% Kngliab in AnNlmliH, j 
tadijit and Aiiirria na thry arc tn Eogtant] ; aitj in ercry locality they \ 
aUbk tb» iadnatrj and viwrgjr of Uieir D*tiT« IaihI ; evni to th* African will 
fVBMia tkotra In jjl hia natnnl iustineta, although truuplsntffL la tAjhrt 
Mitta; axa] thoae mSaml itutinctM bcinjn a luvfi <A tdWcia «a\ tiKniif.- 
lier^ h' »ril itmtredfy jr/apM iuto an idlo and myi^ aUte nWiwn v^^Vl 



122 Tlie Negro in Africa and the West Indiee. 

governed, and forced to industry. The hiatoiy of the negro has proved the 
correctness of thia theory. In no instance haa he evinced other than a retro- 
gression, when once freed from restraint. Like a horse without harness, he 
runs wild ; but, if harnessed, no animal is more useftJ.* There are produc- 
tions necessary to civilized countries which can be cultivated only in tropical 
climates, where the wliite man cannot live if exposed to labour in the sun. 
Thus, such fertile countries as the West Indies and portions of America 
being without a native population, the negro was originally imported as a 
slave to fulfil the conditioas of a labourer ; and in the state of slavery the 
negro was compelled to work, and through his labour every country prospered 
where he hail been introduced. He was suddenly freed ; and from that 
moment he refused to work ; and, instead of being a useful member of 
society, he not only became a useless burden to the community, but a plotter 
and intri;:^uer, iinlnied with a deadly hatred to the white man who had 
generoTisly declared liim free. Kow, as the negro wa« originally imported as 
a labourer, but now refuses to labour, it is self-evident that he is a miserable 
failure. Either lie must be compelled to work by some stringent law against 
vagrancy, or those beautiful coimtries that prospered under the conditions ci 
negro forced industry must yield to niin under negro freedom and idle inde- 
pendence. For an example of the results, look to St Domingo. 

"Mr. Baker^s view, therefore, is, that no education, no 
training, no change of circumstances, can make of the negro 
anything else than an idle, bloody-minded savage; that ho 
cannot be induced to work except by force; that our funda- 
mental mistake has been to suppose that, in time and after 
due preparation, the posterity of African savages might be 
prepared for the influence of the same motives which operate 
upon Europeans — such as the desire of maintaining themselves 
and their families. We might just as well have hoped 
that, by careful training for several generations, we should 
teach our household dogs to speak, read, and 'writ©, or our 
horses to fly. In fact, negroes will work only under com- 
pulsion, they are not capable of any other motive. 

Unfortunately Mr. Baker's theory on this matter exactly 
falls in with the prejudices of tlio educated classes in our 
days. Public opinion, in all free countries, but especially 
in England, is governed by reactions, and the last thirty 
years have brought about a wonderful reaction of feeling 
with regard to all the less favoured families of tho human 
race. Mr. Trevelyau gives a curious and by no means 
pleasant account of the change of feeling in Europeans 
towards the natives of India. Thirty years ago the terra 



* Space alone compelrt us to make many omissions in thia passage, which 
extendi from pp. 287 to 294, vol. u. If wecowXAVEwe (gseii.\.\iR-nWe,the 
aatbor's theory would have been more HttoiiR\y eiCtainXfti. 



Thi Neyro in Africa and ih*3 West IndUa. 123 

I WAS " tbo mild Hindoo," uovr it is the " damned 
aiggvr." The some change is strongly manifested in tho 
ootnmonU apon tho wars in New Zealnnd and the Capo 
Colonr. But it 13 strongest with ix'gnnl to tho ucgro. 
Thirty ycurs ago he waa decidedly tho fnshiou. This was 
nAluz^ unuugh. Tliu British public felt ttiwanls tho cmnn- 
eipat«d hUvcs as a fine lady is apt to feel towards a re- 
markably ngly and uaelcM pet-dog, upon whom in the 
exerciae of her sorereigpi capnce she has been pleased to 6k 
bcr affections; or aa parents are apt to feel towards a spoiled 
child who is ngly^ u little wanting, and very disagrccablo in 
teizLper, and whom, on these groonds, every one else votes to 
be intolerable. In all such cases it is notorious that the 
gouoral dislike only endears the faronrite to those, who have 
oom«, »omehow or other, to identify it with themselves. Julia 
Man Bering (a kcon observer of character) declared that her 
fiU&er patronised on this pi-iuciple Dominie Sampson and a 
remarkably hideous pug-doK, because no ono else conld 
endure tbeim. Then the tendency to make much of those to 
whom VTQ have done some spocial favour and benefit, is as 
natnral and as strong as that which leads men to hate those 
whom thoy liare injured, Tho British nublic felt that it had 
made a rml and greiit Bacritice for the negroes. It had 
bought thorn for twenty millions sterling, aud it was uot 
going to admit that it had made a bud bargain. Besides, a 
more generous feeling told in the same direction. The 
aegroes had unquestionably been tUtrcated, and were just 
reatored to the rights of humanity. An educated negro was 
a b'on in London society. Ho was not made quite ho much 
of afl Garibaldi wns the other day, by plenty of people who 
heartily hate rorolntion, of which all the rest ol tho world 
rogard him us tho type. But the feeling was of the same 

•on. 

From all thin any farsightcd man might have foretold a 
greai rpactinn. For tho reigoing entbu&iasm could not fail to 
ntSfl < na which could not possibly be realized, and tho 

diaapp. :.-.ii must bo provoking. Tlio emancipated negro 

vaa ki be a bright examplo to all the world of the blessed offeeta 
of British freodom and a proof of British wisdom. All this would 
not have been txpcctc<l of any savages whom clmnco might 
bare tlirown upon Mome We.*t Imiinii islimd. But too much 
conld not be ex]H>ct«d from slaves omanripatrd upon prin- 
ciples nf puro hunianitv and at so groat a coRt. Strnngu l<» 
lay, it waa furgvftton tlmt ono main argument a^n\n&V ftVA\'V:TN 
had Mlwaja been that it made the slavo until for freedom 
iiut mmster aaSt to deal with free Inbourvn. 'BoQUQW 



I 






t24 



The Negro in Africa and (he West TutUfs. 



pour people liad been trainotl up in tlte worst possible scliool, 
und because they were left to bo gfovemcd by a local Ip^isla- 1 
turc conipased of ex-slavo owners, who bad oppoaeil thoipj 
emancipntion to the last moment, and liad always prcdictedl 
that it must lead to irremediable evilSj tberetbro people cnmol 
to the conclusion that the emancipated negroes were sure tol 
exhibit to the whole world a bright example of the good effects 
of fi*ee labour. No ixuisoiiablo man nmicr such circumstancea 
would havo been surprised or disappointed if the experimentJ 
had wholly failed. AVe are told it has wholly failed, and ia] 
proof of this wc arc bid to look at Jamaica and Hayti. 

This is at first sight unreasonable. Jamaica and Uayti 
only two out of a largo number of countries inhabited bj 

, emancij>ated slaves. Even if emancipation had failed there, 
it might have succeeded elsewhere. The Statesmnn'g Manual 
for 1861 gives the coloured population of the Briti^^h West 
India Islands as 1,003,407, of which only 427,439 arc 
Jamaica. What accounts have wc of the others ? 

The best authority for an answer to this question will boj 
found in the returns made to tho British Government by thai 
Governors of the different islands. But as it is not every onoj 
who hns opportunity and leisure to examine them, we 
glad to be able to refer to one more easily consulted. The 
tjubstuuco of tliese returns ia very ably cpiLumized in 
article in the EiUnhurfjh licview for April, 1869, which 
commonly attributed to the present member of Parliament 
fur Kaat SuiTey, Mr. Charles Buxton. We shall here make 
use of some of the quotations given by him, only assuring 
readers that whenever we have had any occasion of verifying 
the fainiess of his statements we liavo found them fully 
borne out. Our only difficulty is that his matter is so closalj 
compressed and so exactly to the point that it is hardly possibld 
fo make any real use of it without quoting nearly the wholi 
ufhis article. 

First, then, under slaveiy, the West India Islands produc 
only one or two staples. The reason of this is simple. 
labonr ia reluctant labour, and tht'refore can be efTectiiallji 
ujind only when compulsion can be bronght to hear \ipon it 
A " gang" of men digging holes, with a <h'ivor behind armed 
with a long whip, can be kept to their work. The conscquenc^j 
i.H, that slave labonr can be profitably cmploywl only in cerij*i« 
kinds of culti\'ation. Professor Caima says — " If the worlj 
bu such that a large gang can l>e employed with t-fliciencj 
under the eye of a single overseer, the expense of Huperinteu* 
<}f/icc n-i}l ho siighr. If, on the oiVu'V \mi\\\,V\\c wiituro of tbf 

norJk retjuires that the workmon sUoviOiVje iiAWpctvAo^Qt ' 



dtai 



Ji 



I 



I 



I 



TTifl Negn in Africa and /Afl WcbI Indies, 125 

flxteiLilc>d area, the nQinbcr of overseers, nnrl therefore tho cost 
of the labour wliieh i-oquires this supervisioDj will be propor- 
tionally incpeftSrti. Thns tlio cost of slnvo Iftbonr vuriea 
directly with the dej^roc iu which tho work to be douc requires 
diftperBion of the labuurcrs, oud inrersely as it udiiiits of their 
ooncentralion.** Tfo shows, also, thnt slave labour is "reluct- 
ant/* " nnskilfnl," nnd "eminently defective in point of 
vcr»tttililv." The result of this was, that under slavery tlie 
We*t IiH^ia Islands, second iu fertility to no country on earth, 
iinporteii the food of all classics from the Goveruor tu the 
lAooorcr. Their exports were only two or throe staples — 
BOgar, coffee, &c. Of course, therefore, no decrease in the 
prodoction of sugar, after slavery was abolished, would prove 
Uijv I -ople did uot work, unless they produced nothing' 

©t I- As n matter of fact, however, the fifteen Hritish 

«u; lies* exported to Great Britain (in 1855-G-7), 

7, l_.. . _ cwt. of sugar, ugiuust 7,405,849 cwt. in the throo 
hut years of negro slavery. Of rum they exported, under 
iiUvery, 2,722,880 galluns; uuder freedom, 4, 074,002 gallons. 
Thew exports were only to Great Britain. Under the old 
■yatom tne colonies were prohibited to tnide with other 
coubtrio^, and therefore tho export to Great Hritain was their 
whole exchangeable produce. They ore now at liberty to 
trade where and with whom thoy please, and a profitable trade 
u carried on with Australia^ tho Utuicd States, and other 

of which we have no account. 
tonnage which entered inwards to eight islands (of tho 

■ : WO liuvo m^t the return) was iocrcased iu 1857 by 
. The tuttd increase must be much larger. 
UnnjU gives some extracts from tho reports of tho 
Uovomoif*, adding, " we liavo always taken tho last 

wo c^uld Uud. IJut Ooveraors vorj' oft«n send 
full of local aU'aua, with no reference to tho general 
Itftto of thf* inland. In all cases, tho later the report tho 
nora g ' it U found to bo.*' Wo can fully con-uborato 

this bL; . - ..: from a toilsome exiuuinatiou of many Uitcr 
nrport*. But here are somo extracts. 

T " emorof Tobago, in 1859, says—"! deny that tho 
pc: .^ro abandoned to slothfulnosji. On tho eoutrar}*, I 




4 



Tlik ODii iiBftd by Irftvirid: out MAiiritiiiii. in which thr prrtdue- 

xitm w veimic <"(Md owiDg ui imniigmiaii, and JuniiicA, in which, 

«via( to cwian intfl whirh we wilTnot «it<T nt prBwnt, their h» born n p^'i»t 
J u M wiifa Mu Thf iviirviitrirt rnlnnim arc BvfiadMti, Doninicu, (tmrntcU^ 
lt«M«nst, > H'in, St. Vin wnl, TobiH5n,TiwUa,'YtttiviWV 



■. 



126 



Tfie Ke^o in Africa aiid ihs WrM Luiict, 



I asaert that a more industrious clasa docs not exist in the 
world — at least, when working for thptnsclvos." ■ 

Sir Charles Grey writes, in 1862 — " There are few races (I 
men who will work harder or more perseveriugly, when th« 
are sure of getting for themselves tuc whole produce of tiufl 
labour.'' fl 

Dr. Davey, an independent and scientific ohserver^ Sftja^ 
" It is a mistake often committed to suppose that the Africa^ 
is by nature indolent^ — less inclined to work than the European. 
He who has witnessed, as 1 have, thoir iudefatigablo an^ 
prudent i ndustry , will bo disposed probably to orerraM 
rather than underrate the activity of the negro, and his love ofl 
or rather I would say his non-avorsion to, labour." V 

To this we may add the testimony of the present Earl GreJ 
It would probably be impossible to name a single Britial 
statesman whose judgments arc so calm, so little influence 
either by prepossessions or by excitement. Ho has, more^ 
over, had unusual and exceptional opportunities of formiafl 
a judgment on this particular subject from the offices he hd 
filled. In the debate this year upon the Jamaica Govenw| 
ment Bill, while arguing that tho Jamaica negroes were not 
fit for the politicaj franchise, ho said that they were an 
eminently industrious race. fl 

We will give another testimony from Mr. Sewell, th^ 
author of a book called the " Ordeal of Free Labour." He 
is an American, and visited Jamaica in 1800 (as he expressly 
tells us), sharing to the full the opinion prevalent in tho 
United States, that the negroes will not work except as 
slaves. Hia own observation soon convinced him to tho 
contrary. He writes — 

"We have heard in the United States of the abandonment 
of properties in tho West Indies, and without much invostipi- 
tion have listened to tho planter's excuse, the indolence of the 
negro who rofuaea to work except under compulsion. But I 
shall be able to show, that in those colonies where estates 
liavo been abandoned, the labouring classes, instead of passinfc 
from servitude to indolence, have set up for themselves, onfl 
that small proprietors, since emancipation, have increased an 
hundredfold. It is a fact which speaks volumes, that withi4 
the last fifl-con years, in spite of the extraordinary price of 
land and the low rate of wages, tho small proprietors of 
Barbadoes holding less than five acres have increased from 
1,100 to 8,637. A large majority of these proprietors wetta 
formerly slaves, subsequently free labourers, and finally Inntd 
owners. This ia certainly an evidence of industrious Iiabitw 
and a remarkable contradaction oX iVo T^Te^ai\\\u% ^^^^-n thM 



Thif Negro in Africa m\d the Wvtt Indies* 



127 



H tKfi negro will work only under compulsion." Of Trinidnd ho 

■ writes, " I hare taken some pains to trace tlie Creole labourers 

H of Trinidad from the time of omancipation, after they left tho 

H estatea and diaporsed, to tho presoDt day; and the great 

P majority of them cou, I ihiuk, be followed, step by stop, not 

downwnnl in tho path of idleness and poverty, but upward in 

tfaoacalo of cirilizalion to positions of greater iudepeodence."* 

From Antigua the Governor reports in 1 858, " Satisfactory 

OTidraco i« afforded by tho revenue retuma of increase in 

Itnuie and mercantile business, consequent upon the revival 
of agricultural prosperity." 
The Bahauuis. — " Tho rapidity with which these islands are 
advancing is indicated by the fact that tho exports and im- 
porU rose from £201, to 7 in 185*i to jC^304-,421 in 1855, being 
an increase of ilU2/,'2-l in one year. Twcnty-threo vessola 
won? built in the colony in tho year 1855." (Koport of 1856.) 

I In 18ol the Governor reports " n great and important change 
for iho better " in the condition of tho people, which ho mainly 
attributes tu improved education. 
Barbodoe*. 1863.—" Vast increase of trade." " So far tho 
meew of cultivation by free labour in Barbadocs \s unques- 
fekmabte/' " lu 1851 more sugar was shipped from this island 
than in any one year since it was peopled ; and it is a re- 
markablo fact that there will bo more lahourcTf^ sugar made 
this Tear llian previously. Sugar exported in 1812, 21,545 
laogriieads; in 1852, 48,785; tho increase being 27,240 
koffiihcadfl." 

In 1658, ^'A Urge increase in the value of exports. The 
' Urn-f nr..n,,i(Inn of land acquired by tho labouring clas&e.i 
■jV. J pmnf of thrir iuttitstry." 

"i iiK' iuii St ri'port from Barbadoes is nnfavournblo as to tho 

amountoftha omn. The ret-ent crops have boon — 1859, 40,343 

hogsheads ' 1,366; 1801, 40,815; 1862, 40,078; 1863, 

43,486. '\i rnor adds, " 1 regret that the crop of this 

roar is again below that of the preceding year, and was equal 

^ only to ?6,107 hogsheads. Tho wonder is how, with the 

B droofrhts of 18G:i and the early part of 1864, the one follow- 

» " immodintfly after the other, it bus been poRsiblo to 

1 ■ fvpn tbMt (pmiitity of sugar from tho parched and 

H|dMi 'inary little place. It ttatjg a (jreot 

^mJkt] . , ' iiiJ-mfnj of fh*^ prr>pir," 

H Dominica, 1858. — "Tho steady maintenance of production 

m -- '-" -f promise as to the futnrt*." The eiporla show a con- 

I Id ini'rcaae under tl»e heads of Bugar, ram, coffee, cocoa, 



' Qttotfd by CumR. pn^ 39. 



128 



Th€ Negro in 



and fhe Weti 7n/?tV«. 



oranges, fruit, tides, ban} wood, and cotton. In 1857 "vorjB 
considerable increase in revenue, and an eqnally marked, ind 
provement in the araonnt of imports." The Governor also dweUl 
npou *' tbo industry of tlie bulk of the population, and on thfl 
great amount of genera! comfort and inaojiendcnco among thfl 
labouring clasBoa in wbicb their industry baa rcaulu-J.V 
" Tbo native labourer, wboso gx*o»ving independence is manil 
festcd in the small 'patches of canes and little wooden millti berfl 
and there dotting tbo chequered plain around,* the significant 
of whioh was ao pointedly alluded to in the lost despatch cl 
your Excellency's predocessoi- — (N.B. this is ibe report of tlifl 
Uoutonant- Governor to his superior, the Governor of Antigunfl 
— has riaen a step higher, and we now sec him becomiiifl 
the lessee of large sugar ptontaLions, regularly establisheS 
with all the usual appliances,''' M 

The last Blue-book tells us that Reform Bills have beeir 
passed in Domiuica, " for rogulatiug oud amending tho 
elective franchise," "for taking a register of voters," and 
for " amending the constitution of the colony ; " all uf 
wbicli have received the Queen's approval. It adds, *' Tin 
behaviour of the bulk of the people is worthy of mention, am 
having been peaceable and admirable in cvciy ifspoct, whofl 
there was no little temptation to indulge in vulgar and fruitless 
demonstrations which so often pi*evail when large constitutions 
measures are under discussion." I 

In Nevis President Kuubold reports, " There seema to be aP 
work an industrious spirit of improvement j cultivation seems 
to be cai-efully attended to." 

In Sfc. Kitts, last year's Bbie-book says, "It is probable 
that the crop ef last year is the largest which the island ever 
yielded since it was planted. 1 regret to say that, owing to 
the drought, unprecedented, except in one case, in the memoty 
of nmn, the crop of the present year will not amount to much 
more than 6,000 hogsheads. Kven this quantity, however, 
shows the great imptx)vemeut which Ims taken plucn in the 
agriculture of the island of late years. I am informed that 
when a siroilai* drought occurred many yeora ago, a singH 
small vessel took away uU the sugar produced in tlio xnod 
fertile part of tlie island." 1 

"Tortola, under slavery, exported 15,559 cwL of sagnnl 
It now exports none at all. Bnt the change is wholly aqj 
advantage. The island is singuliirly suit-ible for tho nvisinJ 
of stock, and accordingly all tho pefiple, with few exoo)ttionM 
are owners of cattle, of which they dispose to great advantage.^ 

In Tobago " the labourers arc described as well bchiumfl 
find wdustriona/* flH 



The Kegro in Jfrva and i?ifi West Indies, 



129 



For other proofs of tlio eaine nntnre we must agaiti refer 
readers to the article from wUicli most, altbougrb by no 
D» the whole, of thoM we have given liave been taikoo. 
fo tnny ho lulced why we havo left JmnaicA out of onr 
sunt. The retuion ia plain. While we write, we are in hourly 
expectation of the Keport of thp Rnyal CommiMsioners sent to 
ttM|ttire into the purticulm-H and the causes of the miscrablo 
trmgedy of hist winter. 'ITiat report, wo tmst. will throw 
tnoch light upon the whole state of society in Jamaica^ as well 
as npon the details of the late outbreak and the proceedings 
whirh followed it. ^Ve therefore postpone all reference to 
rvcoat events. To somo statements about the state of things 
in Jamaica sixteen years back we shall have occasion to refer. 
Mr. Baker, of course, is not bound to bcbovo the evidence 
we bavo already quoted, and which might bo extended to a 
mnch larger amount. We infer from several passnges that he 
liae nerer been in the West Indies. Still, if bethinks ho knows 
more ^bont them than men who have specially duvoted their 
ftttuntioB to their past history and present condition; and in 
pnrtimlar more than the wholo aeries of Governors who have 
■1 them during the last five-and-thirty years, he has 
,t tn his opinii^n. Let him evolve [morr Gttrnmnieo) 
• of his '*' internal consciousness/' a detailed account of whot 
r ftmincipated slaves of the West Indies must necessarily bo 
•nd do, taking for bis diita what he saw of the negro savage 
ill ccnlT»l Africa. We shall only remark that he himself mi^ht 
think it a little que<tr, if a West Indian Governor, founding 
|kit)ion upon his own experience of negroes in Barbadoes, 
positvi't'ly contradict his statements as to what ho saw 
upon the shores of the Albert Nyauza. Still lie will have a 
hglit to his theory. But he has no right to do what he has 
done : Krhich is airoply to pass over without notice all the ovi- 
d- --'ioh cxist-s upon the snbjeot, and to assort, without 
h. [it at proof, a.s if it wore a fact admitted by all men 

atiku; " In this state of slavery the negro was compelled to 
work. He was muldenly freed ; and from that momt-nt he 
refused to work." "As the negro was originally imported 
u a labourer and now refuses to labour, it is sclf-eridout ho is 
■ kimentabic failure." The fact wo believe to bo that ho 
nally tfaonglit it wna a matt*!r on which all men were agreed. 
Tbo aesumptiou is madu communly enoagh in English society, 
MtAj, we believe, npon the authority of the Timf», which 
■yitomaticidlv asacrta it aaan nnrpiestioned fact, that the West 
Indian colonics were flourishing up to the time of cmancipfi- 
Ij,... . ♦t.-f ^(j sacrificed thrir proKpmly to a sonUnw\^VuV\\ytTV)t 
ct '/ that over fmco emancipation tboy Vavo \i0ftu "va*- 



« 



I 



pidly declining, simply bccauBo the ne^ocs refuse to woqn 
that the negroes thumaelvea have diinug these thirty yeaill 
been gi*owing daily more and more barborouB and wretched jn 
that their present condition is tenfold worse, in all reiipoct)t3 
than it vena under slavery ; and that the only hope of stiyl 

I ffood for them, or any prosperity for tho Woat Indies, iu 
xn a Bystera in which they shall bw compelled to work hft 
coercive laws. That this is a fair account of tho opiQionfll 
represeutcJ by the Timc$ on the subject of the negroes of the ' 
West Indies will bo questioned by none of its readers, hardly 
we think by the writers themsL»Ives. The creator part of th^ 
London papers follow suit. For iustnuco, as soon tis a reporn 

I reached England lust Novcnibur that an insurrection hud takeu 
place in Jamaica, and before it was even pretended thafel 
anything more than this had been reported, tho inas3 of tbil 
London newupapors rushed to tho conclut^iou that it was M 
negro couspirucy " for the gratification of revenge, rapine> audi 

blast" (wo quote tho words of tho Tunr») ; and proceeded 

1 to enlarge upon the imaginary f:ict that wages were fi^'highor 
io Jamaica than in England, and work abundant ; and that if 
the negroes were in any distress it was only because they. 

' preferred starvation to work. I 

This notion about the enormous and exorbitant wag^s deM 
manded by tho Jamaica negroeei has been founded chiefly upoal 
a well known paper of Carlyle, published some twenty yearal 
back, in which he describes tho Jamaica negro as " sunk up i 
to the ears in pumpkin, imbibing soccharino juices, and mnoli 
at his ease in creation, and saying, ' Higher wages, Massa; 
higher, still higher,' till no conceivable opulence of cane crop 
will cover sucli wages." Mr. Carlylo does not think it neoea- 
saiy to state what these wages were or what the price of 
living, Upon these subjects wo would refer tho rcaoer to a 
littlo book, called "Jamaica in 1850, by John Bigolow." The 
anthor is an intelligent American (wo believe the samo now 
Minister of the United States at Paris) ; he devotes a ehapttf 
to " Ijabour and Wages," iind sliows in detail, fii*st, that thd 
prices of all tho necpsfiuries of life in JniTiuica w^ero very col 
siderably higher than in England. For iiiatancc : — butter, lu_ 

[ 6{d. a pound; cow's milk, 94d. a quart; goat's milk. Is, 4d.j3 
American cheese. Is. id.; Knglish cheese. Is. 7d.; y'- 
S^d. a pound; eggs, 3Jd. a couple (and during the C- 
holidays 2id. a piece) ; flour, from 08s. to 728, Cd. a 
Next, that wages were never more and often loss tl 
shillinj^s u week, the labourer fmding board and lodging, 
justly mfers that upon such wngos life could not be supped 
ia Jtunaic&. iHeanwhiio, Und vr&a u\)\uiOLO.uV d.tv^ «.! Ww price 



aa 



7%<! Kcfpv III Africa and the Weni 7nr?u'#. 



131 



He Mcertaincd that the nomber of black proprietors (in 1850 
be it rerocrobered) was already " cnnsidcralily over !00,000^ 
and conetontly inrrcapiiif? ; " that of tlioso " Bovcn-tontha had 
b*ea born in slaven* ivad had epent many years of thoir Uvea 
in boodngp; '* ho adds : — 

*' Upon their little tracts thoy raise, not only what they 
ijnire for their own. consumption, but a surplus which they 
te to market, usoally in sntall pannic-rs, upon donkeys, or 
npon rhoir head.i. Nearly every coloured proprietor has 
» donkey, which costs from seven to ton pountls, upon which 
lie packs his produce, and under the custody, sometimes of a 
woman, ol\en of a child, he sends it to town to be converted 
into money, with which ho purchases such articles of necessity 
Of- ' as his laud does not produce, and ho can afford. 

C-i. .^ most interesting spectacles to be witnessed about 

KiDKistoii is presented ou the high road, through which the 
niar^ec [leoplo, with their donkeys, in the cool of the moruiug, 
pour into the city from the back country. They form on 
almost uninterrupted procession four or live miles in length, 
and what strikcg the eye of an American at onco ia their 
9f ■r»edoni from care. Of course it requires no little 

i and energy for a negro, upon tho wages now paid 
in Jamaica, to lay up enough with which to purchase one of 

th- :»ertie8 ; but if he does get oue, he never parts with 

it for a larger or better- Tho planters call them lazy 

for mauljj;^in^ in this feeling of independence." 

Mr. Carlvle wrote, near twenty years ago, "Pumpkins aro 
not the Bolo pro- requisite for human well-being." "Many 
other things grow among these islands useful to man, such as 
■amr, coffee, cixmamon, and precious spices, things for 
nobler than pumpkins, and leading towards commerce, arts, 
poHticA, and «ocial developments, which alone are the noble 
p-^ r>^ men (and not pigs and pumpkins) are the 

y rned;" and then went on: — "Quashee, if ho 

wili not help in bringing out the spices, will got himself made 
a alare again (which state will be a Uttlo less ugly than his 
praaent one), and vrith beneficent whip, since other methods 
arnQ not, will bo compelled to work.*' It is to he regretted 
that Mr. Cftrlvh" does not sometimes ask himself whether the 



powc- 

t'. 

d. : . 

ignorance 



t of which he speaks 

_ .1.,-, t... - ' 



himself in forcible Unguajre is a sufficient 

ng a little trouble to acquaint himself with 

.ka. Much as ho reviles *' shams," 

of shams himself. Tho whole qaestion 

ih, and lie lays down the law in tomnlete 

■• Jilch he im^V\. c^sW^ \««« 

lit whip" for V\ft?e\\cwl«i' 

1% 



I 



1S2 



77tc Keffro m Africa anJ Ote TTc*/ Indies. 



solely becaase be prefers to save bimself tbe trouble of ascertain- 
ing facts, and guesses them, when witli a little troublt? Uo might i 
learn them. The fact was tbat when he wrote (our rwHlcrsI 
Lwill observe tbat wo say uotliing of late events or their 
rcauRos} a Juinaica ncgi'o could earn a great deal more by 
labouring on a small plot of his own than by working for 
wages. Wo are far from considering th:8 a good and satisfaC' j 
tory state of tbitigs. For many reasons wo should bavo pre- 1 
ferrcd tbo opposite. But a thoroughly bad socinl system w^bich] 
the Jumuicu ucgro did nut cause and cuuld nut cure, made it,^ 
in fact, impossible. A wise legislature would have adopted 
measures by which capital would have been uttnictod to the 
cultivation of the soil. It would then have paid better to the 
large propnctor to give a high prico for good labour rather j 
than a very low price for bad labour; tbo character of thai 
labour to bo had would gradually have improved. Such 
changes require lime; for God has so made the world and the 
nature of man, that, in any nation and under any clime, tboso 
who have once got into a bad social system find it very bard 
to get out of it, and can succeed only by degrees. But it will 
only make bad worse to cut the matter short, as Mr. Carlyle 
proposed, by restoring slavery and ''the beneficent wbip" as 
the stiranlua to labour, instead of wages — an idea which 
Mr. Baker expresses iu milder words (meauiug, in fact, the 
uame), when ho says the negro "most bo compeUed to work 
■by some stringent law against vagrancy." 

Mr. Baker may, perhaps, plead that the facts ai"o notorioits. 

The slave colonies were Hourishing, and their pi*ospenty wa» 

sacrificed by the euiaucipatiou of the negro. If by " notorious" 

Uie means only that the assertion is commonly repeated, what 

Rie says is true — in any other sense it is simply false. 

The simple fact is that, even in an economical point of view, 
as a question of mere money, the abolition of slavery was no 
loss, but a gain to the colonies. To some of the colonies the 
abolition of the African slave-trade was a great loss. Bnt the 
slave-trade no one in Eugland now defeuds. Where the 
quantity of rich virgin soil at the disposal of the planter iaJ 
practically unlimited, slavery fed by au active slave-trade" 
does pay; because it pays to take iu now soil by slave 
labour, to exhaust the soil, and work out the slaves by a 
rough and prodigal method of cultivation ; and. w hen both 
are exhausted, to abandon the old plantation, and tnke in now! 
Innds by the labour of now slaves. Kxcopt under thesi.' con- 1 
ditions, slave labour doea not pay. But there were Homol 
British colonies, especially Trinidad and British (luiana, iul 
trhich this was actually going on before iVws «A«iUUon of the I 



trc-trado, and tnieht haro been conliaucd ou a large scalo 
it tho sUrc-irnflo liiid not been nboli«hod. In the gaat 
runjonty of iho West India Islanda, ou the other hand, 
the wbolo soil, or, at l^'ast, nil that was suited for sugar 
C'l' 1:, was under cultivation before the abolition of the 

b'l. -. If the sluve-trado had not been abolished, and 

if thu old system hud been contiuacd, by which the coloniea 
hail the monopoly of the Bntish market (foreign sugars being 
axcladi^d], and were forbiddpu to trade with other countries, 
the result would have been, that sugar cultivation by slavo 
hkboar would have been enormously developed in Guiana and 
Trinidad, and that those colonics would have prospered greatly 
at the expenae of a terrible amount of oppression and national 
goilt. The older colonies, such as Barbadoes, would have 
■ufferod severely from the competition, because they had no 
means of transferring the cultivation to new and uuexhausted 
lands. The total pecuniary rosiilt, therefore, of the abolition 
of tho slave-trade was that the uatiou, as a whole, sacrificed 
ft good deal, while, of the colonies, some gained by abolition, 
and otliers lost a degree of prosperity they would otherwise 
have obtained. 

But tho slave-trade no one now defends; and given the 
aboh'tion of the trade, it is certain that all the colonies gained 
by the abolition of tfluvery. Wo are still speaking merely of 
the money fpiustion. Mr. Baker ia pleased to say: "lu his 
fltiite of alaver)', the negro was compelled to work, and through 
hii labour every country prospered where he had been intro- 
dooed/' The fact is, that if we take any one date before the 
aboUtioD of slavery, we shall find that complaints of distress 
amouff llio West Indiau proprietors were as prevalent as they 
bare been since. Let us give one quotation : — 

"Lord Chaudos, in 18^0, presented a petition from the 
West India merchants and plnuters, setting forth ' tho extreme 
distress under which llicy labour,' and he declared in his 
■poech, that it was ' not possible for them to bear up against 
tncb a pressure any longer.* ' They are reduced to a stato in 
wliirb ihry are obliged eai-ncstly to solicit relief from Parlia- 
nent.' Mr. Bright said, 'The distress of the West India 
ouluttial body is uuiiaralirlt'd in any conntry. Mauy families 
wbo fonnerly lived in coraparutive afHuenco are reduced to 
■^soloto peuurj'.' Tho W'liti India Jir^hirUr also quotes a 
report on tho commercial state of tho West Indies, which 
«wd, *11. the atrongfst concurrent testiraomes and 

l>jy*#,fM th some speedy and cflicient meaanres of relief 

(i: uin oF u urvnt number uf l\ic yVwVvtii ^wusS* 

}.: '0 tiko plucc' Meanwhile, \»rvducl\<au'« 



I 
I 



I 



134 



Thv Nctjro in- Africa and tho Wett- Indie*, 



decreasing as well. Thns in five years, ending with 1820, the 
exports of sugar from Jninuica had l>eeu 585,172 hogsheadflj 
bat had fallen to 493,78-1 in the five years cndlnjO^ with 1830— «« 
decrease of no less than 91,388 hogsheads. Say, in the tea 
years ending with 1830, tho decrease was no less than 201,8431 
hogsheads from the amount in the tcu years ending with| 
1820." (Bigelow's Jamaica, Appendix.) 

"Another fact plainly shows that those distresses would 
only have grown deeper and heavier had slavery been allowedl 
to go on. In tho Dutch colony of Surinam, the very eamfl 
itiin ha6 come which bcfel our own islands. The fact tbafl 
slavery was left standing, has made not the least diSerencoiJ 
Here we have a lai^e colony, with slavery preserved in all ita 
force and beauty [this was written in 1859, slavery in Xhm 
Dutch colonies was not abolished till lSti4]. And what is tha 
result? The result is almost total ruin, 'out of 917 planta'l 
tions, G36 have been totally abandoned. Of the remainder, 
65 groiv nothing but wood aud provisions. And the small 
balance are stated to bo on the road to destruction.'" Thai 
such was the fact is certain, why it was so wo have not here 
space to discuss. We will only say, that all political economistll 
arc agreed that, under ordinary circumstances, slare laboufl 
does not pay. There is no one fact which a long experienc^ 
more nncontrovertibly provee. U 

But even if this haa not been the case; if down to \8$^ 
tho slave colonic.-? had uniformly llonrishcd, it would be eqnally 
certain that tho aboUtion of slavcrj- alone delivered them from 
A future ruin which was hastily coming upon them. The 
worst effect that Mr. Cariylc, Mr. Baker, or tho Time's supposes 
to have resulted from the abolition of slavery is that h\bour is 
scarce and dear. Any how, this woold be better than having 
no labourers at idl; aud to this the old system of shivery was i-a- 
pidly bringing tho West India colonies. Mr. Carlyle himself 
mnstfidmitthat a dead negro will not produce even uamnch asi 
paropkin. Now under tho old system, the laboming pouulatior 
of the West Indian colonics was swiftly dying ont. 'ibis hft' 
been kuowni loug before tho abolition of the slave -trad p. but I 
I the diminution of numbers was then met by a large imp 
Ifr. BrjHii Kdwardt*, the most upproved historian of (ii 
Indies, discusses the comparative economy of supplying ftl 
estate with labour by keeping up the old stock, and by workmg^ 
it oft* and importing a new one. lie says tho diminution variGJ 
exactly with the quoulity of sugar produced. Afttr the slave 
trade was abolislied, importation was at sn end. Aud thea_ 
lie numben (iocrcasod so r»^idly that before very many years 



the only iiltcnifttivo would havo been either to restore the 
■Uve-trado, or to abandon the cnitivation of the islands. 

'Mt WHS not by stories of atrocious cruelty that the eyes 
uf Parliaaient were opeiyd to the wHckcdness and folly of 
aUvery. If any of onr readers will turn to the pages of Han- 
sard, thoT ivill find that what gave the death-blow to slarery, 
ii ' '■ 'ids of Eu(»lish statesnicu, waa the population returns; 
V. .iwed the fact, the ' appalUng fact.' that although 

only eleven out of tho cij»htcen islands had sent these in, 
yd in those eleven islanda the slaves had decreased, in twelve 
yeora, by no less than 50,219; namely, from 558,194 to 
497,975. The decrease by mauumissiou is not included in this 
ODmber. Had similar returns been made from the other 
wren colonies (including- Mauritius, Antigua, Barbadoes, and 
Grenada), the decrease mupt have been little, if at all, under 
100,000. Now, it was plain to every one that if this were 
rtmlly no, the system could not last. The driest economist 
would allow, that it wonld not pay to let the working c1a.s8C4 
bo ilanghtered. To work the labouring men in our West 
Oldies to deatli, might briu^^ in a good return for a while, 
bat could not be a profitable enterprise in the long run. 
Arcordius'ly thiH waa the maiu, wo had almost said tho only, 
topic of the debates on slavery in 1831 and 1832. la slavery 
csasinff a general massacro of the working classes in our 
tBgir uUnaa, or is it not, was a question worth debating 
in the pounds, sliilUngjs, and pence view, as well as in the 
non] oc»o. And debated it waa lon^ and fiercely. The result 
was the full estabiu^hmcnt of the dreadful fact. The alavea, 
as Kr. }k{arryutt said [lie had long been the leader of the 
adrocatos of slavery], were 'dying like rotten sheep'" 
(r" ' /A, p. 428). 

• he common assertion, that we sacriBccd the pro- 
ipvn' sugar colonies to our humanity to the negro, 

it tiii'i ^ p and noni^ensical. Unless we had been pre- 

pared to restore the slave-trade the sugar colonics would many 
jean before this have been utterlyniinedbytho natural working 
of the lystem of slavery. If we had restored it, we should 
KkTo oouti 



II of tho older colouios and have bnilt a 

ul prosperity in some of the now ones. , 
ay, in j^r,;-^ing, that this wrt'tched fact of the speedy 
U' I of tlie slave population in the Wtst Indirs is a 

^ ritrast to what took place in the slave States of 

ll L'nic-n. Tho reason uf the difi'erenco was two- 

r h the United States tbc mass of tho slaveholdcra 



WKsro j>ruj»iutors resident upon their own c*lfttes, TVo iptwA. 



A 



4 



4 



4 



136 



The N'cip'O in Africa and iho Wc9i ImUfv, 



maaa of the West Indian proportioa woro held hy proprietors] 
rosideut m Kugluud, and wem managed by overseers. "Monk*' 
Ijowis Una rucorded his horror when ho visited his own Ja- 
maica ostntea, fully believing that the negroes were well 
treated, and found that what at first sight had appeared to biiii 
to bo " a peH'uet parddiso '^ was really "a heU upon earth." 
Ho says, " Ifl bad not come to Jamaica myself, in all pro- ■ 
babiiity I should never bavo had the most distant idea howl 
Labominably the ]>oor creatures had been ill Qscd." He soon! 
idiacovorcd, however, that they were not worse used than tbusol 
[of bis neighbours. The owners, no doubt, gave strong and 

Eositive orders that the slaves should be kindly treated, i 
at they were otiea embarrassed, and, whether they weru orJ 
I not, they expected and required tliat cbeir estates should pay ' 
Ifts well as those of their uoighbours. Mr. Helps points out 
that the early governors of the Spanish possessions in America 
wore placed in a difficulty. The Royal government sent out the 
most stringent orders that all posaiblo care should be taken of 
tho natives, — and that more gold should be sent to Spain. 
The result was that in a very few years tbe island of Hayti, 
which Columbas had found swarming with prosperous inhabit' 
ants, had not one single native left. Tho overseers of West 
Indian estates were much in the samo predicament, and tho 
same result was rapidly drawing nearer and neai-cr. Again, 
the number of slaves in the United States was kept up, because 
in Vii'ginitt and Koutucky, slaves were bred for exportation 
to tlie cotton and sugar btates of the South. Ou the sugar 
plantations of Louisiana the decrease of the slaves was very 
considerable, and was made up only by this domestic slave- 
trade. 

Ag things wore then, tho abolition of slavery alone saved 
tbe slave colonies from utter ruin. That it was abolished 
suddenly was not tho fault of those who appealed to tho 
KiigUsb people against the system. They were aoiious that 
the abolitiou should be gradual, and their desire was thwarted 
by the infatuation of the planters theuiaolves. Sudden as it wji*, 
it no doabt produced, like other sudden changes, much imme- 
diate confusion aud difficulty. But all accounts agroc thai 
this dilfiaulty liad boun aurmouutod, uud that prosperity hod 
returned before tho droadful period of West Indian distress, 
which wo nil remember, and which tho Tiaics and those who 
adopt their views from it, now represent OS the result o^ 
emancipation. 

Tho real causo of that distress was tho throwing opon th« 
eugar-trode of Great Britain to the produce of tho wholaj 
tror/d. Wo aj'o uot sayiug that ttua \Naa v*vo\i^, or that tiioj 



■ 



The Kf.ijTo m Aj'rtca and the Wost Ittdies, 



137 



I 



principlt! of rrae-lroflo is not sound. Hut it wiis tmpo3stbiu 
■ition should not producu widu-spreaU ruin iu 
I I 03. It would 1)0 higliiy unwieo uud nujust to 
Jaw obhgmg Loudou to buy oaly tho coals ol' one 
tor, Buy of Earl Vaao. But no doubt if such a luw 
tiid vxistixl fur yewa, its n^pcol would bo a grievous 
lo tlie enri. Now, for cunturiea, the West ludian 
micH bud luid on absolute moDopoIy of tho British tiiarkot. 

10 free trade policy of 1817 not only took away this, but 
•dmitted tho competition of ooontriee iu which sugar was 
prodooed by Blave-labourj fed by tho slarc-trado ; aud exactly 
aader those circumstances in which, as we have ah'eady 
•Mm, alavery and the alare-tradu combined are proHtablo; 
becftoso they had a supply of fertile uucidtivated lands 
virtoally mibmitod. What wonder that the West Indian 
proprietoi's suffered a gi-ievous blow ! "West Indian sugar, 
whii:h in l£J40 (exclusive of duty) sold in bond for 49a.j had 
sank in 1848 to 23a. od., a fall of twenty-five shillings aud 
m^v r - ,- out of forty-nine ehilliugs! or to take a wido 
IU' " in tho eight years ending with 18tG, had averaged 

ttliwao of duty) 'dJs. 3d. per cwt. In the eight following 
rs it averaged only 2is. 6d. per cwt. From tho same 
return it also appears, that during tho first twenty years of 
iho contory, sugar fetched 46s., ol] but double its prico from 
164d-^5. No wonder West Indian property has fallen in 
va.loo ^' ' ^e good old times. And mark the consequence. 

'* Iu a yeftTS ending with 184*3, tho whole proauctiou 

of the Wt^ai indies was just twenty million cwt. In the eight 
yesra fullowiug it had increased by four millious and a half 
cwt, Now, had this sold at the previous price, it would have 
feicbed nearly fifteen millions and a half more than it actually 
did fetch. ^Vliereas in reality it sold for seven millions leas 
than the smaller crop of the first period had sold for. By a 
fiklt of prico from 37s. 3d. to 24s. Gd., not only was the profit 
OQ Um sugar swept clean away, bat a doad loss ensued 
wboTBver a loose system of mismanagement by ugeutSf instead 
of propnotont, cxistedi and where a'heavy interest on mort- 
ngvw nod t^} he paid. This heavy fall iu price is a fact which 
aVBMXkds tho most emphutic notice, if wu would uudorat^iud 
the RASon why thu West Indies passed through tho valley of 
tho BfandnTT nf denth during these years." 

Mr. ■■-. in his book entitled "Jamaica in I6o0/' 

dt'T.i'. . , ..ii rhupters (pag« 70 to 1 12) to tho causes of tlio 
d<' that ittknd. He nuuntjuns thai tho measures uf 

Uip i*rti n Governmcut "did not cause, but only pnici^jvlSLtai 
a R«uU which was iaovitubh." Wv linvo not spacQ Ui ^o 



I 



138 TJie Negro in Africa and the West Inditia, 

tHrongli his arguments, which seem to us to make out his 
case. It was a case like that of the Irish proprietors 
about the same time. A soyere blow, mider which any set 
of men would have reeled, found them wholly unprepared 
to resist. They fell, and great was the fidl. 

But this ruin, lamentable as it was, had really nothing 
to do with the supposed indolence of the negro. If the 
climate had beeu suitable to English labourers, and if the 
AVest Indies had been cultivated by the best labourers Eng- 
land could supply, great suffering must have resulted from 
the causes which we have traced. We think, therefore, that 
we have fully answered the practical argument, that, (let 
ingenious men arp^o as they may,) the fact remains that the 
West Indies, which were once one of the most prospenms 
parts of the British empire, have been sunk in the deepest 
distress since the emancipation of the negro. The fact is, 
that argument is merely an example of the fallacy, poal hoe 
ergo j/ropfer hoc, Tlie result has existed, but it has been 
owing to wholly different causes. 

AVe have already shown, by copious statistical extracts, that 
this period of distress has passed away. No system will 
secure uniform prosperity in a country where a drought causes 
the total loss of the crop. This is tho case in some of the 
West Indian Islands, as it is also in some parts of the East 
Indies. The ncgi'o is no more responsible iu tho one case, 
than the Hindoo is in the other. But the recovery from a 
long period of distress has been so general iu tho islands, 
and has continued so long, that we may confidently say the 
ruin of tho West Indian colonies, of which we always hear 
when the demerits of the negro are discussed, is a thing of 
the past. 

Tho fact is, that the experience of the negro in the West 
Indies (lamentable as it has been in many respects), proves 
that he possesses a capacity for adapting himself to the laws 
of European civilized life, which, so far as we know, has not 
been found in any other savage race. Savage races have been 
found in almost every country in which Europeans have planted 
colonies. But what has been their fate? They have melted 
away like snow before the sun. In a very few years there 
will bo no remains of the natives of Tasmania, an island once 
very fairly inhabited, and about the size of Ireland. Aus- 
tralia being nearly tho size of all Europe, the process is, of 
course, slower. But we much fear it is not less sure. The 
Tasmanian and Australian savages wore, perhaps, the lowest 
in all respects of any savage nations within our knowledge. 
Sat the nativea of New Zealand were ns dLQiC!\dL<&^^ \.\kj& Au^biest, 



The Ke^ro in Afnea and the We$t hxdAm. 139 

•ad they are qaickly going in tKo eamo manner. So, agSBij 
^^lr poor are tbo remains o! those comparatively noble savages^ 
I ^ortii American Indiauti. It is only owing to the almost 
imlimiced extent of the backwooda to which they have been 
dnreoj that there ore any remains of them at all. Other 
raoos which coold not bo called savagea at allj have wholly 
dtBappearvd before the spread of European emigration. Such 
hm B be«n tho late of the aborigine!* of all the West India 
uda. Stieh, bat for the self-devotion of the glorious Las 
flj would long ugo have bueu the fate of the va»t nations 
of Central and South America. It is true that these nations 
were swept away chiefly because CluTStians, in their dealmga 
with them, forgot their Christianity. But, alas! can we say 
that it has boen remembered in their dealings with the negro? 
And yet so it is that tlie negro maintains his place in the 
midst of societies of European fonndntion. Our kinsmen 
k^JriDencA complain that ho is irrepressible. If rongh 
koonld have extinguished him, he would lon^ ago liave 
Dine an object of interest as a race which (in the new 
prid st least) had passed away, and was now merely on 
object of curiosity, or, at the utmost, of unpractical compassion. 
This, of itself, shows that the negro race possesses} a certain 
oapactty of adapting itself to European cirilnsation, which does 
ncr ui other savage races. 

that (ho practical effect of what wo havo said is 
bardiy ju.nt to Mr. Baker's book. We have devoted so great a 
part of oar space (o a protest sgainst two short passsgea 
{which wo can quite imagine that many readers may pasa over 
wichont even noticing them) that wo have been obliged to 
lenro annoticod whole ohnpters which we road with nnidloycd 
BttTO and int<Tcst. Tho very excellence of tho book com- 
> OS to do this. In a lesA iutercf^ting and valuable work 
might have passed over those passages with a compas- 
! smile ; but his is sure to be so jnstly popnlnr that there 
er lest his views shonld be received with little question, 
isoover else they may be received, God forbid tliat they 
•hoald sprmd among Catholics ! Let others deny the bond of 
a oomr- iio, which unites us to every son of Adnm, and 

that r bond, wliii^h makes us one with all those for 

wit hifd. Bnt, oven to tho end of the world, Hia 

Ch^...; and will hear witness to bolh, and her wituosH 

will only b« tlje stronger and tho loader when the tido of 
baisan i sets, as it has done of \ato years, in on 

sr ion. It is not given lo all Cathulics to labour 

ioilcr for the?* dej,'nidfd rueinbfrs of the \\nniAt\ IvvnuVj 
Ute jsemi of B. Pctvr Chixor. Um God fot\)\ii vWv W\« 



140 Tlw Ncf/ro vi Afrka ami the Wfnt TmUef. ^^H 

uhould bo any one among them n-lio follows the fasbiofl 
of the d:iy, by admitliug- that they an? of nijollicr iiuturo froin 
owr own, or ihut the rules and j)niici[>le8 appbcahle tu odie^ 
fainilieH of men irmst be laid anide witli regard to thfin. 

We have mentioned, wu belicvo, tlie oulj bk-mishoa in »^ 
book of which wo may tinily eay, that nccording to all cnlcalaJ 
tiou, geuerntiona may pass before the vorious chances necessArn 
to produco it rany agaiu be combined. In each there are u 
few men for whom adventure has charms so in-csistiblo tliafl 
they voluntarily iucur perils, which nine hundred ami uinetyS 
nine out of every Lhousaud even of thu bravest would reason- 
ably refuse. Mofit of them die in some unsuccessful enterprise, 
which, if it had succeeded, would have been admired as heroic, 
but which, when it fails, is merely called mad. Hardly any 
survive to tell what they have heard and seen, done and 
saft'crcd. What chance is thci-c that among the small residue 
there should be oue who excels other travellers in liis power 
of telling the story of liis past difficulties, as much as in iho 
daring which involved him in them, and in tho practical gifts 
which extricated him from them ? And before another book 
like this can be given to tho world, tho man who unites all 
these rare qnalities must have been preserved by a special Pro- 
videnco through a. thousand dangers, each of which, according 
to all human calculation, ought to have been fatal, and from 
which no daring or gift could have extricated him. The out- 
line of Mr. Baker's great geograplncal diecovery we havo 
described. But if he had made more, his personal adventures 
aud his sketches of the manners of the native tribes would 
have placed his book in tho first class of voyages and travel**. 
Take, for instance, two descriptions of Kli-'phant hunts (vol. i., 
pp. 2(34 and 324), and that of the Girafl'es (page 340), any 
one of which would have made the fortune of a common book. 
Then we have the most curious accomit of the natives. Th^ 
arc marked by such differences, not only of manners but of ford 
and feature, that Iho black skin and woolly hair seem to bo the 
only characteristics of the negro race common lo them all. 
in other respects many of the tribes of central Africa ditleraH 
much fixjm the received negro type as from tho Kuropean.! 
Aluch may reasonably bo hoped for their futuro, if only thu 
country can bo closed again&t the piirlies of armed Turks anfl 
Arabs who penetrate deeper aud deeper year by year, spreadinfl 
in one district after another, plunder, 6re, nna claughler. Tifl 
oue object of these parties is the slave-trade. No man oxcceifl 
Mr, Baker iu hatred of this infernal system. If he hal 
spuken of shivery in America, as ho bus of tho slave-tmd<» ^| 
tJto White Aile, from practicuV ex\ievWxi)to» Vi* ^e.ueraol 



I 




^^^H The N&jro in Africa and thfi Went Tiulie». 141 

, iastiBctB would have led him, we doubt not» to detest tbo one 

HUio docfi tho othrrj and wc should have liad no canso to re- 

jHoi nnythini^ he wuuld have said. Ue 18 conviuced thut tho 

pTiUt alovp-lrade may ca-iily be put down ; and that if this is 

uoce oflccied, the country has great capacities for cirilization. 

Ue tmy% : — 

T^ toA. nXef atoeMAry to Uw impruv^ciueul of the uTiige (ribci of the 
Wtji ' '< i^ Uip luiuihiUticiii ufUic >lare-tra4c. Until tliib be cITected, iii> 
l«g.i KPiitcrvit cat! W extablulieU ; iiuilhet U dicrc uu u)>«iiiiig fur 

miwwonry rntcrprLic. The country u leolod and cloeeJ a^inst all iniprovc- 
awnit Nutlitu;^ would Iw ciuior (ban to supprew Uilh infamous Inffic, weru 
Ute Enropetui powen in cunie.it. E>o'pt u in fiiTour of sluveiy. I Iiavu 
anwv Mca a gOTemmeDt otHckil wbo tlbl not in iit;gtimeiit upbold sbircrr wt 
a* EnsiitQtion alMnbitf-ly nocnt^try t'> Y/jy^ Thiii) any demoiuttratinii mnde 
fg|il*?i* thevbr^tnule hy lh).> ^nvemmont of that country will beitiiiiply n pro 
/arwwi ntAmsent to blind the Kurope:in powt-rv. llic-ir oyeN thtut cloned nnd tbe 
■belv«d, the tnule will remime its channdL . . Slop the White 
tntdp : ])ix)hibit the departure of any reaeehi from Khttrloun f<ir the 
• lie E^itiau government ^rmnt n conccMion to a coiupauy for tbo 
Wli iibject to certain conditions itnd to a npecifil xnpen'uiuu. Thetv 

ai« already four M^nineni ut Khutouo. Bstablisb a military pout of 2i)() 
warn aX Gondokorv ; an eqtul number belo v tbe Sbellook tribe in 13" latitude 
mmI Titb tw (itctunpn) craUin^ on the river, not a alaTO could descend ibe 
Wkile Nile. Should iha Klavfytradc be mipprewwl, there will be a good opening 
ftr tlw trotry tmdeL The newly duoorered Albert Lake opens the centre of 
to itsTijation. ijtcaiuna aicend fn)ni KhArtoun to Gomlokoro in lati- 
4.ftA. BcTcD dayv* nmroh from tlut sUilum llic uiivigublo portion of the 
iwdwdf tthero vcKsela can ascend direct to the Albert Lake. Than 
extent uf couiitrr is opened to narignlion, and Munche«l4>r 
•lul vuriooi other article! would find a ready market Id exckunge for 
, M a prodi^iotn i>n>fit, a«. in thnt oevly diacorered rej^on, ivory has 
■nvly a niwuiual Talae*' HL 31:2). 

Wo huTG beard the question asked what good will come of 
"r. Boker^fl great discovery aftni* all ? Wo might reply what 
1 reaalu from any incroaso uf human kuowled^o? But 
tiis di»corory Ima an inimodiatoly practical value. W e ore far 
I fnini cirrtnin lliat il will nver be turned to fjood account. lint 
I wa arw very sure it mi^lit easily lie and oujjht to be. Unliap- 
irit of tlie Crusades is extinct. Else what should 
11 rcndinf^ of these great regions, jjow given ovit to 
.rthcd and robberv, and in which wrong seems ponnanently 
^^ __iiro tAkon the pUco of right, and violence tho place of , 
law ? And yvt, ao ur as oppfiars, it would need only a fdigh^fl 
■ '* will uf Ohri-HtiMiilom tu restore them i\l. oixcft \o" 
1, . - . lu Oit* really rGinnrkoblo ciiarucWrnVvca ol 




142 Dr. Pusey on Marian Dfivotion, 

these lands, as exhibited by Mr. Baker, is, that supreme as 
wrong and violence is, it is really oven there utterly weaJc. It fell 
in his case merely before the resolute will of one English man 
and one English woman. If any one Christian Government 
were to organize a small body of negro troops, (whose health 
would not sufTer from the climate,) and without assuming any 
direct sovereignty, were to declare, that slave-trading and war 
between the ditlerent tribes must and shall at onco stop, and 
that differences between chiefs and tribes must be brought for 
arbitration to his representative, peace would at once be 
restored. A great part of the country is naturally rich, and if 
any kind of property were secure in it, would at once become 
prosperous. One thing only prevents the immediate accom- 
plishment of this great object — the mutual jealousies of the 
European nations and governments. That jealousy is not 
without just ground. If, for instance, France were to take 
possession of tho AVhito Nile, England would fear for India. 
One mode only is conceivable by which this difficulty mig^t 
be met, a sort of international commission ; an interference by 
united Christendom to be authorised to govern that land in 
the name of all the Christian nations of Europe. And one 
person there is upon earth who could, without injury to any 
one else, preside over such an undertaking — the Vicar of 
Christ. Is our age so far unchristianized by the great schism, 
as to render this blessed and unbloody crusade actually 
impossible ? 



Art. VIII.— dr. PUSEY ON MARIAN DEVOTION. 
An Eirenicon. By Rev. E. B. Puset, D.D. Oxford : Parker. 

HOWEVER the Eirenicon controversy may terminate in 
the case of Dr. Pusey himself — and we sincerely hope 
and pray it may issue in his conversion — it will have indubi- 
tably much promoted the advancement of English Catholicism. 
This it will have done in two different ways. For, firstly, 
tho mind of Englishmen is ordinarily prejudiced against 
Cfitholic doctrine and practice by a vast amount of vague dis- 
gust, of which one cannot attempt the removal, because it as- 
sumes no definite shape whatever ; whereas Dr. Pusey has given 
to this disgust a distinct and articulate expression, so that the 
Catholic can fairly enconuter it. T\v«i,ftft«iTLd.\.'y, English- 



Df, Pu$ey on Marian Devotion. 



143 



rith all Uietr supposed loro of fair plivj, arc tho most 
'bigMed of mon wliencrer tho Churcli is in question ; and 
a.Diler ordiaary circumstances ihey aiinpl/ refaso to soo or to 
hfiAT whatever is advanced in lior favour: bu6 tho intorcsfe 
excited bv tho Eiremcou may posaibly just for the moment 
giro Cntbolica n chance of bcinsf listened to. 

Wo vili take adrantage, then, of this favourable juuctnrej; 
in nmrd to thti chief topic which tbo Eirenicon treats.'^ 

tWbatfctr yon look at Dr. Posey himself, or at tho groat mass 
of religioosly-mind«d Protestant Euglishmon, the one pre- 
jadico, which more thiin nil othtirs put iogethor exasperates 
them a^Liiiut the Church, is the worabip of our Bles^el Lady 
therein ppi'valcnt.* So fm* a3 this prejudice is founded on true 
seal for her Suu'a honour, no Catholic con refj'nrd it otherwiBO 
than with heartfelt sympathy. There is uo Catholic but will 
be forwiinl to admit, thiit if Marian worship tended in anyway 
_^ to intcrferu with the wurNhip of Almighty God, it. could not 
I bare His sanction ; nud, consequently, that a society which 
^ im' ' it could not be the Catholic Church. Wo agree 

wir mov, tht^'n, fnno the very bottom of our heart, on tho 

auUdr uf ' ' ; but ho and wo are wide as the poles 

Munder on > cor of fact. We speak of Marian dcvotioua 

eren ax wearing that extreme flhapo in which he himself ex- 
faibita them, sofar oa he cito.s authorized and approved writers. 
Of tbcaa derotioos it is little to say that they in no way impede 
tht» lore of God and of Jchus Christ; we maintnin confidently 
that tboy f^rumote that love in a most Aingulur and special 
cle«To. On many grounds we deplore, for his own sake, his 
diuikc of these devotions ; bat on no ground more strongly 



• Wo do nottMwhvwcshoiiIiIavnM thi'»iuo8t&ervircablpwor(l'*won»hii),'' 
fof wUrh U i» vvry difflciilt to flml a i-uh«tuut«>. t'snon Onkfler luobt Iruljr 
mnaika : ** A i^reat part of tho objection to the bing:ua<^ of (_^thoUc devociou 
agym frwn ih» jmriuyp of oonfininij ci-rtain wonlt to their convcntiomil kiim, 
insi- ' ' itcconlinji to the iutention of Uio wnlvr or 

■pr Ij uf ro^lrictiog to « •ecoadary nml tcchuicol 

«M wo** KUK-n af>> I'Mipl.tjfd in a mon genenl lenM. Thus tbero in reiiUy 
aediAiMM in taei betwwn the terms 'wonbip' anil 'veneration;' .vet. 
»W1» ■wrBhnT— i -T -^--- - --- popnlnThr consirlerrd to wnmint ---.-*- n, 

Otly^iir arr '.ry wh<i npCsik of thr Blr^ACil ^ I 

ttbjtcC oTwur ' ' ■ ■ ■■' 'tIicii wf r.Tn.vi [| 

iW wmAa of 'lilies \titli I'' -I 

Mm It ftctnall,, - .- "- ''li'ViHw.:;.' '1*!; 

*«ilsraAiaiit* afpun, 't of ' prv' 

hMiucii cLiImcil 1' 1 ri:i t<j iU ' > H 

^ <uU ihv ii< ' ,li rrfuac^i to tb« 

Mir (iuni to r<< All tuch W4t4s 

r. Thty ru« lo b« itttofRA^^LVj trax 

ja " (p. 74). 






144 



Dr. Pmey mi AfanaH Devotion* 



than because, bjr not piuctising tbenii be loses so ineetimftble 
a help towards ^nuinc lovo of God. This is the vorv reason 
why the thought of ubandouinff ihcm is so intolci-abie to the 
Cntliolic, who is attracted towiu'ds thcro by iJie Holy Ohofd 
For the sake of peac«, of charity, of unity, he might chetpa 
fully waive any mere matter of personal taste or liking; bat 
ho cannot waive what is so indissolubly bound up with tho 
great end for which he was created. 

Two lines of objection, c.^iscntially clifTcrfiit in Vind, aro 
urged by the Protestant world iigainat these devotions: the 
one, historical and theological ; the other, moral and ^piritua}. 
On the one hand, it is alleged that there is no evidence on 
which to rest them in Scripture and Antiquity ; on the other 
hand, that they obscure the thought of God and tend to 
idolatry. Dr. Pusey, like other pious Protestants, vgry rightly 
lays far greater stress on tho latter than on tho former alTegs- 
tion ; and it will be our one purpose in this article sehoualy to 
consider it. The historical and theological difiBculty we reserve 
for consideration in our next number. And to that future ai-tii " 
wo of course defer whatever it is necessary to say, on the doi 
trincs of tho Immaculate Conception and of the As.qir 
because no one can think that these doctrines in tl.' 
have any tondt'Ticy to generatt; idolatrj-. It ih on the vitall;^ 
important qiieslion, then, juat stated — tho supposed tendency 
of Catholic ^(arianism to prodnco a qnasi-idolntry and obscnw 
the thought of God — that we now proceed to enlar^. 

All devotion, let it be observed, presupposes oootrineL 
Thus tho mere fact of Catholics praying at all to our Lady, 
implies tho (foclniw that she can liear their prayers. If t 
pray her that she will be close at band whenever temptation 
assails me, — I imply tho thctrtne thftt sho is well aware of 
the fact, whenever one of her votaries is nsxailed by temptation. 
Again, if I beseech her to suggest those thoughts which may 
bo most salutary under my present int-erior condition, I imply 
three different *h)ctn'itfji ; viz., {!) that she has a vca\ pow ^ 
(direct or indirect) of suggestiug thoughts ; (2) that she kno 
my present interior condition ; and (8) that she knows what 
thoughts are most salutary for mo in that condition. Indeed^ 
every devout Catholic feels that if such belief in onr Lady'i 
power did not exist as a founJatiun, tho whole fabric of hi 
devotion to hor would collnpse and fall. Onr defence, tb 
fore, of ]^farinn devotion must be a defence of Mainan doctrin 

Kow tho various doctrines, indiscriminately assailed 
Dr, Pusey, belong to very different classes. Tho first a 
most important consists of those, which aro ma^'stnrially, am 
i/wrvfotv mfiillibly, taugUl by t\\t CAivureV. VVuw duf«i 




/>!*. Puscy on Ularian Dcv:>(i4nu 



145 






ihna mmgistcrihWy teach them ? By tho fact that Popo and 
bidiOps throughout Chnatendora promote, onconragej nay 
i acul cfttg , a devotion — qikI, further, that succeasive Pontina 
hftTO most richly indulgencod it — which implies and pre- 
SDpposos tho doctrines in quofition. In oar last number we 
drew oat a list of such doctrines; and as that list fitiU 
teems to ns sufficiently complete, wo cannot do better than 
reprint the paragraph. 

la onler to spprpciBto Dr. Puse/s various propositioiu, it U rerj im- 
portaiit thut ve briefly and Kenornlly exi)IaiD, vhut arc those di>ctrine3 cuii- 
oeniug htT, which wc maiiiUiD to be autburiutivcly. mid ihcreforc infuUibly, 
Uoght by the Cbunfa. Tboy are, wc think, sncli as chose:— (l.) Thut bor 
BMriU nr* tncouiparftblj greater than thow of »ny other created peraou.* 
(i.) That, accordingly, she oocupin a pUoo in bearen iQcouipaxnbly nearer to 
bar Son than on; other. (3.) That she U intimately actiu&inted with the 
AfM^bla. the cfaAroctCT^ the circonutAncM, of all who invoke her old ; aod 
wvll Iesowii what is really for their pvatcst good (4.) That she luis incom- 
{■nhly {Erroter power than any other created pcnon, toworibt promotui^ 
tkil (ood. (tk) That lo unite ouraelveH with Maty in the contemplation of 
Jnoi^ a» b done <. ff. by tfao«e who duly recite? tho Roaary, h a Hiu^'uIaHy 
ffflcaidoaa nauu for rividly apprehending HU Divine Penonality aiul His 
vmrfoiM wy>t«rie(L (6.) That the unremitting and mo«it loving thought of her 
haa an effloacy, peculiarly ita own, in promoting a tender and practical love 
^^^ffia. C7.) That that trmper of mind is most acceptable to Almighty Ood, 
^^HpvUoh the thought of Jeaiu and of Mary is inseparably blended. (8.) 
^^Hu Ptgaht and npeated prayer to her canuot be omitted by a Catholic, 
•illBal |Tt1*lifl kia aalnition intogrievoiu pcKLf Other propositions might 
h* ad^M (A th«*e ; and the proof which we woidd aSegc, of such propoiu- 
Uom being n«Uy contained in the C*hiiroh'B aathoritatiTo teaching, u thui : — 
If any oar of them were dcnieil, the i-xhnrtationH imprcwcd ou Catholici 
tlmaghMit Christendom, «iilh full approbation of Pope and biahopa, would 
W h— dtw and indeffltiaible ; inilucntia] religious habita, whose growth ia 
andilniafy fo«tAe<l hy eocleaiaatlval authority, would be founded on a debt- 
»t4D : Uw Church would have in fact made a mictokc, unspeakably »rrions, 
ia tint my matter— the training of louU for hearcn- whidi 'u tho one 
■ItMBte mA for which Uie was mdow«d with iufallibihty ijip. 43*1-5}. 

In fnrther illustration of tho Church's teaching, wo will 
in-^ st at random, various extracts from the " Raccolta," 

•o - »;>Iy traosUited by F. St. John of the Birmingham 



"•Onfft^wlHimaelfloTMthMrMafyjalonomorof^naJ/ menatutauyn 

r r. . . . I fkaJl tutundly brtoHtf 1 «6fl»i*/oM »«.^ • • . 

It 1 1« for that man to pnwh who faithfuU; r«ottXi»ttA*\ttKuiAlV> 

tW '^/k 134.) 




146 Br. Ptisey on Marian Devotum. 

Oratoiy. There cannot be more unimpeacliable proofs of the 
Church's doctrine^ than those various prayers which she aatho- 
ritatirely recommenda to her children by indulgencing their 
use. 

When at length my hour is come, then do thou, Mary, my hope^ be thyself 
ray aid in those great troubles wherewith my soul will be encompaased. 
Strengthen mc, that I may not despair when the enemy sets my sins before 
my face. ObtAin for me at that moment grace to invoke thte often, so that I 
may breathe forth my spirit with thine own tweet nanu and Dwi qf thy nuut 
holy Son upon my lipa (p. 183). 

In Uiec ht the Holy Churcfifind aafe shelter ; protect it, and be its sweet 
a^lum, its tower of strength, impregnable against every inroad at its enemui. 
Be tboii the road leading to Jam; be thou ike channd u^ereby m reeeivt 
all graces needful for our aalvaiion. Be thou oui help in need, our comfort 
in trouble, our Ktrength in temptation, our refuge in persecution, our aid in 
all dangers ; but especially in Uie last stru^le of our life, at the mommt of 
our death, when all hell shall be unchained against us to snatch away onr 
souls, — in that dread moment, that hour so terrible, whereon our eternity 
depends, ah, yea, most tender Virgin, do thou, then, make us feel how great 
is the sweetness of thy Mother's Heart, and the power of thy might with the 
Heart of Josus, by opening for us a safe refuge in the very fount of mercy 
itself, that so one day we too nmy join with thee in Paradise in praising that 
same Heart of Jesus for ever and for ever (p, 179). 

I would I bad a greater love, a more tender lore : thia thon must gain 
for me, since to love thee is a great mark of predcttimUion, and a grace 
which God grants to those who shall be saved (p. 185). 

Thou, Maiy, art the stacariles3 of every grace ichich Ood vouehtcifa 
to give us siniwrs, and therefore did He make thee so mi^ty, rich, and 
kind, that thou ntightcBt succour us. I will that I may he saved: in 
thy hands I place my eternal salvation, to thee I consign m.y souL I 
will bo associated with those who are thy special servants ; reject me not. 
Thou gocst up and down tccking the icretchcd to console th&n. Cast 
not awity, then, a wretched sinner who has recourse to thee. Speak for 
mc, Mary ; thy Son grants what thou askest (pp. 186-7). 

5Iy Queen! my Mother! 7 give thee all myself; and to show my 
devotion to tbce, I comtcerate to th€c this day my eyes, ean^mouthf heart, 
myself wholly, and iciOiotU reserve. Wherefore, loving Mother, as I 
am thine own, keep me, defend mc, as thy property, and thy oiro pot- 
session. 

Ejaculation in any Temptation. 

My Queen, my Mother ! remember I am thine own. 

Keep me, defend me, as thy property, thy own poneasion (p. 197). 

Accept what we offer, grant us what wc ask, pardon im what vefeasr; tat 
thou art the sole hope of einnera. Thro\xg\i V\xq& -«6 Vf^tet N^Ioii^tmmi 



Dr, PuMtj on Marian Devotion. 



U7 



I 



«f ow hmt» ; and i» Uwe^ OMst bkaied one, i» the hop« of our rewurd. 
0«ly AIb«7, •acooitr the vrHched, Iielp tht; ruiot-bearted, comfort the 
aanowfttl, pmy for tbo people, shield tlie cler;^}-, intercede for tlic dcvoul 
AbmIo MX, Ut all fMl tby help who ulebmte thy holy couimeuioratiou. 
B* llMi at haaU, rtaAjf to aid our praytn, teA<n cm pray ; aud return 
I ta M ladm vitK tk^. aHwvrs tr« detirt, ftUke it thy care, bleued ofie, 
to laUreed* «v«r for the people of God — thou who didst deterre to bear 
iW Bcdenncr of (he world, who liveth und reigiieth for em and evtr 
<!•. XWt, 

O JoMpfa, help tu with thy piuyers to be of the nnmbor of tho«e who, 
bjf A« wmtj o/ Jitiu imJ kit Virgin Mother, shall be portiikeni of the 
1— amliou to glocy (pp. 'i.l4r^). 

O JoMpk, obtain for tu, thAt, beiuy nUircly dtvot4d to At ttrvke 0/ 
JauM »md M<»rtf, w« nay live and die for them nluue (p. 275). 

Joappb, obtain for u», that, having our hearts freed from idle {hvis, 
«a my ea^oy the peace of a tnuiquil conscience, dtc^lmy ui/tlt/ uith 
Jam mmd Mary^ and li^ng at Ud w Onir amit (p. 370). • 

Lui it bo clearly understood, then, that in this particular 
pwt uf our articlo we arc not occupied with defoading tho truly 
beMUifol KDtimeiits, which Dr. Pusey Iiab broaghb together 
from S. Alphonsoa ; from S. Bemardme of Sienna ; from tho 
Ven. Griffon de MoDtfort. On iheir defence wo shall enter 
aAorwardii ; and tthall face distinctly the whole mas.s of toAti- 
roony, adduced iu the Eirenicon from Catholic writers. 
Ucire, hon-c-vrr, we speiik of dot'triiies, not meri'ly iiormittcd 
«nd aancttoued by the Church, but authoritativoiy inculcated 
on all her children. 

Now as to these doctrines, our opponent may reasonably 
rvi^niro duo evidence for their tmtb, antecedently to bringing 
•gaiiMi them any objection whatever; for a doctnue is nut 
Mtebludied, nor even mode probable, by tho mere circnmstanco 
Uh& ft ia nnobjt'ctionablo. Such evidence, however, we con- 
nder osnelves to have most abuudautly supplied in our two 
krt numbem. Wo assumod merely that Christianity is of 
^Tine .vfi>rn, and that the New Testament narrative is 
■ab«Ur[ 
grantr- 

tabhf ; ; (see particularly p. 237 ;) and wo argued 

J2-5) tlmt this infallilillity n-sidea primarily iu 
r. Wo confidcutly nmiutain that no conclusion, 
rMtxii^ <m historioil grounds and claiming mornl not mnthu- 
tMCtcal certainly, waa erer more absolutely irrofragablo, than 
the ooDchuioa at which wo arrived in those two articles* 
Thai cymcIcmoD i», that if Christianity ia reaU^ o\ dvsiVDA 
fimus; ikot/ if iMe Mow TesUuDont narrative is accuT«XA «A VQ 



lie. Wo argued in January that, if this be once 
■W8 that the Roman Catholic Church ia indubi- 



m 
lM>r 



148 



Di*. PttBcif ou Marian D&votion, 



its geueral substance, then tbe Roman Cstholic Churcb is 
infalliblo in hor niogisterium. But Dr. Pnsey will bo the 
very last man to deny, tbat she does magisterially t^acb snch 
doctiines as thoso above recited, and otbcrs of a similar 
character. Since, therefore, she magisterially teaches these 
doctrines, — and stnco she is iitfalllblv in her magisteriuni, — 
it follows that thoso doctrines arc iufuIUbly true. 

However, their argumentative est^abliahnieut does not 
exempt a controversialist from the obligation of answering 
objections. Even in tbe region of pure mathematics a thesia 
would be left in a most unsatisfactory state, although it had 
been proved by rigorous demonstration, if a plausible objection 
against its truth were to remain unanswered. And much 
more, of course, does this bold, where tbe proof does not 
pretend to be dcmonstrativo in the strictest sense of that 
word -J oven though it be (what in this case it is) as cogent 
and conclusive as any historical proof can possibly be. Now 
(as has been already observed) there are two kinds of 
objections, essentially different, which have boon raised 
against the body of doctrine now in que^ttion. Those ob- 
jections, whicb refer to its supposed inconsistency with Scrip- 
fcuro and Antiquity, will be considered in our next number ; 
those which rest on its alleged tendency to obscure the 
thought of God and to promote a quasi-idolutry, roust be 
encountered here. 



We will begin with considering an argument, wliicb is ofVen 
used by Protestants and even by IVactarians, though Dr. Pusey 
does not himself endorse it. " By the very fact that Catholics 
behove our Lady to hear their prayer and to read theii' heart, 
they represent her," so runs tuo argmnent, '* as umniprcscE 
and as a kind of goddess." There is no more amazing fact i^ 
all controversy, than that any Christian, who bebeves in 
Incarnation, should have laid stress on a fallacy so 
and so triumphantly refuted. Consider that deai* soul of our 
Blessed Lordj which was created for the very purpose of , 
suQcring in our behalf, and which did in fact experiene 
anguish so unspeakable. When our Lord was endurmg 
agony, or was hanging on the cross, or now tluit He is 
heaven, — does auy Chriatiau doubt that His soul did aud doe 
i*cnd the heart of those who address Him ? that it dij 
and does apprehend most accurately men's interior circu 
flbanoes? that it did and docs know what is the fittest and mo 
appropriate remedy fur their interior evils ? Yet, do Chriatiai 
tncreiore, regard that soul ns omnipresent ? as uucreatedl 
OS juiUuite? How readily VrotcsVauU X^o u^ 



■a. ^c 




•gftfimt the Chorcb, whicli I'eooilB on tbcmselvos witli ofTccfc 
Ui !it4il ! 

not, however, be contented with stating this parallel 
negatively; we will draw it out in a positive shape. Uow do 
Protectants eimlain this vast knowleUj,'o possessed by the soul 
of Chrisc ? Wo arc not aware of any explanatiou, except that 

E'ven by Catholic theologians. That soul, say these thco- 
f^ans, was endued from the very heginninij of its existence 
with three kinds of kuowleilye: the chief of them being 
** aeicntia beati ; " that knowledge which arises from the 
facial vision of 6od. In Christ's case, — these theologians pro- 
ceed, — tbis facial vision imparted and imparts, not the habitual 
knowledge only, but the constant and explicit thought, of all 
thiogs past, present, and future ; of the most hidden thoughts 
of Ino heart, no less than of the most visible and palpable 
pheoomona of the universe. Such then is the account, wo 
■appose, given by all those Protestants who give any ut all, 
of Christ's hnman knowledge. But now consider. Tms facial 
▼iaicm of God was enjoyed by Mary from the moment of her 
death, quite as truly » though of course by no means iu the some 
Sitgrco, as by t'lirist Himself. We are very far indond from 
Mjring that the knowledge which she thus obtains is co-ex- 
toiunvo with tho human knowledge of Christ ; to suppose so, 
wotikl bo a monstrous and intolerable error. But wo do say 
that, oven if it htul been thus co-extensive, she would not on 
lltat ncctiunt have t-ensed to be a creature ; unloss, in<lccd, yon 
wotdd fiianction the heretical and even absurd j>ru[>ositiou, that 
Ibc soul of Christ was raised from the sphere of createdneaa 
and finiteneaa to that of intinity and omnipresence. 

We have been answering the objection, that to regard our 
Lady as reading the heart, is logically and philosophically equi- 
valent with regarding her as omnipresent. Some IVotuatants, 
bowerer, candidly waive this objection, and admit that a 
Caiiiolic does not speculatively view her as infinite: yet they 
nrgo at tho same time that such is his practical impression; 
that the interior acts of reverence and homage, with which he 
approorhes her, are nndi&tinguii»hablc in kind from those with 
wiucii he approaches Almighty God. Dr. Pusey is as far from 
a3mpatluzing with this view as with tho former ; * and, indeed, 
kia Imo of objection directly contradicts it, as will bo immo- 
Aatoly seen. We will not then say more about it iu tlua 



I 
i 



* BtMM word* of )iti in>l(Ytl. in n. IfH, Mem At firat »i];ht tn ^x|>rv«« 
ikii *vnr ; ImiI if }-mt tik^ chom la oonnvctioa with iho putf^ which 
prwds umI fbUnw, yuu will m-i< liut tJifir k-iim ut iViflenaX. T\MMt \ikv 
fftfixtf /MIfnp viii7/ be imwcttiau-lr <|aut«d at Icuglh ia out U'vt. 



150 Dr. Pusey on Marian Devotion. 

placOj as it will be implicitly enooantered by oar sabseqaent 
remarks. 

In no other part of the Eirenicon can we find so clear a state- 
ment of Dr. Pusey's own objection, as in the following ; which, 
as will bo seen, contains an admission, that Roman Catholics do 
not in fact pay her divine worship. Wo have snbstitated our own 
italics for his. 

This question of reliance upon tho Blessed Virgin aa the being in 
whoso hands our salratioa is ^-irtuallj to be placed, is quite distinct from 
that other question of the nature of the worship paid to Iter. The one is a 
practical question affecting our whole eternity, "What shall I do to be 
saved r* The practical answer to tht Roman Catholic seems to me to he, 
" Go to Mary, and you roill be saved ; " in our deor Lord's own words, it is, 
" Come unto Me ; " in our own belief it is, " Go to Jesus, and yoa will bo 
Bayed." 

The answer which is commonly made, that derotion to the Blessed 
Vir^n ia but relative, does not touch this. No one trould impute to At 
Marian writers that they mean that she is Dea, although notoiionsly, some 
of them have called her so.'* But they speak of what comes to the some^ 
of her " delegated onmipotency ;" and a recent writer soys, " When Maiy, 
in lier office of Advocate, is named * Oranipotency kneeling,' or ' interceding 
Onmipotency,' thiii will now, I hope, appear to be saying not too much 
but U)o little." T)ii human mind is yiarroio, and easily filled vntk one 
thouijht, especially when that thought rc7a(<a to ojurs cdl. When, then, the 
soul ia tau^fht that devotion to Mary Ls onBoiitinl ; that she is **the 
nearest to u.s, and the most suited to our capacity ; " that " to go to Jesus, 
we must go to Maty; she in our Mediatrix of intercession;" that she 
ro|>elfl none ; *' she is good and tender ; she has nothing in her austere 
and repulsive ;" it sci^ms ineoncdvable tk^ many should not stop Aort in 
her, with, at best, a more or less indistinct reference to Jeans (pp. 
181-3;. 

In order that we may bring the argument between Dr. Posey 
and ourselves to a more defiuito issue, we will disentangle this 
passage from all reference to individual writers ; and we will 
express in our own words, to the best of our power, tiie argu- 
ment intended by our author. 

" Man's mind," we understand Dr. Pusey to say, " is narrow ; 
" his affections easily exhausted ; his very time limited. I 
" do not here speak of saintly men ; and God forbid I should 

• What " Marian " ever called her so ? What right has Dr. Pusey to make 
so startling a statement, without adducing any kind of authority i Curiously 
enough, we believe that such a phnii^e, used tiguratirely of course, does occur 
in the *' Christus Pations," a poem of the patristic period. But what latir 
Catholic writer has so spoken } Wc ask for information : we cannot, of 
course, asscTt confidently the negative, but we have never met with any sudi 
expression. 



men 

ev givo to the Mother.* Uut 1 speak o! 
" tbe tOMaa as wo tind toom ; of those who i'uliil their religious 
" dutiee in an ordinary and quiet way. Theso men give a 
" ceHain portiou of each day to prayer ; and it is arithmeti- 
" oally «vidcntj that if some of that portion goes to ilary, there 
" will be so much the less left for their God and Saviour. 
" Hut Ihia is iiir from the worst. It is quite indefinitely 
" pleMAiiter and easier to fallen man that ho slmll address a 
" feUow-creatnrej than that he shall adore the InfiDiie Creator. 
*' If Cathohc8| thec^ are told that she knows their thoughts 
" and can grant their petitions, they will be ever iucreasiDg 
" the time devoted to her, at the expense of that devoted to 
" Ood. They will thus more aud more learn practically to 
" look to fuir for pordou, for help, for strength, for consolation. 
" It is their prayer to her which will issue freely nud warmly 
** from the hiairt ; while their addresses to God will be little 
" more than the perfunctory aud external performance of a 
" OMteiQ stated and prescribed routine," 

Sttok representations as theue — aud they are common from 
the most " high-clmrch " Protostunts — tend to make a Catholic 
wrmffhis han^ in purplL'xityuu<l distress. Oh, Dr. Puaey, if you 
coalas^eforone moment into the heart of an ordinarily devout 
GathoHc, you would see how wild and absolutely imaginary is 
Um piotore yon draw of him. But how can we persuade yon 
of this T How are we to answer, in a way that shall carry con- 
Tiction to yoor mind, those ingenious sophisms which vou have 
•operrenely oonstructcd? It is like labouring to teach a bbnd 
man the tme natore of colours. 

Yet a certain sevin-ity of comment is surely not oat of plaoe. 
If « blind man grieves over his calamity, how sincerely wo 
commisprate him ! how oamoatly wo try to help him I Bnt 
what if he will not admit himself to be in a no.sition of disad- 
Timtage at all ? What if he declares that all who profess the 
poMfiinrion of eyesight are in a oonapimcy to deceive him ? 
What if be maintains that in fact there is no such thioe as 
eokmrf This is the true parallel to Dr. Pusey. He naa 
iMVar cxperiouoed, or come near to experiencing, tho state of 
■liad ooffondcred by a constant and loving devotion to Mary ; 
and yet he coofldenUy pits his a priori augury of what that 
vtate of mind most oe, against tue unanimous testimony of 
llioao who knatB that piianomenon on which he descants in 



I 



* Be* I>r. PoMy^i most hoBoarabJg adnianua oC \hiiit 



clXed. ui wx \u)h.J 



152 



Dr, Pusey on Mariwn Devotion. 



Our wisb, however, is not to convict Dr. Puaej, but to con- 
vinco him j and we may possibly succeed in this, if wo can bat 
turn the tables on himaeif. Wo will suppose theu (what is 
at least imaginable], a pious and deront 'llieistj who labours 
under a blind prejudice agaiuat the doctrine of the Incarnation, 
not dissimilar to that which intiucncos Or. Pusey against the 
Church's Marian teaching. He may be supposed to express 
hirasolf in such terms as these : — 

" Men were created for one end — the knowledge and Iotc 
" of God. They better fulfil that cud, therefore, — thoy are 
" more perfect of their kind, — in proportion as they more cou- 
" stantly keep the thought of God before them ; contemplate 
** His excellences; labour to fulfil His commands. Now this 
" sad doctrine of the Incarnation presents one constant impedi- 
" ment in the way of man's gi'eat work. When we Deist« 
" are oppressed with trial, temptation, Buffering, wo stimidato 
" our couiidonco iu the Almighty Creator, by steadily fixing 
" our thoughts on His Infinite Mercy and His Infinite Power. 
" But you Trinitarians, 1 have repeatedly observed, shrink 
" from this : it is not once iu a thonsand times that your pious 
" affections take any such turn. No : You fi.\ your thoughts, not 
" on the Infinite Love which is entertained for you by God ; 
" but on the finite love which (as you think) is entertained 
" for you by that created soul, which you believe God to have 
" assumed : and you ]ionder accordingly on the vai-ioua mottt 
*' touching circumstances of Christ's Life and Passion. Yet 
" even if I were to gnint your full doctrine, it would still 
" remain true that the love folt for you by tho soul which 
" so suliered is but a finite love. And further, since no one 
" finite object ia nearer thau any other to the Infinite, it is 
'* true, iu tho strictest and most literal sense, that the love 
" felt for you by the Divine Nature as far exceeds tho Iotq 
" felt for you by tho eoul of Christ, as it exceeds tho love 
" yon feel for each other. 

'* Then, wo presft've untouched that most sacred truth,J 
"which your own Scriptures so prominently testify; that* 
** God Alone can read the heart : whereas you admit the 
" soul of Christ into a participation of that incommunicable piiv 
" vilege,and thereby invest a finite object with the very altnfl 
" butes of Infinity. Or, again, suppose 1 would rouse myself tfl 
" repentance for sin : I reflect on God's Infinite Sanctity ; on 
" the disloyal inpult which I have offered to that SanotityJ 
" and on the foul contrast between God, the great Exemplan 
" and myself. Now I will not say thot you Trinitarians nerw 
" do this ; but I will confidently say that you far oJ^onor dfl 
" somethiiJR else. You dweU on IW ttncuxsV 'nVkV nqu. coufl 



Dr, Punf-y on Marian Devotion, 



153 



' ypar sin to h»ve inflicted on the loving Heart of your 
*• R«doemer ; or on the contrast between year sin and Christ's 
" spollaaa nanctity ou oarth — i.e., the spotless sanctity of a 
" created aool ; or on your ingratitude for tlio torments endured 
** by that sopI in your behalf; and then yoii g&ZQ with com- 
•^ panction on the pierced hands and feet. In fact, you carry 
" this qujisi-itlolatrous principle into every detail of the in- 
" terior life. Ton do not come, as I may say, faco to face w^ith 
"God; what you call the Sacred Humanity stands up aa a 
" oonituit bairier between Him and your soul. Nor must I 
" &al to «dd, that your doctrine of the Atonement has fear- 
" f •* ouraged sin, by representing pardon for the most 

" : _ uffences aa so certain and so easily obtained. 

'• i Uu not hero speak," he may continue to soy, in closer 
■orody of Dr. I'usey's assault on Catholics, "I do not hero 
" neok of saintly men, but of the groat mass as wo Hud 
" theni ; of those who fulfil their religious duties in a quiet and 
** <>rdinary way. Thcso men givo a certain fixed portion of 
" «ach day to prayer ; and it is arithmetically evident that 
** if sonie of that portion goes to tho created soul of Christ, 
^aomnchless will bo loft for tho Infinite God. But this is 
** Str from tho worst. It is quite indeiinitely easier and more 
" pl^uouit to man as ho is, that ho shall contcmplato a created 
** object—especially one invested with tho singularly pathetic 
"■na imogmativo interest surrounding Christ's Life and 
" Passion — than that ho shall contemplate tho Divino Nature. 
" If men arc told, therefore, that Christ's hnman sou! knows 
** thMT thoughts and can grant their petitions, they wilt bo 
" «Vcr incrcaaiDg the timo devoted to that soul, at tho expense 
"ofthotimo devoted directly to the Uncreated. They will 
" ihna loam practically more and more to look to the created 
" Kml of Christ for pardon, for help, for tstrength, for oonso- 
** Ution ; it is their prayers to that sou! which will issne freely 
" and warmly from the heart ; while their direct atldrosses to 
" the Divine Nature will bo little more tlrnn the perfunctory 
" -n<1 externa! performance of a certain stated and prescribed 
I ine, 

n vou justly iirgiio, in reply to all this, that you 
** r - 111 of Christ as appertaining to a Divino Person, 

'* and tiiHt yonr prayers to that soul are Addressed to God the 
" f^< n. 1 dt) not- (lony that such is your theory ; but the simplo 
" I lis. For once that your pious affections are directed 

*• i', w.T iuemal Father, they are directed a thousand times to 
" the Sacred Humanity. You intist porfoivc, thoreforo, admit 
" one of two alternatives, and 1 rare not which. VlvVUct xow 
" lovi^ thi> Sffccml Person of your 'IViiiity far \»oUttr \.Wu ^o^ 



154 Dr. Pusey on Marian Devotion. 

" lore the First ; or else you love the created Bonl far better 
" than you love the Divine Person. In either case your doc- 
" trines of the Trinity and Incarnation have introduced a 
'^ shocking and most perverse corruption into your practical 
" worship." 

Under the pressure of such arguments, we tliink that 
Dr. Pusey in his turn would be disposed to wring his hands in 
perplexity. Great would be his distress at finding that men 
can argue with such perverse ingenuity, on grounds purely a 
jviori, in favour of a proposition proved to be monstrously 
and extravagantly false by the daily experience of every 
Trinitarian. In fact, he would have a practical percep- 
tion of the effect which is produced on the mind of Ca- 
tholics, by his own criticism of Marian devotion. The mere 
expression of such distress, however, would do but litUe to 
convince his Deistic opponent; for we will not suppose tiiat 
the Deist is fairer in dealing with Dr. Pusey, than is Dr. Pus^ 
in dealing with the Roman Church. Dr. Pusey, therefore, 
would be obliged, if the Deist had some considerable influence, 
to bring out a train of argument in reply; and this argument 
might, perliaps, take some such shape as the subjoined. We 
.•should add th:it we are ourselves in complete agreement with 
tho wliolc reply which here follows : — 

*' Man, undoubtedly, I grant you — it is tho very foundation 
" of all true religion — ^^vas created for one end, the knowledge 
" and lovo of God: he is more perfect in proportion as such 
" knowknlge and love arc greater — in proportion as he is 
" more prompt to recognise and obey the Divine Will. 
" But I cannot admit for a moment that he advances more 
" quickly in such promptitude by contemplating exclusively the 
'' Divine Nature, than by contemplating the Sacred Humanity. 
" Facts, indeed, prove most emphatically the reverse. Nor 
" is it at all difficult to explain these facts. When an ordinary 
" French or Italian Catholic* contemplates the acts of Christ, 
" ho contemplates them, not simply as the acts of a finite 
" soul, but as human acts of the Infinite God. This will be 
" evident to any one brought into contact with the Cathohcs 
*' of those countries, by the awe and lowly reverence which 
" they exhibit in pondering on the various mysteries of 
'* Christ. In like manner — that I may notice your other objec- 



* %\'c here violate dramatic appropri.itenes3 ; for Dr. Pusey would 
(iRsuredly say in preference, " an ordinary menilier of the Anglican Church." 
"We cannot admit, however, that members of the Anglican Choreh, oUier 
than extreme Tractarians, do in general practically hold and reihlize oui Lwd'a 
Divine PeisonoL'ty, Oa this we speakuAAi ux ova %tMv^ 



ZV. Puscy on Marian Dovotion. 



15o 



" tiotu — OEtr tbougbt of the aagniah which our sin inflicted on 
" His Heart conscs us, not to forget^ but on the contrary far more 
*' Tiridljr lo rrmi^inbcrt that abhorrence of sin wliich chnrnc- 
" Utrixc--* the Divine Natore. Agato, our firm belief tbut the 
" most hiddtiu secreta of our mind are open to the human sonl 
" of Christ, does bot intensify our realization of the doctrine 
" thai God's Uncreated Natoto is strictly Omniscient. 

" Farther, consider tho oloae connoctiou which exists 
" botwocn what are called respectively 'sensible' and 'solid' 
" piety. By the former I mean the assemblage of those 
" r&rimis emotione — awe, gratitude, hope, joy, tender love — 
" which are produced by thinking on the Objects of faith ; by 
" tho Utter pbrasCj ' solid piety,' is meant n ready promptitude 
" of tn/Ztowwds the love and service of God. Now, of saintly 
" men ^reat marvels are recorded, concerning the dcvotodnesa 
" of will and purpose maintained by them under afflicting 
" aridity ; but, as regards the gieat matis of manklud, it is 
" impossible to exaggerate tho importance of sensible piety, a« 
" Ib^eriDg truo devotion of the tvill to God. In all human 
" mtttfrv you would admit this. Suppose I felt no sonsiblo 
" paOk in hearing \ny mother foully slandered, uur any 
" •ensilUo pleasure in fulfilling her wishes ; you would take for 
" granted that I am not the m&u to put forth any wonderfully 
'* itomg eCfortfi of will and active exertion, whether to plcaso 
" her or to vindicate her good name. From the absence, I 
" aayj of strong emotii>H, you would at ouco iufor that vigorous 
" acto of the wtll are also absent. And, in like manner, surely 
" the caa<a ans most rare and exceptional, in which there is a 
" heaftjr teal of *rt7/ for God's glory, and a hearty lovo of t'^'itl 
" for lus adorable Sanctity, without corresponding emotions of 
" seal and of love, Emotions have no merit in themselves^ 
" doobtleaa ; but their value is simply inappreciable, as 
and promoters of that wliich is valuable and 
ions. Sousible pleasure, when intense, peuc-trutos 
** thL* i]i4cllr«t with an nnspeakably vivid apprehension of its 
" oliiect, and thus loads to the highest and clioicost acts of the 
"will.* 






• thit troth U bMUttfhOy •tat4sd m K. Fubcri "Orowtl. 
94a(ljr t^ dut|>t<r from puo 4S8 to 461, and obMrre «^i 

L "IDufUitf MfU(bol«iiiOkloclerotion]iaI1 tnunn : whica 

i luaTiolv utuuB ^iplay a copiouiDiMB ami fxutifniiirL- wliich Umj 

r Iwi MbtSL IMitstmu an Boent anil abuiiilant. The (Hrttiw ao 

^w brnic tvrth thrir antioiu in poin ami tratrtil, but wirh rucilityaail 

■l«ntlaarr. and Uipir uflbpritii; ttxr rirh. iM-fintifnl, nint hrroir. TboPQ M» 

E'UiioiM ajvi^ ; mid Bm<>uV\(>nntt tdaAfMa. 
^ M pawn tfrer i now uud if\aAiiaqn>^a% 



I5C Dr. Pusey on Marian Devotion. 

" This being understood, yon shonld at once admit the 
" inappreciable advantage obtained for us by our belief in the 
" Incaraation. It is the very ground of your adverse argn- 
" ment, that the thought of Christ's Life and Passion, in their 
" touching and unapproachable circumstances, is immeasurably 
" more attractive to the imagination and affections of ordinary 
" men, than is any contemplation of God's Infinite Nature. 
" Since, therefore, so immeasurably more of sensible pieiy is 
" engendered by the former than by the latter, far more of 
" solid piety will also be thus engendered. Moreover, 
" nothing can be more extravagantly contrary to facts, than to 
*' say that the habit of praying to Christ renders men's 
" addresses to the Infinite God perfunctory and lifeless. The 
" very opposite is well known to all devout Trinitarians. 
" After having pondered on some mystery of our Lord's Life 
" or Passion, we find an altogether fresh and indefinitely 
" increased tenderness in our thought of the Invisible God. 
" It is hardly an exaggeration, indeed, to say that, for all our 
" tenderness in the latter, we are exclusively indebted to the 
'^ former. And lastly, in proportion as our explicit prayers 
" are more lively and heartfelt, in that proportion we more 
" fully consecrate our whole lives to God, by keeping His 
" remembrance in our mind throughout the day. The regular 
" practice, then, of prayer to the soul of Christ and to God 
" Incarnate (for these two prayers, indeed, are substantially 
*' the same) is the one cause to which we are almost exclu- 
" sively indebted, for our habits (whatever they may be) of 
" Divine love. 

" As to the ai-gument by which you finally clinch your 
** reasoning, I totally deny your assumed premiss ; I totally 
" deny that that Object which I most love is necessarily that 
" on which my pious affections most readily and spontaneously 
" rest. Human nature, being weak and corrupt, shrinks from 
" that which requires great effort and exertion. Nothing 
" then is more eanily explicable, than that at some given 



AVe have such a facility in difficulties as almost to change the character of the 
spirtual life ; and a union of body and sjilrit, which is as great a revolution 
lis agreement luid peace in a divided household. All these blessings are the 
mutations of the Ri;^ht Hand of the Most High. Even to beginners, God 
oilcn vouchsafes to give tlieni, not merely aa sugar-plums to children, ns some 
writers liave strangely said, but to do a reiil work in their souls, and enable 
them to hold their way through the supematund difficulties proper to their 
state. But proficients should ardently desire them, for they fatten prayer ; 
and the perfect can never do without them, aa they oui never cease 
nuginenting their virtues and Tendering the exerciae of them pleftsant" 
(pp. 428-9). 



Dr. Ptuey on Marian Devotion. 



157 



nt my thoughts fix tbemsclre.t with immoasurably 
^greater readincHa and spontaneoosness ou an object — such 
" as the Boal of Chriat^ — which is far more lovol to my capa- 
" cities of opprchenaiom certain though I nm thai — so far as 
*• ii can he cousiiloretl separately from iliiu Whose soul it Is — 
•* I love it appreciatively with an affection, not merely less 
" in degrooj but quite lower in kind, than that which I 
" entertain towards the Infinito God. 

" And is not nil which I have snid borno out by an experience, 
*' whirh 1 muy really cull visible and palpable? la it not visibly 
" and (Milpiibly the fact, that a love of God has been called 
" into existence among Christian Saints, indefinitely higher 
*' than that exhibited by the ^reat servants of God under 
" ■ ' ' ' ib'spensation ? nny, and different (one may really say) 
" from any shown in the Christian period, whether by 

" Uiut4inan8 ur by other disbelievers in the Incarnation ? " 

Such a reply may fail to convince Dr. Puaey's opponent ; 
but be will himself admit its force, and that is all wo desire. 
Wc say, then, that the above argument may bo paralleled, 
tn cvrr)- essential particular, for the defence of Marian devo- 
tion ; (hat the same line of thoug;ht, which vindicates against 
DiBista the worship of Jesus, \'iuaicates uo less triumphantly 
•nuDst Anglicans the worship of Mary. To this critical part 
of our retuoning wo now proceed : but, before considering 
UiMe particnlar Catholics to whom Dr. Posey's objections 
»pply, 11 will be well briefly to touch other classes, which have 
A real ojtistcnee and must not be foreotteu. These classes, of 
coarse, melt into each other graduaUy and imperceptibly, so 
&r as individuals are concerned; ur the same man may fall 
from one class into a lower, and afterwards rise again. iStill, 
oa the whole, these various classes stand each on its distinct 
groond. 

Protostunta asaoro ns^ e.tj., that Italian brigands, who never 
Uunk for * moment of God and their eternal destiny, often 
relAiii the habit of invoking the Mother of God; nay, of 
praying her to assist them in their nefarious schemes. Wo 
aerer ooold see what ou earth this fact has to do with the 
qnostiou. 8o far from the Church being responaiblo for these 
mo», they have broken off all connection with her ; and they 
know very well that every priest in Chnstoiulum considers 
tbeir course of life simply detestable. All we have to say 
than U that, KCoundrel for scoundrel — if brigands thcro 
most be — wo would rather that a scoundri'l retained hnbits of 
prayer to ourLmd^* than that there should be no Vink ^\ii8A,«\«c 
brfwcru htm and ChriatiaDky. 



I 



18a 



Br. Tusey on MartOii Vec&Uon, 



Another cla^s conHisks of those whom the Yen. Grignon de 
Monlfort calla ** preaumptuops devotees j " and who differ 
(roui those just mcntioncu in this respect, that they are really 
Qxions about their salvation, and flatter themselves that 
Fshall obtain it. Wo cannot better depict and estimate 
men than in Moutfort's very words : — 



reaUy 
thoy^d 




Presumptumis devotees are sinnors abandoned to their posnona, or Iovbtb of 
Lfbe world, who, mider tlio Caor name of Cbrutians and client* of onr Bleuad 
riAdy, conc«aJ pride, ararice, impurity, drunkcnii««s, anger, swcwriaj;. detxkc> 
tion, injustice, or some other sin. They sleep in peace in the mitUt of ihcif' 
bad habita, withoat doiuu any violence to tliciuBoIve« to correct Lbeir fiiuU*, 
unHcr the prdext that they an dtwmt to the BLssted Viiyifk. They 
thenuelveb tliat Gotl will pardon them ; Ihnt they wiU not h« iiUovred to die 
Trilhuut coafessiun ; and that they will not be lost eternally ; becMUo Chey aiy 
the rosaiy, because tht>y fast on Satordays, beoauae they belong to the con- 
foitemity of the Holy Ilosary, or wear the scnpulnr, or are enrcill(«l in other 
b eoiigregatioiu,or wear the little habit or Little chain of oor Lady They will not 
Ibolieve lu when we tvU them that their devotion iaonly aa illittion of the d^Til, 
I and a peniicioua pre«uuiplion likely to dcatroy their sools. They say that Utxl 
Igood and merciful ; that He has not made ua to oondeoui as eTerlaikisely 
rthat no man is without sin ; that they sihall not die withont onnfenitm ; ti 
I one good Pcccavi at the hour of death is r:iiou|(fa ; that they ore devout to 
[Lady; that they wear the aaipiihu- ; and that they say daily, viihoui reproach 
or vanity, aevcn Patera and Aves in her honour ; and tliat they liunielimea 
aay the rosary and the offioo of our Lady, bt-sides fiutiug luid otiit-r thinga 
I To give authority to all this, and to blind thcmselTes still further, they qaote 
certain storim, which they have heard or read— it does not maitez to tfaeffl 
whether they be true or false, — relating how people hare died in mortal sin 
without confcuion ; and then, beuauac in thcii lifetime they sometimes 
some prayera, or went through some practices of dc^'otiou to our Lady, ho' 
they have been raised to life a^in, in onler to ^o to coufesslou, or their 
been miraculously retained in their bodlps till confession ; or how tJiey ha 
obtained fi-oui Ood at the moment of death contrition aad pardon of 
I sins, and so have been saved; and that th^ themselves expect 
I &vouza, Nothing in Obristtmtty i$ men d^tatahii; than thi$ diaboHeal jm- 
t tamptWH, For how can ws my traly that we love and honour oar Blnocd 
Lady, when by our atns we are pittleasly piercing, wounding, cmcif^-iag, and 
outiaging Jesus Clirist her Son 7 If Mary bid down a law to Iwnelf, to lai 
by her mercy this sort, of people, she would be authorizing crime, and asaijii 
iuK to crucify and outrage her Bon. Who would daxe to think ancb a thoiii^l 
as thai ? 

I say, that thus to abase devotion to our Lady, which, after d 
onr Lord in the Bkaied Sacnuneot, is the holieatand solidest nf nil 
it io hi Qtiilly of a A^>rr»Mc Auri/^v** ^li>^ ^'^ the saoilsgt "' > 
Communion, i« the grtaUA nmd tiu UaA poniofMiUs V^,' ' 



the 



Ufa 



lA 



Dr, Putfy on Marian Devotion, 



159 



I 




The superstition here condomnod is tnily deplorable aud 
|i1il>tf«Mr How widely it may extend^ we have no mcan.s of 
fcartatnly knowing; bnt Canon Oakeloy teUa ob that he haa 
never met* with a single case of it : — 

It mxj b« token as ab nndoubtexl £act, tliat devution to the Bleased Vu^ 
ii atv«r on iftniUtcd nuuiifestetion of CnthoUc pictr. Wberc CuthuIIcs are 
actt dtmot bo fwr Lonl, thejr are not devout to Hia Mother, nnd vim. vend ; 
hot 1 bav* 9am lutiipencd to meet with an initanco at cxtnuirdinarj tlovu- 
Uoato UiA BUvwd Vitj^n, without a correi^Kmduig oxpujuiiuii of piety in 
ulhw dirvctiook. 1 kaow it 14 comiuooly aoid, that the luctriful attributes of 
Ika mmirrf Vli^in tav made by nninstnicted Catholics an cxcufio for tlio coiu- 
tnj^JM* of tin. I will not go ho £ar as to plead my owa timitod experience 
f^yUuct aa njitally authfiutlc lectimoay in favour of buch ou abu^e ; nor, 
jftdrH. ^trert it dearly shown to exist, would it prove anything more Ihuii n 
o«w iUwtialion of the poot^a worda, that ' Nobleat thin^ find vilest u»iug.' 
T*t I win lay, upon the woni of a prieat and oonfMsor of nearly HTeut«t>n 
ding, that 1 have ncviTtnd with a ca« of tho kind. I have always 
tliF (i>iitniry, uiiit (ints of the fint syinjitonit) of spiritual decline Is 
if ion to the Blessed Vii);tn ; and that they who rctilixc 
•J lit know that ibe is oiu- true Mother of Mercy cannot, If 
tkvf voolil, direa4 ihemMilTai of the salutaiy impreaRioD, that she is also the 
]imit of Ood^ atatoxca, and that, aa such, she is abhorrent of lin in all it< 

' Of course/' be adds, " there is always a danger that ain- 
\ will be t<nnpte<l to lay too groat a stress on the merciful 
I tmp^r^ "f religion ; " but this arises, not from any peculiar 
th^ fie of Marian devotion, but from the corruption and 

liu^^ --f^ t^>f human mitnre. Indeed, if on account of Buch 

jbojiei we may condemn Marianism itself, a similar condem- 
nifciail must fall very far more heavily on two doctrines atill 
more primary and fundamental : viz. the Atonement of Christ 
md Jnattfication by faith. For no perrorsion of Marian 
docCriiitf can be named, which will bear even a moment's 
oompfkriaon with the disgusting and appalling n.<i.somblagd of 
bifi'onTt.'nir. which has been built by Antinomians on those 
t* 'uths of the Gospel. 

A tuinj class consii^ts of men, who are plunged indeed in 
raoctal lin, and who will not bring themselves to go through that 
HDOimt of ' -effort which would leaa without dolay 

to thetr jii <'t who sincerely wish they led a bettor 

life; wli" !' ' 1 Iv ■ Illy the peril and the misery of their state; 
while lii^v *L. :nh^ however, the hope that thwr Hearenly 
Mother will obtain for them sunk more powerful grace, 
as may cany them with far greater ease to gonuinn tc^k^V 
Tbeas men iaatiuctivoly shrink frcmi Vh« Q3E^^^ci^• 




160 



Z7r. Pitsey oil Martan Devotion, 



thought of God and of Christ, tbroDgli their conaciaaflness 
of Biu mid their fear of judgment to come ; but this frar 
does not keep thorn back from her, to whom (as Catholicii 
love to expresH it) Christ baa committed the kingdom i]M 
raercy, while reserving to Himself that of justice. Now 
sks to Huch siuncrs every Catholic, of coarse, holds, (1) 
that if they die in their present condition they will be 
inevitably lost ; (2) that tne very fact of their remain- 
ing unreconciled to God involves tho greatest danger, lest 
they full frctjucntly into fresh, mortal sins; and (3) that the 
very delay oi repentance becomes a mortal sin under certain 
circumstances, as, e. n., when the Church's precept urges of 
confession and communion. But such comments are beside 
the point. The (juestion is simply this : other things remain- 
ing the same, is it or is it not beneficial, that tliey shall be 
frequent in prayer to the Blessed Virgin? Now, most evi- 
dently, it is tnt^atimably beneficial. If tliey practised no prayer 
to her, they would not bo one whit more ftequent in prayer to 
God ; but on the contrary would give themselves up with- 
out reserve to the world and the devil. Nor have we aay 
doubt whatever, that in numberless cases Mary draws such 
men, by ber intercession with God, to true and officaoiooa 
attrition; and that thus multitudes are saved, who, but f< 
their invocation of her sweet name, would have miaerabl 
perished. 

^Ve now come to that particular class which Dr. Posey's 
argument concerns : tho class of men who or© free ftvam mortal 
sin, and firmly i-osolved by God's grace not to commit it ; bat 
who arc not as yet what is commonly called " interior :" who 
are not as yet labouring systematically to discover and correct 
thoip venial sins and imperfections, and to raise their thoughts 
and affections from earth to heaven. Of such men wo main- 
tain that a solid and earnest devotion to our Lady is the 
most hopeful moans they can adopt, for being raised by God 
into a higher state of mind. We must beg our readers to look 
buck at p. 1 50, and refresh their memory as to Dr. Pusey*« 
I general ground of objoction ; because it ia in answering such 
objection, that the reason for our own positive doctrine will 
most clearly appear. Our reply, it will be observed, presorrea 
throughout a close parallel with that, by which we suppose DrJ 
Pusey Iiimself to havo refuted those Unitariaoa and DciataJ 
I who may have been scandalised at his " idolatrous " worshiij 
' of the Sacred Humanity. Nor can wo better introduce whew 
wc would say, than by quoting F. Newman's most eloquent andj 
touchiug passage, on the respective characteristics of Jesu^ 
ond Mfity as Objects of worstup. I 



ny 

m 



Dr. PuMij 0.1 Parian Devotion, 



161 



li wmi the cnaticm of n new idea and a new sympathy, a new foith and 
ranhip, wbon the holy ApMtlea uinoimocd thiit God hod become incanuile ; 
land » aiipmne lore and devotion to Him became posstUe, which Heemed 
'Vo pnl iM before tiist rcrvelatioo. £ul beaides thu, a accond range of 
ihao0HM wit opened on uiaakind, unknown before, and unlike any other, tu 
toom Of U uu* undtrdood Aat that Inc^imaU Ood had a Mather. The 
itooiid idf* b perfectly distinct from the former, the one does not 
tal fiftrw with the other. Ha i$ Ood madt lov, the i$ a woman inad€ hiyh 

B* who chAlget as with making Mnry a divinity* if Ounby denying the 

SKimitf e/'/muL Snch a niJin doe-ii not know what divinity is. Our Xord 

MAAcrf ;*ay far tu, lU a cnaiMn, tu Marypraffa ; He cannot iiupire Uum 

f a i mga wkick a creatvn intpires. To her belongs, us being a creature, a 

ntlniil flfauiD on oar sympathy and faniUianly, iu that she is nothing ebie 

than en fallow. Sbe is onr pride,— in the |K)et'H wanhi, " Our tainted 

— iBW'a ■oUUry boast." tVt took to hrr without any fear, any ranor$t. .... 

Ovr bmrt yMms towatthi tluit pure Vitxin, that f^ntle Mother, and our con- 

(Ezatnlatsaas follow her, tm nhe ri^r.4 horn Nazareth and Ephosus, through the 

oboin of angels, to her throne on hi^h. So weak yet so atrong ; so delicate, 

, jrtt M> i^ry-Uden : so modest, }'cl so mighty. She has sketched for us her 

I awn portrait in the lifagnificat. "He hath regarded the low estate of His 

' hsodmaid ; for behold, from henceforth all generations sImII call me blessed. 

He hath put down the mighty btmi llirir Heat ; and hath exalted Uie hiuiible. 

H« hath AUod the hungry with good things, and the rich He halh sent empty 

aw»y ' ^p. 90-1). 

Now wo will first admit, for aLrgnmonfs sake. Dr. Puaey'a 
inoat atrftnge supposition, that devutiou to uur Lady dues not 
ordnarily cause iucreaso of the tlnio given to prayer. Wo motit 
ally ailuiit a\so of counw hia implied principle, that men 

nioro excoUont, moro perfect of their kind, precisely in 

nroporUoD aa they grow in the knoivlodgo and lovo of God. 
Tkis, indoed, is the very "foundation" of S. loiiatius ; and 
noat assuredly is very far more consistently anu loudly prO' 
rliumed witliiu the Church than in any other religious society. 
Bat wo maintain, firstly, that this knowledge and lovo may bu 
at certain times far more effectively promoted by prayer to 
Mftiy, than by direct prayer to God and Christ. Let ns tix our 
ideas l^ an instance. A Catholic comes into a church iu the 
middle of the day, fmm the dust and heut of his secular avoca- 
tiooa. It will very often happen that, aflcr ho has genuSected 
bdbre the Ble*i*ieu Sacrament, bis very best course for raieing^ 
hit heart to a fervent lovo of God will bo prayer before an 
image of onr Lady. 

ftr consider. It is Dr. Pusoy's own admission — nay, it is 
the Trry fonntUtton of his whole argument — that, with ordi- 
r-. i« luon, it of>*n reqairoa far less effort awA exftt^ivcwi 

l< thouf^hu uu A created person, snch aa Harv , vV-vcv f>^ j 



162 1^' Pusey on MaHan Vev^iion, 1 

God Incarnate ; and on sach occasions, therefore, their prayer to 
her will be far more earnestj far leas dLutmcted, far nioro heart- 
felt, than it would have been if addressed directly to God. Now, 
there are two dUferent efTtxits to be considered in ^e oaie of 
prayer. On the one hand, the various graces giwen by God of 
I lis own good pleasure in response to it; jind, on the other hondi 
tlio result it producesj iu the way (as it were) of natural cause 
and otfcctf* on the will and on the emotions. As to the fbrmer of 
these effects, there is nO pretence for saying that prayer tOj 
ilary is less efficacious than direct pravcr to Joaua ; for it ir 
nltiinately addresHcd to HinSj ana tnat through the moal 
acceptable of all mediatorH. As to the latter cflcctj — its qaasv 
natural i-osult on the intelloctj the will, the emotions — let this 
be borne in uiind. It is a vitally important psychological fact, 
and one on which theologians lay the most earnest stress, that no 
man can desire evil for its own sake ; that all men's thoughts 
and affections would be directed to God in one unintcrmittcnt 
stream, were it not for the innumerable corrupt interests and 
associations which enchain them. In proportion, then, as at 
any moment I am disentangled from those meshes, in that 
very proportion I am more dispotied to obey God's Will and to 
follow nis Preference. Now remember that every Catholic 
regards Mary as absolutely free from the sUghtoat approach to 
moral imperfection of any imaginable kind; and that ber 
contemplation, tLurefure, is among the most powerful correc- 
tives of every inordinate and irregular passion. But, in propor- 
tion as every inordinate and irregular passion is corrected, in 
that very proportion the love of God is fostered and promoted; 
and tho love of God, therefore, instead of being impeded, ia 
promoted with singular efficacy by prayer to the Most Holy 
Virgin. Since then^ such prayer, under the circumstances 
fiupposedj was very far more earnest and heartfelt than 
any other prayer would have been ; — it was, under those 
particular circumstances, far more conducive than any other 
to increased love of God. Under favourable conditions, 
indeed, it may so engender actual and vivid emotions of 
love and gratitude to tiod, that I can be no longer content 
without explicit worship of Him; that I prostrate myself 
before tho Blessed Sacrament, and address Him (as it were! 
Oico to face ; that in some sense I leave Mary for Jesus, and 
by so leanng ber fulfil her highest wishes in ray regard. As 
Montfort puts it. T have begun according to the Church's 
order with " benedicta tu in mulieribus ;" and have been raised 

* For snpematiind nbenomena, no leo than natural, have fixed 
\suuhn8 of their own. 



1 




/)r, PuJteij <m Marian Devotian. 



163 



10 iho M\ lugfaer atep^ "Bene<lictas Frucfcua vantris tui 
Jenw." 

And here we are remindod^ before we go further^ of 
gelling on a soinewhat important consideration suggested by 
I above argument. WhiiL is meant when ono Bays that each 
^Jferemt saint has a character of his own ? S. Paiu, e. g., had 
bii own Tory pronounced character ; S. Peter his ; and ho of the 
raat. It must moani at all oventaj that certain qualities very 
ptib^' and prt>njinontIy predominated over the rest. Now 

not this fnrthor imply that there was a certain want 

of complete harmony ? a certain imperfection of tempera- 
mi>nt ? On the other hand, onr Sarioor, as exhibited in the 
GoapeU, has no "character;" no one quality predominates 
mtdoly over any other; ho is the very image of the Infinitely 
Perfisot God. And hero we see under one aspect how broad 
it the oontrasfc between devotion to Mary and to another saint. 
9hm lua no special "character" of her ovm, any more than 
k«r Sou has ; she is the " S]}eculum Justitias ; " the fauitlesa 
mirror of complete and harmonious sanctity. 

We retom to onr iirgnment. There cannot possibly be a 
{greater mistake than to suppose, as Dr. Posey docs, that, 
wilh Boch C'atholirs aa we arc now considering, the worship of 
Jfary reduces the worship c>f God and of Jesus to a pcrfunc- 
tonr. fxlomal, unintcrcffting work. The very opposite holds 
IT' '..Uirolly and prominently. We have au-eady given 

oni. V .>".uiat)r>ii of this; hero is another. Devotion to our 
I^aJy, if constant and unremitting, will assuredly issue in n 
loving contemplation of her history ; of those mysteries (as 
Cathulica call them). Joyful, sorrowful, glorious, which lue 
cnmmemorated in the ftosary. Now, it has boon frequently 
paintcci out by Catholic eontroversiaUsts — and it should be 
pendorCHi on again and again — that there is no history of her 
current in tlio Chnrch, except in closest connection with hor 
boa. On the detoiU of her life daring those periods when 
ife was leil apart from His — ^before the Annunciation and 
the Aacenftion — Scripturo proservcH a deep silence; nor 
there been any beyond the most sparing supplement 
Im'nfiirtj frmn the stores of tradition. Her joys, as cou- 
Ir: by CathoijcK, were in His Presence; her dolours in 

11 ii; her exaltntion in His Repurreetion and Aflcenaion, 
T'. . n ht:r my.-*t<Tie8, is to think of Him in the most 
■Bwntiwg and impressive way in which that thought can 
panhly bo presented. 

Tht*o again, in proportion as I grow in love and devotion to 
her, I am more prompt, of course, to do her buWmg a.ni!L^\A^^ 
Imtt wishn*. llTi/i/ w that bidding? what arc l\\oa« "MnAifc*^ 



ri 



IC'i 



Dr. Pusey on Marutn DcvoHon, 



except that I obey her Son ; — ^that I render to God thj 
adoration which the Church prescribes. My lovo for hor vn 
make me earnestly desirous of doing this in the way ^ 
would hare me do it; or, in other words, as a heartfelt ai 
pious exercise. 

Here, then, it will be in place to point out, how large 
portion of their worship is offered directly to God, by tho 
who follow the Church's rule, and who really seek therefore 
please their Heavenly Mother. Cardinal Wiseman treat) 
this excellently during the controversy of 1841-5. 

Now, to examine this tiow of the caae, let tu talcc u an Instance, 
Italiiui peasant What are the retigiouft exercisei which are enjoined hi 
and which he regularly attends 7 First, the holy naerifice of the MaM, en 
Sunday and holiday, and pretty generally every morning before going 
work. He knows, aa well as yon or I, what the Mau is, &ii>l tliat it cana 
be offered up to any, sare to God. Secondly, the Holy Comiiiunlon at la 
several times a year ; ofUn, much more frequently. Tfaudly. ai ■ fovpt 
tion for it, confesHion of hin nins, penitently and contritely. Hum t 
sacrarnenti he wrll known have nnthtti^ to do [intrinfiicalfy} with the BlflM 
Mother of God .... Fuurtlily, the Benediction, or adoration of the Blen 
Sacrament, generally in tho evening of all festtvala, and ofVcn on other di 
To thia wo may add tho forty honra* prayer, or exposition of the Blea 
Sacrament for that space nf time, watched by adorers day and night Amfi 
the prayers most (reqaeiitly iuculctilcd, ami publicly recited, ore acta ofliu 
hope, charity, and contrition, and well known by the most ilUtemte. Tbi 
leading exercisot of worship and devotion all belong to Qod : the priiMJ 
one that ia referable to the Blessed Vir^ la the Roeaiy. Thb gaaan 
forms a part of family evening devotton«, and i« moreover occaiiionally satd 
public. I would gladly enter, did my present object permit auch detaila, ii 
an explanation and anolpis of this devotion, one of the most beailtifiil to 1 
mind : at present T need only ray, that every book of devotion will ahowyi 
what the catechism in Italy, and I believe in Spain, fully explains, that ■ 
myjiteriiii of our Saviour's Birth, De«(h, and Ttimiii»h, arc the n-al objecta 
this form of prayer. However, take it as yon please ; consider it ob a 
votion principdily addressed to tlie Bteswd Virpin, and odd to it any oth 
nanfllly said, nn her LtUnv ; — and I aakyon wliat do Ihey amonnt to, compal 
witli Uif rxt'n^isrs of piety wlii(h I hwve K-foro enumerated, the mosttolc 
by far ami tlie mmt iiidixjicntuible ? For every Cutholic, howpv*T ignoit 
Imows that he must every festival aasht at Mnan, under pain of ain ; 
none imagine that a similar penalty iit attached to the neglect of any of tli 
devotions to the Blessed Virgin. Tim surely fomw n mo«t tuip<>rtant < 
tioctioD between the two worAhijis, tlial to Ood and that (o the gicateil 
(he Saints (" Letter to Rev. J. H. Newmim," pp 22-24). 

A similar view ia powerfully expressed by F. Newm 
himself, in rej)ly to Dr. Pusey. 



Wbim stnmgen m so onfiivounibly impresBod with as, became they boo 
bM^Si of ont Lady iu oiir churciie^, iind crowds flocking about her, they 
IbfSat that Lhere is a PrMoaoc withui the sacred vails, in&niuly mor« awfiJ, 
^ch clainu and obLiiiu trom aa a worahip tnuuccit<lciitly diOV-ruDl from 
aigr derotion we pay lo her. Thut devotion might indeed lend lo idoLUry, if 
U w«rv eneountfed Id Protestant clmrcfaea, where there la nothing higher than 
It la attnwH. Iho «onhi])|ier ; but uU the imagn that a GalboIIc Church evpr 
caolaiDad, all th« oniciftxea at its alUra brou^t together, do not so nffoct its 
fcHWltca> aa the huup which betokeaa the preeeucv or absence there of tho 
SacnmenL J^ not tliis «o certain, so notorion:), that on souio 
it has been eren brooght as a charge against iis, thiit vrv am irrevti- 
ttai In Chandi, when what wenied to the objector to be irreverence was but 
Uar Diarmary change of f<>eUn)f, whidi caue over those who were there, ou 
their knowing that their Lord waa away f 

Hm hums again conreys to us the aanic lesson of the sovereignty of the 
Incunat* Son. . . . Hostile visttoncnterourchurchesou Sunday at midday, 
llw tkae of Iho Anghean eorrico. They ore snrprisod to see the hi({h mass per- 
h^B pDorly attended, and a body of wnrahippcra Iraiin}^ thn muxicAnd the mixed 
who may be lazily fnlfillu:i(( tbctr obligiition, for the ttilcut or the in- 
davociocu which are offered at an iuiane of the Bleiaod Virgin. They 
be tempted, with one of your infomtaots, to call »w^ a u^iuple, not a 
"Jura* Church," butt "Mary Church." But, ifthry undenlood otir wsys, they 
would know that we b^n the day with our I/ord and then go un to His 
Moiber. It ia early in the morning thai religious {Kroous go to man and 
■pmtnnniou The high mass, on the other hand, is the fetitire celebration of 
Ikt day, not Ihc speeiBl derotioDal eorvice ; nor 'm there any reason why thoee 
wIm httn been at a low mass already, should not at Ihst hour proceed to aok 
Uk* iatemaaion of the Bleaaed Viigin for themselves and all that is dvur to 



Cownnmion, »fSUia, which is given in the morning, ia a solemn uucquivood 
act didih in the Incnrmite God, if any can be such. .... I knew a Indy^ 
vfo on h**f di<(ith-U>d was visited by an excellent Protestant fnemL Sbe» 
witJh KTvat leudrrnewi for her soul's wclCiro, attked ber whether her pmyere to 
thp Binm**l Vitpn did not, at that awful hoar, lend to forgctfulness of her 
fiarioar. ** Foit^t Him t " ahe replic^l witb surprise, " Why, He bos ju5t been 
hen.* SShe hsd been receiving Him in communion (pp. &1>-101\ 

All Uu8, n» wo hnvo said, wonM proceed eqnally on the tnost 
^ igo roppositton, that worship of Mary is (aa it were) so 
aach arithmeticnlly 8iibstracted trom direct worship of God ; 
wImtMU we renlly bclioTe that tho.se most given to thu former 
«boand eveo more tlian others iu tho latter, from tlie increased 
attractiTenosa mid joy which proycr presents to them. Mnn* 
kind, as P. Nt^wmau once said, " aro feeblc-niindcd, cx> 
dtabK . '^' nat«, wft}*WArd, irritnble, chnngeablo, misemblfi.'' 
PnMti: thoy nre mnody ; iind n religion which ahiUl por- 

ffttanvetj' iuQn' m^ inunt bo ono cfToctxitiW^ ttdAtei«m!^ 

tad .V K- mood. At one momGUt ^v^ n " 






I 



Dr, Piitey on Mariaji Dmotion, 

readily disposed to direct and immediato worship of tha 
Creator ; at another they will give themsclvos with fiu* mora 
alacrity to that direct worship of Mary, which (let it never he 
forgotten) is always moat trmy, though indirectly, the worship 
of God. Nor can anything (to onr mind) bo more mistaken, 
than a oarefuHy methodical calculation oa lo how much time is 
given to one and how much to the other.* On the oontrary, 
the vciT characteriatic of Catholic devotion is its gpontaneotH' 

[iHeJis, Those who once were Anglicans and are now Catholics 
find in no respect, we believe, a wider contrast between iheir 
present lile and their past, than in this element of spontaneoos- 
neee. To pace along an old-fashionod Dutch garden, divided into 
prim walks and parterres, and with every step marked uut for 
you, is no doubt (so far as it goos) a healthful exorcise ; but it 
Ifives no inrigoration to the frame and spirits, which can be 

(oompared with that accruing from the liberty to roam at will 
over beautifiil grounds, and gB»e on enchanting scenery, and 
cull, according to your inclination of the moment, from a vwiety 
of exquisite fiowera. Conld Dr. Pnaey have one dars'i «- 
perience of the true reUgion, he would shudder at tne rwy 
thought of returning to tho dreary routine of his Anglicsn 
exercises, 

Yet surely at ln«t there is no need of t€ii*omng at all 

.against Dr. Pusey'H allegation; Keeincf it is a matter ofj 

^Visible and palpable experience, that (if we may so parallel 
S. Paul's woros) whore worship of Mary has aboundedj 



• "The tcninMhM4 dcvotcM are those who fear to diBhononr Iho Sod hy 
honouring the ft!other. to nbuac the one hi ftU-vntiafi the oUii-r. They canonl 
bear lh;il wc hIiuuM atLribntc to our Latly the mostJQftt ptiuaea ^n. ■' " ■ 
I'holy Fathers have ^tcq her. /( i> iiU (Key tan do to tndun that th- 
hltcmonptopU Mtnt th« nltar qf the BUuat Virffin than hefr^r-- <■' 
w-lSaor am mt :a$yih*OM was wnimry'to tStotherfW ifthoifW'. 
^Btmud Lady did not pray tc J^ttB (SiriUhf her. They arc im"__i__„ :_i__ _ 
tihonld speak ao often of our Lad^, and addren otinelrM to her. Tb(»e an Um 
bvourite «eat«iio«a oooatantly in their nuniUu: *To what esd arc M many 
I ohapleta, so nuuiyconfnit«nutieft,iuid «o iti&n; eittemal darotiuttk lo the BlNwd 
[Tirginf Then u much iguuraiicc in all tlm. It niakeji a iiiiiiiiniejTof ourre- 
|Hji:ioiL SpGok to UB of thoso who arc dcroul to Jesos Girist' {ya th^y ^Jfcn 
inanullim without uwovertng: lany this liy wayof parenthcRisi *Wp wwx 
[jnTo reoouwe to Josus Ohrixt ; He is otir only Meoiator. W« uin- 
I Jead* Chrut ; this in the aoliil dcvutinit.' What thnr «a^ in tnii> ii 
EKRse ; Itut it bt very clotii^eroiu, nrhoii, by the a|tj>Iicatiiiii tti- : jl, 

llliey binder devutioD lo our Bkowd Lady, and it u. under i' •( al 

(treat«r good, a aubUo aiiare of thp mU oue. For never do v ■ 
Obriat uinre thauwhen we are most honouriiift Win Bli<ia«>(l MoHi 
only honoin- Slary that we may tho ntnre perfectly honour Jcjiii 
V0 only go to her as to the way iu Mwc^ivee asc W faiA. V. . an\ 

scekbig, which ia Jeaua." — (Monllorl, VV- 'i^^ 



Dr. Pme}f on Marian Devotivu. 



167 



there hns worsliip of the Sacred Humanity abounded much 
raorv. It la the Roman Caiholio Cbarch which is the natural 
home,— 4L3 on the one hand of devotion to the Mother of God, — 
to cm tho other hand of those countless devotions — to the 
T^Mion, tho Blwjsed Sacmment, tho Sacred Hoarfc^ the Divino 
Iniancy, — which arc ever springing up in auch laxuriance. On 
tho other hand, every attempt at introducing Buch things in 
Dr. Pusey's oommunion ia accepted by the common sense of 
KnglUhmon as an infalltblo indication of " Popish" procli\Htic9. 
Wo can understand Catholic churches being callod " Mary 
Churches" by some ignorant extern, who knows nothing about 
fthe Bleeeod Bacramont^ and who sees a largo image of our lindy 
■OfTOonded Inr eaf^or suppliants, to their inestimable spiritual 
adrantsgo. But by what poasiblo indication he could bo lod 
to oatl an Anglican edifice a " Jesus Church," it utterly bc- 
wildcTS 08 to conjocttn:©.* Is it in an Antjli*'nn edifice, then, 
that he would see a colossal image of Christ Crucified, and a 
Crucifix placed conspicuously over each one of the numerous 
altars ? For any visible emblema exhibited, one might as well 
giro the appellation " Jesua Church " to a Mohammodar 
rooaqoe. 

I>r. Posey may reply to all this, that still those Catholics ol 
whom tfo speak have more emtihl- fa I'uuj towards tho Mothci 
than towards the Son. If tho fact wore really so, it would 
pr««ODt to ns no kind of difiioulty; as we shall immediately 
■ay: but Cardinal Wiseman, than whom no Englishman has 
been betttT acquainted with foreign Catholics^f expresses a 
difinnt opinion. These are his words ; and the whole 
pam^ ninstrntes much of what we have been saying : — 

Brt •pin, t atuLD tjo tali], that tho nuiiMr in which the poorer Catholics 
inf hAm b«r iius(s'e« and thow uf the tjainta, betny« s i^rwtor fprvour of 
Man tfaoj dtif^jr »t oLbcr liniw ; iiaj, that it even iadic)it«« n 
I IniM in tboM outward ■jinbotA tbenmlTes. This appMnnoc 
' bs partly true ) thflogh I sm n«dy movt oompbtely to diuy, that An// 
Kn faiir, «ni^M«uM«i,«(Kl 4«M<Mm is «Ter «shibited beCoce relies or iiUHKCa, 
wUdi /ra Diiiy Me any day h^ar* th* Blu m d Saarammtt, lahem tl w ofomd 
to aimntiun. But at tba Mune tina^ I will aiMrt thrt the tondonr omolMiii 
«i noi tho pfopar t«rta of hi^ur *"''"gri mdi ■■ ooafidence, TatMnUobt 




* "Id Mt'ith^rn luA\n txnd (V'tIou our [tho An^iouil cbuirhm are caOed 
W lbs iHiirM 'Jitn* (Tinrrhos;' the llonuin ratholic Churtbw 'Maiy 
Qmitkm ' "— {JB^wU^m, p. 107.) 

t W» rnJe of "{nrntfu rathnliea;* Wanm Vr. Vm^j. wilh tnuek 
CnrtK oawdcUn that in Kixulawl there I* a "dMck ftora W QCKAaA "k^ 
PMoftwC** iP i^*,\ ^hidi kvrpa back t«&d«Mka (ixna Ckwtt V^v^ioaaMa 




and homi{(e. A child mny be more fondling and offecUonato with )iu 
mother, whUe he will uiore reverenw, more obey, more believe, and more ' 
confide in bin fAther. And no I conceive, that the more nenftible put of 
devotion, that which works upon natimd foeUngs, may be mora appozeaUy 
excited by the joys, the guffeiinga, the glories, and the rirtaes of beings nin« 
akin to our mUure, thftn by contemplation of thoee, however mudi more 
pcrfrct, of a Being infinitely removed &om our sphere. What ibotight to 
powerful as to be able to measure the abyss of suffering which orcrwheUiu 
the heart of Jeau», expiring on the cross f But whftt mind 50 dull, or wbai 
heart 80 callous, an not to be able to apprehend the maternal feelijtgs of he* 
-who Btandtt bereaved at its foot } Does not her grifi^ In fluA, present tn tht 
I^'ftniest and clciircst mirror of His sufferings f Boos not the Btahat M«tUr, Vi 
that very uccouiit, excite the purest sentiments of love and boitow for the 
Son, becan»e Ills griefs are viewed through the sympaUuei of the Mo ihsc 
("Letter to Bev. J. IL Newman," pp. 24-25). 



I 



Sensible devotion in prayor is a phenomenon, which mi 
always depend in great degree on accidental circumatanceft 
time, place, health, spirits, and the like. But as regards snch 
Catholics as we are now considering, if any general statement 
can truly be made, it will (we think) be such as this. Scnniblo 
derotion to the Mother of God is n good deal more readily and 
immediately excited tliau to her Sou ; but, on the other hand, 
when the latter docs come into existence, it is a good deal 
keener and more vivid. The thanksgiving, «. «., after a devout 
communion, will ordinarily be accompanied with feelinwBof ' ' 
more exuberant exults^ioUj than arc any prayers to the Bli 
Vi^in. 

However so let it bo, if Dr. Pusoy will, that thoso Catholics 
have more sensible devotion to Marj' than to Jesus, ^Vhat 
inference will he thence deduce ? That love of Marj- is t« 
discouraged ? Take a parallel case. It will not be doub 
that an ordinary Anglican haa very much more tendemmS 
of feeling towaras a loved and loving mother, than towards 
Almighty God; that ho will feel far more keenly an insult 
offered to her, than one equally serious offered to her Creator^ 
that he will feel fai* more lively grief at having given he ' 
pain, than at having wounded his Saviour's Hoari; that her 
company is a far more simple delight to him, than ia the oom- 
panionsnip with God in prayer. Moreover, thora are so 
most aerions lexta, which might easily be so inierprotod 
to cause such a man serious alarm. '* He who lovuth fath 
or mother more than ile, is not worthy of Me." '* If an; 
man comcth to Me and hateth not his father and motbQ^| 
he cannot be My disciple." Yet Dr. Pnsey would him- 
8e}f Bfimit that, on the whole, tUvB hutnaa affection is mo 
ssJutAry; and that it ia an invaiua-bVe «n!E«^i»Ti\. a^\isX «>.> 



deal 

of&rfl 
[esse^H 

bolica " 

bte«, 
ards" 

'"J 



ii 



m 



I>r» Pujury on MariiM Devotion. 



169 



I 

I 






CFTiL He would much wish that such a man loved God more ; 
bat most oertainlv ho would not regard it as a step towards so 
donrable an end, that tho earthly object wero loved less 
tonderly. Why is it that Dr. Fus«y bo persiBtontly disparages 
lesdemess to the hif^hest and purest of all creaturofi, while so 
tolerant of creature-love in a verj' far more questionable shape ? 
Beallj, to road his language about Catholics, ono would snp- 
poee that the great body of Anglicans exhnust tho whole 
tendenicss of their heart on Objects simply Divine ; that there 
is among them no love of mother, of wife, of children, of 
frieods ; that their heart beats with sensible love for Godj and 
for God Alone. 

In ono word, then. Those Christiana, of whom we are now 
opeaking, are in general very far more casHy diverted from 
worldly to heavenly thoughts, aod very far more rapidly raised 
into Bcntnble devotion, by tho contemplation of Mary than in 
any other way. But sensible devotion (see p. 155) is of iuap- 
pfDciabLo value in promoting soUd piety; and the contom- 
pbtiOD of Mary, by it^ own nature, curries men forward out of 
itaelf into contemplation of Jesus aud of God. Mury, there- 
fore, ia tho way to Josua, just aa Jesus is the Way to tho 
Father. 

There is also another unspeakable advantage flowing from 
Haiian worship, totally different from any of which we have 
j«t «pok«n, and ou which we shall have to enlarge in our next 
Dtunber. Here we will but most briefly touch on it. Catholic 
oontroreraialiatfl ofleu and (we aro convinced) most justly 
allege, that the vast majority of Protectants possess no real 
practical belief aud realization of our Lord's Divine Personality. 
How ore Cathohcs themselves preeerved from this calnmity Y 
Ono moat special safepruurd is devotion to our Ijuly. Tho 
habit of approaching Him through a mediatrix places Him 
(if we may ao speak) before their mind iu the pofition of the 
Sapremo Being. The appeal to His Mother's intercesftion 
"eograves upon tho imagination of tho faithful" His 
Own Diviao Personality. S. Beruardine and S. Alphonsus 
have borne fully as important a part as S. Athanasius and 
S. Cyril, in "imprinting " this doctrine "on the worship and 
practice of the C atholic people." 

That passage from the Eirenicon which we quoted at start* 
ing ia immediately succeeded by the following : — 

It u diAcult to M0 how dired bere^ should not b« niggeit«d bjr 
MolMioai Kich « \im» ^d Ukj bic m cooimon) : " If wg far to go directly 
mJmn Ovist our Ood, whether ImanM of His InfinHe Qi«it(tte«,o<btte«iii« 
Tflfwi. or bMi«pN> of our ajw, bt ns boldly ImpVore tha uA vt, Viirs 
d^f£>r. i*tt9ey'a jWici|is so cbuitablc thit ikfe c«||ft>a Vf 




Dr, Pvsetj mt Manan Devotion. 

thoM who a»k for hci> int«TC(«sion, no ntAtior how jfTMl sinneta they haro b«0D ; 
for, ta the aaioto flar, n(*vor hu it been hefttd, Rihce llio wnrld wag Ihr «r<t] 
that any on« hM confidently und {wnevcringly had recouise to mir 
Lady and yet has been repelled." For. for this arpniiHint to have i 
must be iiupUed to be powible that iiny could ** coiifldenti y and | 
have iwmiree to oiu: Di^-ine Lord suid yel b« repelled," which is, of ( 
ilirectly agwinst the Orwpel (p]). 183-4). 

Now snppoao an Anglican were to speak as follows : — " If 
" wc fear to go directly to the Invisible God^ whether becaa 
" of His Infinite Greatness, or because of ooi* vileness, or I 
" oanso of our sins, let us boldly npncal to that soul which ; 
" tenderly loved us ; which suffered for ua anffoish ousped' 
" able ; whoso ffreatcst m'iof of all was, that bo few would av 
" themselves of His Redemption. That soul so loves na thai i 
" repels none, no matter how great sinners they may have be<'i 
" for never has it been heard, since the world was the world, tl 
" any one who confidently and perseveringly prayed to Jemis 1 
" been ropellod." Beyond all possibility of donbt, if it wore i 
that the Catholic exhortation quoted by Dr. Posey involve 
heresy, it would be no less trno that this Anglican exhortatiod 
involves heresy far fouler. It is very intolerahlo, we admitj f 
say that the love felt for us by Wary exceeds that felt for i 
by the soul of Christ ; but it is immeoBurably more hornljl 
and monstrous to say, that the finite love felt for ns by thu 
latter exceeds the Infinite TjOvg of the Eternal God. Dd 
Pusey, however, wotild not misunderst&nd his co-r 1 
in the per\orBe way in which ho misnndcrstnnds the > 
Church. He would at once understand his meaning to be, no 
thattho lovo felt for us by Christ's soul exceeds that felt for i 
by the Divine Nature ; but, that when men are bowed down ' 
aeonBo of sin, it is very far more e-asy for thorn to r. 
former than the latter. Precisely similar is Montfort'.-^ . 
in the passage cited by Dr. Pusoy. Moreover, it is imporij 
remark that Dr. Puscy — ^without in any way indicating 

omission — has actually dropped two sentences from the o 

of that passage; ivfiieft eentrncct jl.r. it vnmijttahihfij to th 
sense ive have jitst given. We put these two sentences tnt 
italica : — 

If wo f«ar to go directly to Jeauii Christ our God, whether bfouav 
nia infinlto ){mitnes9, or h«Qaoso of our vilcnesB, or bocatiao uf our 8tu». 
UB boldly iniporo the aid and inttrce»«ion of Mary our Mother. .^V 
jA« is Ui^m^, the fuu ttoihiM{f in her auit^r* or ?vj>ii/«i'w. tiothxnit < 
nndttio hnUiant. In tfeing hfr, we stc our pure nnivrt, S^'^ ' ~ 

irfto, htf thi vivnritt/ of hi* rni/*, liJiwU n* ^.^l«(»/• />/mir»WiT" 
/(tir and g-utU nt tht trro-jtt, ichicH tti:t\ 
Vto retutrr it more 4uit(ilil* M our mji" 



centr 



Dr. Piuey on Marian Devotion, 



m 



» nosM ti ihiOM who wk her latoroearion, no matter how gnat cinnorn 
biii« bMn ; for, u the siuiilii mt, iiert-r htu it 1>ceii heard amcu t^ti 
» 4h« vorld, that anj one haa confldently and ponereriiigty hnd r&> 
r to giicr BlMH>d Udy, uid jr«t hM baen r«pell«d (pp. 07-M). 



Hie 



writer 



oontrafft drawn by tlio soi , 
betwe6D Jcaus and Mary ae regards their power and their 
wOUngncBS to Kelp as ; but between tho dcffrco of readiness 
wind) iDODj keenly conscious of sin^ uatumUy expericnco to- 
irards addnE»aing one or the other. Wo must roaJly maintaiu 
It Dr. Pasoj that, though Montfort's oxpreasiou of this 
jhi i« very buautiful, thu thought itsolf is among the moat 
obriouA of tnusms. 

"I* U, of course, an abase of" Roman '* teachingj" clso- 
wbere ulmitJi Dr. I*asoy, " whca any conKne their pmjors to 
thr BIrased Virgin." But lie adds, " a certain proportion, it 
has been aftcertiiined by those who have inquired, do stop Mhort 
ia Hot" (p. 107). It is simply imponaiblo, we reply, that any 
3lic can " eoufino his prayers to " her, and " stop short in 
- " withuut falling iuto what tho Church teaches tu be 
aiii. Is be never then to make theological acU ? nover 
>paro himself for confession ? nover to receive com- 
ioD 1 Or — putting aaido the oncstiun of mortal sin — do 
o Marian devotcos carefully avoid uti visits to tho Blessed 
SacTBment? to tho Forty Hours' Exposition ? to the solemnity 
tif Benediction ? "It has been ascertained" forsooth 1 by 
wfanm ? when ? where ? how ? 

Tho author characteristically proceeds in one sentence, from 
a (act about which he can know nothing whatever, to a fact 
witbin his own personal cognizance ; aa though the two wcru 
ecjooUy uidoubtod. 

1 havv Bjidf been aaked by Roman CatfaoUoi to pmy for uy converaion : 
ontt oody I whh mked to pray oitr I^onl. On the oiIkt occasions, 1 mui 
■uiiMiiily aekrd to pny the Bleascd Vlixin for it (pp. IU7-8}. 

Dr. PoBoy bimself very probably, if he were organiKing 
pi »y f p " f"r f»ome object he had closely at heart, woold choose 
pr s addressed to the Sacred Humanity. Wo 

rii : - account anspect him of the heretical tenet, 

that the ftoal of Christ possesses either a power or a will to 
help a», commensurable with the Divine Power and Will. But 
we lAiouid understand him to see, that prayer to tho Sacred 
HuliMmty ia nraver to tho Divine Person clothed in that 
HutBUiit}' ; wutlf it is f»r riion- attrnctivoand ca-sy for ordinary 
mcD. UiMi pmyr In the Invisible (Jod. tSo prayer to ilary (as 
WB Bsve Aurauiy explained) b virtually and nltimntely prayer 



"7. 
our 



k 



Dr, Pusey on Mari4ia VevoUon, 

to Godj wliilc it is often more easy and attractive for ordinary 
moD in their ordinary moments. " Ste is not the sun," 
Moutfort B&ys, " who blinds us because of our weakness, bi 
fair and gentle as the moon and more suitable th^eforo to our 
capacity." 

\Ve believe we have now gone through all Dr. Pnsey's i 
portant objections against the woi-ship of Mary, as practised 
that class of Catholics to which those objections mainly reft 
Wo will add a few words, however, on two further classes who 
remain to be couaidcrod; viz., {!) iuterior, and (2) saintly ma 
Wo have already said — and the argument just brought to 
close vindicates, we hope, our conclusion — that no one practii 
is so likely to raise an ordinary Catholic into a higher spirit u 
conditioD, as the frequent and sustained worship of Mary, 
because this secures prayer to God, offered in the roost cffi 
tive way. Now, so soon as a CathuUc becomes interior 
so souu as he begins to labour earnestly and consistently flj 
a withdrawal of his affections from eveiy earthly object--I 
is compelled (as it were) by the very necessity of his nature, 
seek rest and satisfaction in thought of the Infinite. A direi ^ 
remembrance of God, therefore, becomes a far mure constant 
phenomenon than it was ut the earlier period, and poTvado« tlie 
whole current of his life. Let us suppose, then, that he has been 
happily practised from the first in lively and frequent devotioD 
to Mary : his thoughts of the Mother and the Son now beooirip 
most intimately blended; ho ever contemplntes the higl 
Object tliroiigh the lower, as through a mirror j he boroin 
to use Montfort's most touohiug expression, "the slavo 
Jesus in Mary." He is their slave, but their moat loving slftVi 
And so far from the latter love in any degree lessoning tlic 
former, — on the contrary it singularly intensities it,and gives 
it an otherwise untasto'd quaUty of affection and tenaeruc- 
AU this we hci*e state without any attempt at proof: bcCAi 
our space is hmited ; and because Dr. Pusey (as we understa 
him) docs not press his objections, as telling in the parti 
case of these higher and more advanced souls. 

Wo wiU conclude, then, this particular portion of our 
ment, with two brief remarks closely connected with e 
other. 'ITioy have been suggested, not by any thing whii 
Dr, Pusey has brought forward, but by the ordinaxy olamoor 
of Protestant controversialists. 

(1 ) To speak of our Lady's mediation as encroaching ever so 

distajitly on our Lord's mediatorial office, is to ahow so 

strangely inadequate a sense of what h included in the latter, 

that the very allegation couiimm our worst impressions of 

ProtesUuxt miabeliof. A year ago l^iw\^,'Vft^^, \(^.\^A-T\ 



I 



mimtm 



ions iil 



Dr. Pu9eu ort Mnruin I)*^oUrm» 



173 



the confident opinion ttat very few in Dr. Pasey's 

Bunion, except the extreme TracUriaus, in any way realize 

iliy hold thttt belief in our Lord's Divine I'crsonalityj 

they speculatively Accept; aud we assigned, as one 

Bipal r€«soD of this, the very circam stance of their neg- 

Marian devotion. In our last number, again (p. 549), 

lieommented on a decidedly High Church writerj who 

iAm it bUsphemy to hold that ** Mary is the Mother of 

tomal." Canon Oakelej Ims some excellent remarks on 

in p. 75. Bat we will quot« in preference some admirable 

"* I of P. Newman, written several years ago, which cannot 

careliiUy pondered : — 

JW Pro(«ifante Aatw any T*id pentpiicn of tk« dodrint of Ood and 

oiu Pmon. They spook in a dre&niy Biiudowry wny of Chrut'a 

J bill vkoi their meiattiig U gifUdjjou vtll find them very slow to 

llMniftdTei to uiy stftUmeut sufficient to show tiiut it is Catholic 

win tdl yoc at once, that the rabject is not to be inquinvl into, for 

euiQot inqniro into it at all, wkbont being technical and euhtle. 

riMB they eoRtZDcnt on the OospeU, they will speak of Cbmt, not 

■ad otmdatcntJy >■ Hod, but aa a bciiiy made up of Ood and inan, 

■w and partly the other, or between both, or as a man inhabited by a 

diriiia pmeiico. Bvnietimoa tliey even gn on to deny tlmt He ww 

of Ood in boaTtn, saying that He became the Son, when He vu 

of the Holy Qheat; and they are shocki.>d, and think it a matfcl 

|af n rmK D ix and good sense to be shocked, when the Man ii spoken ot ] 

■ad pUiuly aa Ood. They cannot bear to have it aatd, except as i 

or node of spcakinA thiit tiod hud a buiiuin body, or that Ood 

d i l2wy think that the * Atonemeot,' and * Saiictification tlirough the 

spirit,' «■ they spMdc, is the eum and sabetanoe of the Gospel, and they are 

ihy of any dogmatic cxprvsaion which goes beyond them. Such, I believe, 

the diMftctcr of the rroteatont notions among aa on the divioity of Chrat| 

rtalUff amMg nfmbert of the Artgliean tommunion or ditmiltn fhtm U, 

tf^img a atttitm of tk* former ("Discounet to Uhcedl Congrcgkticni," pp. 

(2) The notion that Roman Catholics prncticalty regard our 
Lady as a "goddess" is repugnant, not merely to carefully- 
PKertained trtiths, but to ihe must tjaperficial phonumuna. 
Hie Tcry caoso of that Bpccial attraction which her devotion { 
lea for the great body of Catholics, is their regarding 
a fi^ low. Croat are. She can obtain for ihem all they ask ; 
tK thnt in priiying Uj> her they ore not speaking 

it V r to fnce with tlieir Infinite Creotor. 

HtthaHo, we havo been defending tbo&e Marian doc^wcA 
rhicb fM it foowM to us) the Church migi«teriaA\^', anOL \3ckQT«- 



174 



Dt\ Pitgetj on Marian Devotion, 



fore infftllibly-j inciilcfttcs on 41 hor cliildron. In April, »ft«f.| 
rocoautiug these doclrinos, we tlius proceeded :— 

There are other |>ropo«itlons wfatch, if not actiudly tu^l bj the Gkndi 
with in&IUble authority, are yet so univemilly tcM V>y deroui iemofes of 
Way, that no ''oordnUu OntholicuB" will dream of doaUbig thea. For 
iost&nco, (1) Uut God Mcured her assent as an indtspeiiMble pmUmioair W 
the Incarnation (" flnt niihi iiccimduni vcrbnm tuom **) mhitk oikmvw uouU 
not have htm aotomptithtd ; (2) that wMe our Lord wa« on enrth, she hod t 
clear knowledge of, and keen sympathy with, all vhuh He effeoiad fiat am 
ialvation ; (3) that ah« UJtM a most active part in diapeiuing the gift td ft^ 
aeremnoe ; (4) that extraonlinaiy tenderneaa towatda her is a BpecHl note of 
predestination (p. 435). 

Here; as before, preriously to examining objections, we 
most consider the positive ground for accepting tboao " 

Sropoaitione. Wo say this, then. If a number of hul 
oeply imbued with the spirit of the Church; pro^ 
and largely acquainted with the text of Scripture ;aadB. 
given to a loving meditiition of Mary ; — if tteso men are 
mons in arriving at certain conctnsions, and if not o 
jnan can be named who dissents thereirora, an ove 
probability is recognized by every loyal Catholic that 
positions uro true. Then, to ttuce them severally. The 
tural argument ordinarily adduced for tlio iirt^it, is ex.oe] 
expressed by Canon Oakeley in p. 24. The second in 
neoatsarily implied in the patnutio tradition, so powui 
drawn out by P. Newman, on Mary's office as the second 
for how could the former occupy a place in man's reden 
auahigouti to that occupied by hive in hia/aj/, anless she 
clear knowledge of, and sympath}* with, the great work 
progress? The third prupositiou has been admirably defend 
by F. Newman. 8oc, e.<;., pp. 78-9, and again pp. 7/-8. Agai: 
in p. Ill, he argues : — 




es^^^ 



Our Lord died for those hentbena who did not know Him ; und Hui Hi 
intercedes for ihoee Christians who do not know her : and she interoodes 
cording to His will ; when He wiUa to save a particular sotil, ibe at mee pnn 
forit{pp,m-12). 

Slie pray9 for it, bocaofie God haa made it part of h< 
sweet office, that from the first momait of her Aasumptiou, sfa 
shall have an integral part in the salvation of each prodestinMl 
soul. 

"Wo are not aware of any special objection raised by 
Pusey against any one of thf-se three propositiooa ; and 
wo proceed, therefore, to tho fourth ; in regard to which our 
warn flrgumcnt must tnm, neither on defending its truth, ~ 



"(ijftw^ An Mariftff 



fwn. 



trt rlifficiiltie=i, Vint on invest i^mliiig its rcalseoso. F, 
■, quotes the following words from i'. Nepveu, S»J, ;r^ 

The l«w cf -Tf^iii; Ohnst U the most rare ple<Ige nf oar fiilnre happiness, 
•ad the ' 1 ihle token vt our predc^i iiinliou. Morcy townnlU the poor, 

4 r9 t u m tu me ih'ttf l^irgin, arf. vetyutmhU lofceru of prfileslination ; iwocr- 
I ttNf ori not alttoluttly infaUibk : hui one cannot haov a Wnaerv and 
I tow of Jmu CSWrt, wiikotU frrwig pr $ Mm aitd. . . . Tbo destroying 
aofei, wUdi tMmared the hoiues of the E^yptiaiM of their fint-bom, had 
, to all U» hooiea vbioh veiv miiriud vith the blood of the Ijnnib 



HF. Xewmnn adde, " I believe it ia a fair specimea of tho 
HA» !' onr spiritual books." Now, thei'e can be here no 

^^b^^ 4 tforence of dodrlitt between any one Catholic and 

may other. That if yoa have a sincere and genuine lore of 

L CnrUt, such a fact supplieji inimca«urably stronger gronnd of 

B hope ajh to your salvotioD, than could possibly bo supplied by 

~ Mi; 'U to our Lndy which is ."'y'Trn^fii from snch lovo, 

— T , tniOi which no Cut hulic could hear questioned with- 

ont horror. Yet, on the other hand, it does seem to ua (but 

^ we spoak quite ditHdeutlv and under correction) that it is very 

I hx ifioTi) oonunon iu Catholic wnters to mention "devotion to 

Krilw Unly Virgin," than '^tlie love of Jesus Christ/' as a 

^^P^ci&l note of predestination. For ono instance out of many, 

■ P, Nownuui (p. 103) quotes a prayer to Mary from tho 

BftTColtn saying, "to lore thee is a great mark of pre- 

d< i : " but he quotes no each indulgenced prayer 

»duiT:--i.->vu to our Blessed Lord ; nor are we ourselves aware of 

haring observed one. And wo suspect the reason of all this to 

be, that tho phra«o "note of predestination" is not commonly 

used t-xactU* in F. Newman's sense. We give our own im- 

prevbon for what it may be worth ; assuring Dr. Pnsny, monn- 

while, that as to tbo question of doctrine^ no Cathohc could 

draua of holding any other than that above stated. 

Firatly, then, and as a provions illustration, consider the word 
" devotion." We think it is not ordinarily used, as expressing 
any habits of prayer which are ohlujntory ; but those only to 
which a Catholic freely resorts, according to the instinct of his 
own pitrty. Thns, wo speak of " devotion to Mair/' but 
hardly of " devotion to Jchus." What wo do speak of iu 
rvgvd to Him ia rather " devotion to the Passion ;" or " to tho 
S^red Heart ;" or " to the Blosi^cd Sacromeiit ;" or " to tho 
Vildtf infancy ;" or (to speak of a recent devotion which has 
^tefmilseu in some parta of Catholic Christendom) " to His 






CcNmtciiAnoe." This proposition, then, — "dovotiou to 
lUry U % tpe<nai note of pre(iedtinatiou,"*-fthowB \i^ \V« \v:t^ 



Funeij Ml Marittn 



ion. 



wording that reference is not made to any matter of 
obligation. ' 

But, farther, it appears to us that those exercises which are 
matters of strict obligation, have a connection with prcdestina- 
tion even closer than that of being " notes " thereof. Ilia 
not commonly said, e.^,, that frequent tit ton of the Sarram^nit 
ia " a note of predestination." Such miittera would rather 
be called " the very pa^h of predestination." That Catholic ia 
predestined, and he only, who continues to the end in bia love 
of God, and of Jesus Christ; and in his frequentatton of th« 
Sacraments : or who, so oflen as ho falls therefrom, rccovciM^ 
bimsclfj and dice in that state of recovery. But the qacstio^^H 
may naturally suggest itself to him, " Is my love for God and for ' 
Jesus Christ of that kind, — so deep, and genuine, and stable- 
that I have reasonable ground for hoping that it will continne ? 
Have I any special note of my predestinataon ? " And tho 
answer given is, that if my love for Jesus ia associated with ■ 
peculiar tenderness to llis BlosBe>d Mother, I have greater 
security than by any other assignable mark, that it will last mo 
to the eud. And, in accordance wnth this, the prayer to oar 
Lady, quoted by F. Newman from the Uaccolta, after having 
said, '* to love thee is a great mark of predestination," pro- 
ceeds, "pray that 1 may have a great love for Jeans;" "^^ 
covet no good of the earth, but to love ray God AloneJ^| 
And that, in this sense of the phrase, a heartfelt love fo^^ 
the Blessed Virgin is u most special note of predestination, 
has been established (we hojie) in the earlier part of our article. 

From what has here been incidentally said, we may explain 
an episcopal statement which Dr. Pusey has singularly mis 
understood. The italics aro our own : — 



iWffr^H 



To judtrc from llir official anKweni uf the Bishops to Pios IX. in aiMWffr 
hU im[uiiy, "witii what devotion ymir clergy and faithful people are uil 
towiinLi the Conoeption of the Immacnlate Virgin," Fabor wa» right «8 
immeiuely greater devotion and tnut in the Blessed Viif^in, •( IcHt Ifl 
count rics where there is no cfacrk from iho contAci with Prolcatantk. Cai^l^ 
the prominent iinprowion in my mind from mding thgw luuwm {thej 
more than three cKmc vohuuw) was "ifl/u dcvolion to OoJ tccrt idt 
tkf BltMttl Virgin, it nwild bt a vcorhl of ftn'nt*." '* In this diooc&e,' 
Bidliop of Cochabaiuho, *' as in the whole of civiliztnl Amcriai, it haa attni 
to the highest dogrw, so that nothing more can be desijvd." " Our only 
in these countries, tried by divers tribulationa," says ^« Vicar A|>a-( 
CtKliin China, "it) placed in our most hoi; Mother, (rom whom we 
solvation [naliu]." "The devotion of the Blessed Virgin is snch aN it 
defined by no bonnd*," savs the Biahop of Stnitari. In ^jiain and 
devotion to tlie BleMed Virgin is in its natural home. They at« fi 
ciiileti Mhmn kingdouis (pp. U&^^>. 



^Mtttti 




Z>r, Pivtey on Mariaii Devotion. 



177 



Dr, Ttuej bos understood, e.ff., the Bishop of CochftbaxDl)a 
to nie«n, thnt the whole population of cirilizod America ni-e 
fiulliful servants to the Mother of God, Yet surely he ctuiuot 
sappoftc that prelate to hold, either on the one hand, that the 
irbole popiilatioa is free from mortal sin ; or else, on the other 
and, that men plung^ed iu mortal sin can bo faitliful servants 
to the MotLcr of God, Dr. Puse}''3 whole misconception, 
Wo tJiinkj arisi-d from hia misunderstanding this word " de- 
votion." A p(>pulation which did not recognize our Blesaedt 
lord as the legitimate Object of worship, would not be Catholic' 
%t fJl ; but "uovotion" to Mary is not of strict obligation. 
STet in the conntries of civilized America frequent and habitual 
er to Marv i« universally recognized, n» no less integral 
of religious practice, than frequent and habitual prayer 
at. "Nothing more can be desired" in this respect; 
<I the blessedness of such a circumstance is extremely great. 
And this wilt bo a convenient place for another episodical 
mark. F. Newman's Jesuit director at Rome said to him, 
on cannot love Mary too much if you love onr Lord a great 
" more " (p. 23). On the othur hand, F. Faber {we thiuk 
•'AU Tot Jesus") speaks to this effect :" Our love of 
moj- be wrong in Hml, but cannot exceed m decree.** 
•re cftD be absolutely no difference between CathoUcs in 
lirtg on this head ; Lbo only question concerns the 
of that feeling. We suggest the question in this 
Tor Iwttor judges than ourselves to ponder: but of tho 
», wo rather incline to V. Faber's analysis. Let a true, not 
faUe, imago uf Mary bo presented by the intellect, and tho 
rill cannot by possibility be too strongly attracted to the obje<it 
IboA depicted. 

We now proceed to various thoughts and expressions, quoted 
Dr. Kufloy from individual writers of greater or loss weight. 
Ithaie, Bi rogards authority, arc divisible into four different 

tly we have those of holy men — such as S. Alphonsus and 
J»o Vcnenibio Urignon do Montfort, — whoso works have been 
exuoiiuHJ by supremo aathority, with a view to 
canonucalion. Of thoso erery Catholic is obso- ' 
certain that they contain nothing contrary to faith or 
; orto the Cliurch'a common sentiment; or tu theChurch'a 
practice.^ At the same time, let it bo most c«re*J 



* Thm lav m oononnd is Umm t«nitf .... If U» ^tnoQ ^)wift\MiCL- 
ik IB vDouicto, iuMwrittm liooka^ "oolmQliy mnttba ntocMAfe^ VQ3h. 
cAmt boob A«r<i Iwa dslitpm^ exAcainMl in the fta«w Coa^wpc^wa 



178 



i>f. Pu»eij OK Marian Devotion, 



folly observed, the Church ha& in do reapecfc implied thnt 
the various propositions contained in theso works are true, 
but oiily that tley are neither unsound nor abnormal. If, 
then (as may often bo the case), there \a any Cathohc to 
whom such propositions do not commend themselves as true ; — 
or (still more) who finds that the very thought of them 
perplexes and diacomposes him ; — he would be exhorted by 
eveiy good director to banish them from his mind. Indeed 
wo beliovc, as a matter of fact, that comparatively few 
Catholics, either liere or abroad, havo over heard of those 
propositions on which Dr. J'usey lays moat stress; for, w 
Canon Oakcley has most justly remarked, they "represent 
rather tho shape into which men of ascetic lives and pro* 
fouudly spiritual minds are accustomed to CAst thoir thoughta, 
than the {standard of our customary preaching or the scale of 
general devotion" (p, 31). At the same time it is nn* 
doubtedly the bias of our own judgment, not merely that 
tho propositions cited by Dr. Pusey from these holy ttMO 
aro entirely tnte, but also that they are generally edifying; 
that solid piety and lovo of tho Incarnate God would bo 
greatly pi*omoted, if a fur larger number of Catholics wt-re 
trained really to study and appreciate theso most elevated 
thoughts and most homing words. AVo shall inoidentally 
touch on this in tho sequel. 

A second class of propositions cited by Dr. Pusey have 
been expressed century after century, in a shape substantiallj 
similar, by eminent and approved writers, and cannot j>o3»ihl^ 
be unknown to Pope and bishops; while at tho same titnu 
thev have never been at all discouraged, and still less vi&ited 
with any kind of censure. By such signiticant silence, as it 
senms to us, tho Church magisterially teaches — not indeed 
that they are inta (very far from it) — but that thoy are not 
tlieologically unsound, nor in themselves injurious to piety. 

A third class of theso propositions have been expressed by 
this or that individual writer, and such writer may have l»cen 
in general ortliodox and Catholic; yet there may ba no. 
reason whatever to think that they have been brought bofcB 
the notice of ecclesiastical authority. Such propositions ma 
imaginably be unsound or even heretical ; they carry witi 
them no extrinsic weight ; they must stand or fall on the' 
own merits. 

Lastly, a work may have been actually oocdomnod 



of Ritea, to %<m if they oontAin enron ngaiiMt fulth or f;ood monb. or any 09 
doctrisi0 wntnuy to the Church't oommotv MnUnucLt or htr oomroon pTftOtic« 
—(Jnttleeta Jwi* Pon^ificH^ torn, i., v> "^'V 



pUood cm tliG Indox: in whicli case, of course, tho Church 
wiU h*FO anticipated Dr. Pasey's censare. Canon Oakeley 
obserred in liis pamphlet (p. 21, note) that no Catholio he 
had met with had ever heard the name of Oswald; and 
aftrr this was written, Mr. Rhodes opportunely discovered 
tliat Dome on tho Index. Now we cannot avoid speaking 
hero of Dr. Pusey with some sevority. Mr. Hhodea wrote to 
the Wfchiif licgUtir, announcing what ho had found ; and Dr. 
Piuey was at that time in the hnbit of reading that newspaper : 
ret wc arc not aware that from that day to this he haa 
fnlfilUvd the obvious duty of retracting those serious charges 
•r ' ■' Church, which ho had founded on her supposed 

t' of Oswald's teneta. 

Niiw it is evidently imposaible, within the limits of one 
article, to treat separately ovory single passage adduced by 
Dr. Posey : but the course which we purpose to pursue, wiU 
adniitied by ovory one ns equitable and fair. Wo will 

ssider every one of those gcneml propofittons against which 
most severely invf'ighs; and wo will face severally every 
cmo of those indiiiJnat fuugarjcs adduced by him, which are 
proinmabiy the most difficult of explanation. Firstly, then 
let oa treat the general propottUiona which fall under Dr, 
Puaey'i* lash. 

i\) Wo had heard before, r9peat«dly, tliul Mary was the HedLitrix with 
iktt B«*i«unM>r ; Houif uf qa, who do not read Marion books, hare heard now 
tnr llw fa»t tiino, that iihe vm ever oar *' Cu-BcdomptreBs.** The eridenoe 
Xhm, aot tn auj LnMiUteJ puiage of a derotionAl writer ... frttt in formaX 
mm tmenfrom onMnAojn and hitkopa (o iht Popt as to vbat they deBired in 
npud io Iht dc^sntion of the Inuuacalatc Cooceptioa as u article or riiiih. 
^ ^Dtm llw ArehMehnp of RymeuM wrote, *' 8ta«e we know certainly that she, 
fhkif of time, wm Co-HwtfmjATfn of tXe. human Ta<x, together with 
I Jflua Chrwi rnir Lord." From North Itaiy the Bishop of A«ti wrote 
^Ike dnfina of thn siognUr privilege gnuitcd hy the Divine Redeemer to 
k pnv DKrther, Utt Co-RtdtmptrfM of Uu voorld," In south Italy the Bishop 
' of Ga&ipoU wruic, " the human mce wlioni the Son of God, from her, re- 
ibmed ; whom. toKcUicr with Him, iA< htrttlf c(yTt^wmeA." Tho Bishop of 
Okiiati pnymi the Pope to "command iilt the lona of Holy Mother Church 
•Dd tl^ own. that 00 oa* of thora shall dare at any time horoatter to »uspect 
M to tie Imtnaetilat* CooMpliou of thtir CfhJMMmer." From Sardinia the 
Biohop of Alghero wrote, "It li the common consent of all the faithfiil, and 
[ ^m eamtmtm wish and dextre of all, thnt our to beneBcent Farvut and Co- 
' ibould be preoented by the Apostolic See with tho honour of this 
nkitriotia myitery." In S{Miii the Biibop of Almi'rla jiutiRod the 
u: : if^ ^ *^ tcrr'i^ of iho Coiu^'t'tlon. " The C'bun-h. adapiing 

,.fn.J ;„ theoffioeof the Conception that text, 'Let QaT\u,V«% 
■■ret mnfit, and confirm* those mo»k aivc\en\.\TftA\C\onm, 
wrjv<T^>Tj .V it/r j.rTiMinor/ ' CV*- AfdcinptrcM,' * AxShanm^ vnfm0ixn% 



I 
4 



180 



Dr. Piisey on Marian Devotion. 



■alvoUori.'' Th^ biahope refer to ihcso &a nociesnt, weU-knoim, tnditioiuujr 
titles, at least in tlielr CharchH ia North and Soath Italy, Budly, Sonluita, 
Spain (pp. ISl-3). 

Dr. Posey migUt have iusertcd, in furtbor con'oboralioa of 
tliis docti-ine, tbe indulgenced prayer which wo have already 
qnotodj that " hy the merits of Jesus and His Vinjin Jtfo/Arr, wo 
may bo partakers of the resurrection." (fiarroWt, p. 275.) 
And we arc Iho more fiiirprised nfc his objection to lhl$ 
titio of Co-Rcdemptress, oa ho has quoteil from Salozar the 
following boautifiil explanation cf its purport :— 

The wiiyd in vrliich the Blessed Vlrf^ oo-«pcrBt«d vith Christ to thtiiln- 
tlou of the Vf-oM may he dosaod as thnw :— 

1. As for as she bo sacrificed herself to GuJ for the astv»tiou of tb« worid 
by the wish and longing for death and the cross, that, if it could lie, she too, 
for the salvstioQ of the imivono, was willinf( to co-dio (oommori) witli her 
Hod, and to meet a like death with Uim. 

S. And chiefly, whereby the Virgin gave her help to Chnst for the oauunoa 
aahation, iu that she, exhibiting a will altogether oomfonnable and taa- 
I oordaiit with tho will of Chrir^t, ptve her SoQ to death for the commoa ailtft- 
tioii. And her zeal for the human nice is not seen only thnrein, tliot il nivfe 
hnr vrill conHpire with the will of her Son, but nUo in that she excibed awt 
impelled Hiui to undeigo deatk 

a That sho acted as merllatrix with the MeiliatAr. The vnA of onr 
sali-atJOQ WHS so ^\TOTlght. The Yirgiu expressed to her Sou ihe wishe* and 
fleslres wliich she had conceived for llie solvation of the hmuftn race ; bnt the 
Son, deferring to tlic Mother, recoivc<l these, and iigain prrsenU.'d to tlw 
F.ither the desiren both of Hin Mother ami His own ; but tlie Father granted 
what was wudted, first to the Son, then to the Mother {p. Ifl-J). 

For ourselres we are disposed to accept the wholo of this 
as frno ; bnt we tire here only rtinintaining, that it contains 
nothing contradictoiy to Christian doctrine or intrinsric-all? 
dangerous. If wo could only guess what ia Pr. Piiscy^ 
reAKon for thinking othorwisej wo might answer that rcasaiifl 
bat as things are, wo await his further explanation. Canofl 
Oakeley (p. 24) excellently vindicates the title of CM 
T^edemptress. ■ 

The otlior general propositions, condemned by Dr. Pusc^ 
undoubtedly i-c<piim more careful considcnitiou. We wH 
next (2) consider tho statouicnt (Kireiiicon, p. 105) tlmt sbfl 
"appeases her Son's just wruth:" whence Dr. Pusey infetfl 
that, according to Marinn writers, " the saints are more nadJ 
to intercede with Jesus than Jesus with tho Father;" or (il 
other words) that Mary loves sinners more wnnnly thnfl 
Jesus ]qvc» tlicui. But here, iva in so many other ii 71 

thif jmmlti'l nf the Incaruul\oi\ \» i^tcca^'An \\\ \v- v^J 



Dr. Pus 



rian Dovotion, 



181 



I 
I 

I 



t'uBoy inav hour muny Anglican prenchonj say that "the 
F^Lher is matly irritated," urnl that '' ihe Son appeases His 
wratli/* UoM he, thtircforc, ascnbe to them the porteatous 
heresy, that Hinnors aro lovftil mth leas intensity by t!io 
Divine Nature ihuu by the soul of Christ ? The Incaniatiou 
dijtplays uo II*^ truly the Father's lovinff-kindncss than tlie 
Soti*8. ''God HO h'Vfil IUg world that Ho gave HIa only 
begotten Son:** "God ntmmends Jlis Lore, in that Christ 
died for ua : " and any different tenet appertains only to a 
Calrini«tic heretic. And yet it is said with a most true driftj 
in. prmciioal nod devotionni writing, that the Son appeases tho 
F»thor'fl wrath^ and the like: because such phrases are under- 
stood (o signify what is most true; viz., that, in consequence 
of the Xncamaiion, the Father forgives us our sins, and treata 
ai with immcftanrubly greater mercy than would otherwiso 
hare been tho caae. It ia most certain, indeed, that the lovo 
felt for men by the Father is intinitely greater than that 
felt for them by the aoul of Christ; and iu like manner 
that tha love folt for them by tho soul of Christ ia very fur 

» greater, oven than that felt for them by their Heavenly 
jCoCber. Still it is axiomatically evident that, if Mary's 
mftoroewiiou has any efficacy ai all, it must induce her Son to 
trMtinon more mercifully than would otherwise have been tho 
CMo; and therfforo, just as it is very suitably said that the 
Son appeases the Father's wrftth, so it is said with precisely 
M equal propriety that Mary appeases her Son's. 
H Under this head comes the viaiou of tho two ladders (pp. 
103-4). Let as suppose sonie Anglican poet to depict "a 
viaiaa touching the two laddcra that reached from earth to 
hOATen : the on© red, upon which tho Ktemal Father leaned, 

■ from which many fell backward, and could not ascend : tho 
B oCber white, upon which the Sticrcd Humanity leaned ; tho 

■ help whereof, such as nsod, were by Jesus received with a 
Hcboetfnl countcunnce, and so with facility ascended into 
" hciarttn." "" v uufavourablo comment on this which we 

ahottid cxp' Dr. Pusey would be that, in sajing " jarmy 

I^^^^^Bcward'' from the former ladder, tlio poet implied tho 
HHHBce of some who did /")/ fnll backward from it. Othor- 

■ wife ho would heartily applaud snch a poem ; as teaching tlio 
W all-importaut truth, that Jesus is the one appointed Way for 

coming t« thri Fatlii-r. and tlmt those who attempt to retu.'h 
tho Fa' ^iation will be disapjwinted. Such, 

llieo, I iig of S. Alphonmis, and of those 

0<b«r saintly writers who have appealed to this vision. They 
tear*- •^'-'. to a Cathohc, Mary is nnmeaaurably thc8urcttt««;j 
of I ■ Jew*; that tboso Catholics who neg\ecV\i<iT x^- 



182 



Vr. Pi««/ on Marian Devotion. 



oular and Habitual invocation, will find it incomparably more 
difficult to obtain sanctiHcutioti and salTatioa, and will, far 
more commonly tban not, fail in tlic attempt. 

(3) "God retaiueth justice to Himself, and granted mercy 
to hep'^ (p. 106). " God has resigned into her hands (if one 
might say so] Uis Omnipotence in the sphere of grace" 
(p. 103). "To her He has committed the kingdom of mercy, 
reserviog to Himself that of jnstice." This latter is, perhaps, 
the cominouest s!i:tpo in which the idea iu expressed ; but thut 
idea is of course one aud the same. Such phrases convoy a 
meaning, either on the one lumd intolerable and heretical, or on 
the other hand beautiful aud edifying, according to the sen&o 
in which they are taken. They may i'h thfimnchcji' mean, that 
our Lord has iu such sense given to Mary the kingdom of 
mercy, as to have ahilU'ntrd tfi'it khtydom Himself; that mercjr 
und gmcG can no longer be obtained by addressing Him 
directly, but only by invoking His Mother. Such a notion, 
no Catholic need be told, would be nothing less than an 
appalling blasphemy. We need only aay, tbereforo, that no 
one but an enemy ever dreamed of so understanding the 
atatement; that those holy men who most constantly uttered 
it, wore also foremost in inculcatinw^thoso prnyers, e.^., to the 
Blessed Sacrament and the Sacred Heart, whi(;li are aosnlutely 
inconsistent with its false interpretation ; and that they an^J 
even more ardent nnd glowing than other Catholics, in thei^H 
description of thoso unspeakable blessings which flow froi^^ 
pruycr offered to the .Saci*cd Humanity. In one 
Rhodos'a invaluable letters he exhibits this fact 
particular instance of S. Alphonsns : — 



fron 
of Mr. 
in tho 



It is the samo an ngards !i Alphoiifnu. It would, indeed, Iw iuii*o«aible 
to find ia all hia volumiuoue writiugs a jvuiBage of such severitj lut tbo om a 
whicli Dr. Puacy quotes from AL OLier. BtiU iu the *' Glories of 2hlary '' tbcre 
occur a few quotatious vhicb speak very Etrongly of our Lord's olficc as ooir 
Judge aa well oa Su^tour. Br. Puitcy telb hii reailcn uf tke&e, but \xc does 
not tcU them of the explanatory pfuiiia^tet to be found in th« wlf-cun** 
Toluuie, eg., cap iii., 1. "The Kiii^ of Heaven, being infinite goodaMi, 
daira in tht highut dtffree to thrich tu v?ith Hit grartt ; but, htcatut 
tonfiitcnfe u rnjuisiU on vnr pari, und In order to increnae it in i», Ha bai 
given us Hii own Mother to bo our Mother and advocate." Of lhJ5 iind 
sitnilnr postages Dr. I^ii&ey says ni>iluu;;; ; nor docs he spcmk uf tb*< %*Frit»bb 
oceftD of love and coufidouoe tn our LunI, eWwliPre nutiMfc^t^'d (Imiugbo 
Ibe writings of this grertt satnl, Mid by whldi tbe few f>enrcuc£», sb 
sotting forth His severity to Hiuiicm, ore ^wolntdy orcrwhdtnMd. It 
hopeIi>aM to nttimipt more than the most irnperfwrt wtinplos of tlieni. 
for iasUtia>, his R«fIcctioas on tb** ?B.»wni yS ww \m\. \\\ Ow vayi 



Dt\ Pusey on Marum Devotion, 



183 



r m find him BUting that " our Lord declared, to St. Gertrude that He 
! ttadjr to di« tu luiutj deaths m there vera souIk in bell if he coold tave 
la dtaptcr xir. he say*, ^' Jcsux Clirist lUil not cciuc with Hin deatli 
rtnten:«de for US b«fore Uic Kt4>mal Katlier. He still at preMDt is our adro- 
oiito : aiid it eecnu u if iu Iw-aven (tut St I^ial vrritat) He knew no otfaeT 
I oA«t Umii tbat of iDOving Hi* Father to show tu luercj ; ' alwajs living to 
faitivoedefor ti>' (Heb. vii). And. adds the Apostle, the SaTionr for this end 
hM aievntUd into Hesren ' thut He may appear in the presence of Qod for 
oi'* .TI.-l> it.). And, farther ou, " My justice (taid God to Mary Mgd. de 
IV .Td into clemency by the vengeftnec taken on the innocent fletih 

of J'Tni '.niT^i. The blood of thi* My Son docs not cry to Mc for vengcunoc, 
Qce that of Abel, but it only crieti for mercy and pity, and at Hi^ x'nice my 
jftiee annot Kit n-niain npperued." Again, a little further on, S. Alphoa- 
at poU into the mouth of our Lord these tender wordj ;— " My little lamb 
(prcBTcUa Vita), fear not ; okc what thou ho.'-t cost Mc ; I hold thee wTittcn in 
ay ktlbda In thn>e woinnU that I bave iKimc for Uice ; thwte ever remind uie 
tc Iwlp ihM and to defend UiM from thy eiu-iniex ; love mo and have confi- 
dmc*.* And the einncr answen :— " Yc*. Jeeu-s I lovo you, and I confide 
ia foa. Il is your will that oil should be saved, and that none should perish. 
8na abovld Yon drive mc, my Lore, from your face, I will not ceaae to 
kepa in Ton. for Yoa arc my Saviour. I love you, dear Jesus ; I love you, 
ttaihope." 

* remainB, then, the true sense of the statement we are 
lag. Christ has reserved wholly to Himself the king- 
dom of justice ; Uo hna ^ven to His Mother no lot or pnrt whiit- 
erer in the oHice of jnd<>ing nnd condemning. Diit He bns so 
mnttirtcdly haDded over to her His whole kingdom of mercy, 
UmU itho posaeeees (aa it is oflen expressed) *'oranipotentia 
TOpr''^^ ;" that the invocation of hor will bo fully as effective 
in 1)? uiercy and grace, as would be prayer to Him 
otii . . .til the name dispositions. To nil therefore, wlio feci 
UiemJielTca bowed down by a aense of sin, she is a tmly 
atlrsctivo object of worship : in some sense moro attractive 
than her Son ; bucuuso her office i» exclusively that of lucrcy, 
nod o'ithin that sphere He has communicated to her His full 
power. 

(4). '"To sinnerft who hare lost Divine ^ruce, there is no 
more snn' (tbo Kyinbol of Jemis) 'for hiro, but the moon is 
fftiU on the boriKon; lot him address himnelf to Miiry'" 
(p. 106). "'No wnner doth deserve that CltriBt should any 
morv tHKke int«rcessiou for him with the Father , . . and 
tbf :l was neoesaafy that Christ should constiluto His 

rd Molher a medintrix between us nnd }Iim * " 
We frankly admit that wo have moro difficulty iu 

— ^- -r ' t- of tbe^c expressions, than uf any other* 

':c'», tTndoubtedly mdt:C*i,\i o^c \wwx^ 



Wi 



I 



(p. 105). 
seetnjT •'" 
broagl 



4 



184 



J)i\ Fttsey on Marian 



t<m. 



such words without anv indiontJon of nuthorsbip, one miglili 
undoivtaud Llietu to mcoii, that be who has I'ajlcu into mortal 
sin commits grievous presnmption in offering direct prayer to 
God ; nnd thut God would have had no ]X)wer to remit mortal 
sic, if Ho had not created Mary to intercede for it. But since 
notoriously every CuthoUe iu the world would reg-ard either of 
these propositions with horror unspeakable— and since the 
words were addressed by a Catholic to Catholics — it is demon- 
stratively certain, that neither writer nor readers understooti 
any such blasphemy. In faetj the writer wa-s able to nso snch 
strong liiH^unge, precisely baranse no One of his readers could 
by pot)3ibility take his words in their litei*al sense. It is u 
though a son said to his mother, " You are tho nnthor of my 
being; in you id my only hope;" and Dr. Pusey forthwith 
pounced on him for blasphemously introducing a second 
beity. 

It is absolutely certainj then, that those words do not tne 
what Dr. Pusey supposes; but it is more difficult to say accu«. 
ratcly what they do mean. On tho whole, however, wc canno 
bo wrong in giving some such interpretation as the foUowingJ 
" If you have once possessed tho unspeakable blcsscduess 
justi^cution and adoption, and have fallen from that b1eti&;ed^ 
ness by deliberately outraging your Creator with mortal ftia 
you have nothing favourable to expect from God's Jurfd'wJ 
With no appr-oach to injustice, God might remove yofl 
straightway from earth to hell; there is nothing bought fot 
you by Chiist iu His Passioo, which could preclude yuar 
Creator from so acting. Yon must sue, then, for favounj 
which Christ has uot secured for you by His Passion ; yoa 
must throw yourself most unreservedly on His Mercy; and 
yon have more hope of forgiveness in propoi-tion as you mar 
keenly realize this fact. Yet this veiy kccuness of reaUzation 
may injure you, unless you adopt the appointed remedy : your 
sense of tho insult you have offered to God may muko you feul 
as though there woro 'no sun in the horizon;' may make yua. 
slow in api>rehending the boundless mercy of llim who i? to 
be your Judge. He has Himself provided for this yonrl 
obvious need. Ho has appointed a mediatrix, who entertaiu4 
for you no feeling but that of pity; nnd whose maternal Iov< 
Avill strengthen and encourage you to approach her Son. Hot 
is this nil ; for her prayers havo a most powerful effect in ob- 
taining for you a far greater degree of mercy than Uo voold 
otherwiso have gront^jd." 

(0). " 13y dying ho obeyed not only His Father, but also '. 
Mother" (p. 158). "All things arc subject to the command 
of the'Virgin, oven God HimaeUV "The Blessed Virgin 



Dr, Fuwif on 3famn I)evot(<m. 



185 



nipCTwr to God, unci God Hiinsolf is subject to hop, in respect 
of th« manhood which He osaunicd from her." "However 
the be subject uulo God, iDosmucU as she is n creature, yet she 
^^ *"* to hv siiporior and phitod over Him,* inasmuch as sho 
Mother." *' You have over God the authority of a 
her, and henco you obtaiu pardon for the most obdarato 
iom" (p. 103, note). 

Dr. Posey is oflen so severe on Catholics for going beyond 
(Noriptnre, that one miglit have expected cousiderablu forbeor- 
anoe where they hnvo bat used New Testament language. 
S. Luke saya (c. 2, v. 61), " He camo to Nazareth, and was 
■nbjoct to them." Who was "He?" The Incarnate God. Who 
were "they?" Mary and Joseph. Now Dr. Puaey, in p. 103, 
0xpvttues himself as though tho very phrase " God is subject 
U» Mnry " were bo plainly revolting, as to require no express 
refutatiuri ; vet it is almost word for word the Holy Ghost's 
statement through S. Luke. Moreover, to soy that the 
Incoroato God wm Eubject to Mary and Joseph, is simply and 
pivciscly saying in other words that they were " superiors" 
'• let over" tho Incarnate God. Wo have it, then, on the 
Holy Ghost's infallible authority, that for certain years the 
IitcAmAto God was subject to His Mother; that she was 
"superior" to Htm; "sot over Him;" "had over Him the 
snihority of a mother." 

1'bcro arc probably many iu the Church of England who, if 
ihcy saw this argument of ours, wonhl at once object, that our 
htwd WHS only placed under Mary and Joseph during Uis 
Dooage, before His faculties wore fully developed. But Dr. 
PiMO]r holds, of corn-so, as strongly as we do, that from the 
Tery moment of Hia miraculous Conception the soul of Christ 
knew distinctly and explicitly every object which it knows 
VTvn st this very moment. Other Protestants agaiu are more 
or lo*t OODScionsly under the impression, tlmt since our Lord's 
Ajweoskm Hia 8ucred Hamoaity has iu some sense ceased to 
be: bat Dr. Pusey here again would heartily anathematize any 
aaofa beresr. 

t UA begiu> then, by examining what the Holy Ghost 
li In S. I'juko'a words. This of course is curtain ; that at 
ev if^nt there was this or that particular act, which the 

Ell ru!M i uthcr wished the soul of Christ to elicit; and also 
that thu prt-cise act did, in fact, always take place. One 
Cft- jtose however, consistently with S. Luke's language 

{!•.• _ on DO other grouml), that tho commoufls of Mary 



I 






■ rhp IaUb word is "pr»bl«." Dr. Vwsrj trawXaMaVt 
' hut our tviuSefiag of th« UxK i* y\uii\^ laoR wcma.. 



I 



1B6 



Dr. Tv^etj on ^^artaH Vevoiion. 



and JoRGpli were constantly overmted by tbe superior claim of 
God's Will ; and atill less can wo suppose that that Will sur- 
rendered its claim to iliem: One only supposition then 
remains, which is unquestionably tho true one. God eo in- 
spired Mary and -Tosoph, tlmt whenever they commanded Jesns^ 
such, command was precisely accordant with the Divine pre- 
ference : and Jesns, among the varioiis motivea which at that 
moment influenced His htitnau will^ vouchHafed to direct His 
act to this particular motive also — viz., the virtnousncsa of 
obeying His Mother; and of obeying him, too, whom God had 
appointed to stand in the place of an eiirtbly father. 

Now firstly we aek, what possible difficulty thoro can bo in 
supposing that the same obedience was paid by Jesns to Mary's 
authority at a somewhat later period ; viz., when He entered 
on His Passion ? that ho prepared Himself for tbisj by asking 
her permission ? that '* by dying Ue obeyed not only His 
Father but also Kin Mother? " We are not hero arguing that 
He did 80 : though for ourselves wo have every disposition to 
believe that He did so. But we ask, what possible theological 
objection can be raised against auch an opinion, fthouJd it 
commend itself to some holy man 7 Canon Oakeley (pp. 24-5) 
points out the plain implication of Scriptiu-e that at tho 
Annunciation " she must express lier free and unbiassed con- 
sent before the human race can be redeemed in the manner 
fore-ordained of God :" and he then proceeds : — • 



Kor oui T sec (thuugh I wliiiit this to be rather the p!uuA infcniicc 
devotion, Lhan tlie logical conclusion uf dogma) that luiy monr diract ahtra 
in iho uaapproacliable office of our Redecuior is ascribed tu Uib Blaacd 
MoUiertn Tcgarding the Passion iUttJ as stispendol upon ha' eo^-- ■'. *'-" 
in implied in the intiuucy thus proved by the langtugc of Scri] 
to have existed from the firet between the decrees of the most Holy in; t; 
niid the frce-wiU of the Blessed Virgia (p. 26). 

Then, following Jesus and Mary from earth to heareu, some- 
thing still snrdy remains in their mutual relations, not identii'al 
indeed (far from it), yet not unaualo^oua. Take tho parallel 
of an absolnte monarch, whoso motlicr still lives and is fondly 
loved by liim. He possesses over her undoubtedly auprenis 
authority : so far from her being able in any true sense to \ 
command liim, ho can impo»c his commands on hor withont 
appeal. And yet his assent to her just petitions will not alto-_ 
gether referable in kind his assent to other snppli.intflj 
will regard her still with a real liliiJ deforeuce ; aud sho vf\]\ 
in a figiu^tive sense, exercise over him a certain maU*r 
authority. This is tho obvious sense of the expre&uionu cii 
by Dr. Pusey. If to any Cft\ixcAw wxcV ox^v<»&iona ap^M 



h 



Pr. Ptuey on Manan Devotion, 



187 



unod and far-retch c<lj be is in no waj colled on to adopt 

Ihiuk of them. For our own part, it seoma to us most 

lling and npproprinto, that enmost dovotccs of Mary should 

'it in fieltmg lorlU, exalting, aiujjUfying, her various un- 

sroac'bud iLuii iiiiigiilar prerogative^^. 

\\'e uiay add here, as id the furmer case, that the j)aradoxical 
form itfteli* which such expressious wear, shows clearly how fai' 
ifc waa from the mind of thoir origin&tora that thoy should be 
OODstraod Uterally. In every caso a Catholic in a Catholic 
country was addressing Ci»tbolics, who could never dream of 

pectin^ him to mean what both he and they know to bo 

oiicat. No one, c ij., more ubounds in such expressions 
ikuui S. AJpbuusns ; and, indeod, one of Dr. Pusey's qnotations 
b taken from him. The siniplicity, then, is almost affecting 
wilh which that Saint oLsewhero expresses himself. 

Tbrc k no doubt (ho aayi) Uut tigoies, like hyperboles, cannot be taxed 
with fididkood when by tht c<nUtri of iht diMxrurM tht txaggtration u evideutf 
m fur axainpl» when 5. Pet«r Daiuiaiius bayt that Maiy comes to her Son, 
nmmmmdingf not bticfthiny .... So ihui figurm on: permittwi, vharter 
a«t e»ntiot b4 any wUtttkc on the luliject— (French Tnuulation of wodus, 
rd. tL p. 324.) 

Nor, in our opinioQ, cau it bo said with truth, that such 
doroat contemphitiona and pious amplifications and figurative 
cxprosaioDS are, at all oventji, less suitable to the present age. 
They are out of harmony, indeed, with the spirit of the present 
ftgp. simply beciinse no age over needed them more. The one 
' vil which in these days cats like » canker into meu'a 

;_, is the spirit of worlJlinees; fnmi which flows that 
fbtii sireaan of indiDureiitism, a^f^iust which the Uoly Father is 
Dover weary of inveighing. Kow, it is in proportion as tho 
inriftiblu world is made attractive to the imagination and the 
fc, ' : li.vt Uiero is tho greater hope of its successfully over- 

rii A.' charm of things present and transitory. It ia 

riuiaoiy, thou, Mich utuditution.') as ihose of S. ik-iiiaidineaud 
AJphontua, — originating with holy men and diffused like a 
tnMiiiJou among the body of believers, — which are among the 
moft valnablo bulwarks against that formidable foe now ao 
rampnntly in the field. 

i til be A part of this [evil] sysU-m to parallel 

it- I liroughont with her iJiviiic Sou, so thut every 

pnercgativc which bcluugx'il to Ilim by nature or offioa Blumla. 
tuf •■» *.-t.ie muasuru, imputed to her " (p. 101 ). Can iboro be 
a ! rvcne comment tlian this ? If you earnestly lovo two 

Objc.i*, ii i« a dolipht to trace every possihlc analogy and 
umdaritj bcttrcen thviu; betwucu their ciTCumirtftiwxm, ^^tfivt 






I 



188 



Dr* Fvset/ on Marian Vetotiou, 



cliaracter, their benefits to yon : and the fact, thcreforcj tOT 

which Dr. Tusey draws utteution, uhows how dearly th« 

lovers of Mary love her Son. But who, except Ur. Pusey Hiitn 

t his CO- religionists, would droam of drawing the vorj* opposit« 

f conclusion ? of inferring tliat Catholics elevate tho Mollieriutfu 

her Son's rival and antagonist ? I 

(7). Dr. Pusey complains of S. Alphonsus giving tho obvion:fl 

counsel, that Catholics shall ascribe to the Blessed Virgio 

every privilege which they can ascribe to her without theo-4 

logical error. Well, at all events there can bo no lltcohMficalM 

L erroi' in ascribing to her all those privileges, which you caal 

f ascribe to her vithont theological error. And if Dr. Puseyl 

happily becomes a Catholic, he will only be expected to ub^tainj 

firom accusing this opiaiou of theological error; he will not bal 

expected to embrace it himself. I 

(8). We now come to Dr. Posey's complaint againsfl 

F. Faber, for saying that "an immense increase ofdcTOtionI 

L to Mary/' ''nothing less than an immense one," isamoogUia 

r most desirable of eventualities. First, then, one has to consideil 

what wa3 F. Fabor's authority for thus speaking; becaoso, Ifl 

I this were merely his own private bias of opinion, thero would bn 

I no great need of entering on the discussion. Let it be remem-1 

bered, however, where the word.s occur. F.Faber had been tran5-l 

latiug u book, of which it has beon authoritatively decided afil 

Ilome that it contains nothing contrary to faith or morals, orj 

to the Church's common sentiment and common practice. (Se«l 

note at page 177.} The words cited by Dr. Pusey occur in 

F. Faber's preface to that work ; and they do but say whafel 

Yen. Grignondo Montfort earnestly inculcates. Look at suchl 

passages as tlie following in tho work itself. I 

L All tho ricK nmong the people shall Bupp1ic«t« thy fiico froD agB ISHI 

P had particulariy at tJit end of the tvorld; that h to b;iy, the greolcaiSi^H 

the souk richest in gruccs and virtues, shftll be the tuo»t rmiiIuoos in prAviid 

to OUT Blessed Lndy, Aod in havrng her nlways present as their jwHeit uiixled 

to imitate, ind tltoir powerful aid to give them sncconr. I 

I have said tliat this would conie to piuis, particalarly at iht end of tb«l 

world, and indeed presently, because the Mo*t //fj;A teitk Hit Ao/y .Vo<:i&'fJ 

htiA to fona for HinuKlf fjvni Saints, irAo ^all rurpam moct of (A< oCA<r1 

fiaintM in tanctily, as much aa the wlan of Lehanmi outgrow ihi\ liitlt AnA^ \ 

L aa b«s been rerealed to a holy soul, vhoee life has be«u written by a great 

Inmmt of (ioil. 

I TbcMe fo'eat Nids, f\tll of j^mce nnd xcal, ehall be chosen tu match thrtu^ 

K tKhrcB Bfininiit the enemies of (Io<l, irhn slinll niji^ on hU udca ; atA tl«v«h^l 

be tingularty lievoHt to mir Blfts^l X^uiy, illuminated by her ' "^^1 

by her uiilk, led by her fi)H[it, fupportcd by her nrni, and iL. ...:.. unHV 

Iter protectioOf so (bat they sh;kU tigU Vi\V out Vv«A\d tsA boitd witli Umc 



Df. Piiseij on Marian Devotion, 



189 



oUmt. WiUi ono bfttid Uicy tshaU fight, overthrow, and cnuh the heroUca 
vitb tbrlr homifti, the ttcliidniktiCA Mfith Ihvir schmiLS, the iduktuni with 
Unas idolatries, and the nuiuiiri with their impieties. With the uthcr hauil 
t&<y ahatt build tht tanjAt of the true SSolvmon, and Oie myftiral eity nf Ood; 
tkat is ta *sy, the mo$t Wy I'irffin^ caUmI by thi> holy Falheni the tAitipIu of 
Rolomoo and tlio citj or God. Bj thoir wordfi »rid \>y their exnmple.* thei/ 
dtaO bmd tke leholr. irorW to true iitvotu>Ti to Mnry. This shall hriiig u|>«iti 
AcB Ottay esirmia* ; but it ^)u)l aUo brinif many victories and much i^lory 
I God ■loDc II id this which GckI ruvt-aled to S. Vincoot Ferrer, the 
1 afigstlo of his »go» as ho hiui Kulticiemly noted in one uf bis works 

fl«d« tbtn, wiibes to rcMoZ and diteover Mary, the uuuierptece of His 
bud% w IUm b<r«r rinwi (p. 38). 

It k tuotmuy, then, for the smiter knowledge and glory of the M«t 
plly, that Mary ahoutd bv inort kitoicii than ever. 
J nitft shine forth mart than fivr in mercy, in mi{>ht, and in grace, 
thlttrtim«»i.2»). 

n* fswr of Maiy over all the devfls will eepeciidly brcAk out in Ibe 
ktur UnUH, when Saliui will luy his imareB againit her bed ; that is to mj, 
her hamble klavrs uid her poor children, whom she will TnUe ap to make 
war a^nxl him Qi. 33.^ 

OmI wubc* that Hia holy Mother should be at present more Icmwh, vwn 
morv hftiimrtd, thon At hoi tttr bten. This no doubt will take place, 
iftwdwrtinat* enlvr, with the gmce and lii;ht of the Hi>ly Ghoit, into 
Ibe interior and perfect pnclice which 1 will diuclone to them ihortly (p. 33X 

Koir we are as far as poaaible from donning, tliat every 
Catholic has tho fullost liberty to think till thiri utterly mis- 
taken. Wo only say that F. lubrr hml fully an equal right to 
1 that Dr. Puaoy, in denouncing it as tn- 
>d, is assailing tho Catholic Church herself. 
Any C-alboiic, wo repent, may rcfirard the holy writer aa nn'*- 
Uthrn; but when Dr. I'usey denounces him as nn^mtudf all 
Catholica are called on to protest af^ust such strictures. 

And now as to tho statoment itself. We know not on what 
gnrat>d Mnntfnrt based liia predictions na to tho future; nornre 
wc acc! -vith those " revelations of thosiiints" to which 

K, Fa* s: us to tho matter of /net, therefore, wo can 

hare no opinion whatever. But on the matter of rfor/nn**, 
uoiKiug^ can be more intclli^blu than Ikfontfort'a and Fal>vr's 
riew. The Church idready teaches iu a thousand ways that 
lb' 'Tectivo and ncceptablo way of contoroplatinj^ Je»u9, 

ill. -IT with HiH Mother in tlint contomplafioii ; that the 

iLt nnd of Mury should be iuiisRcAuXA^ \\\\\V\*\. 
Ji viniJicittvd thin position ogaiuKl \^v.V\xm^, 



I 



100 



Dr, Pitaejf on Marian Devoticn, 



and on tins part of the matter no more need here be said. Bat 
now take the ordinary books of prayer nnd modit^ttion : wLo 
can possibly say that the conBtant union of these two Objecta ifi 
camftd out to one-hundredth part of that extent, which is moftt 
readily imaginable ? It was Montfort'a strong opinion that 
the tiraewas come when this should bo vigorously done; moro- 
ovor, that its certain result would be a greatly increased know- 
lodge of Marj', and by consequence a greatly increased love of 
Jesus. So far from there being aught alarming or extravagant 
in such an opinion, none can well be imagined more obvious 
and common-sense. 

At tbo same time, wo must bo never weary of ropnnting, that 
all the propositions treated in this particular portion of onr 
article are purely i>;*c*i propositions; that neither Dr. Pusey 
nor any one else whom tho Holy Ghost may draw to the 
Churchj need trouble his head aboatthem ; that be would only 
be expected to abstain from censuring them, nnd to allow in 
others tho enine liberty which he exercises himself. Even now 
he seems ready to do this in the case of Italians nnd b'paniarda j* 
why, then, are English lovers of Mary to be plaoud under a 
yoke ? There arc many Englishmen who feel that such worship 
of Mary as is counselled by the more *' extreme " school, is 
a priceless benefit to theii* whole spiritual life ; why »re they 
to forfeit their privilege, beoanae Dr. Pusoy finds his own case 
different ? All such tyrannical and dictatorial proclivities Dr. 
Pnsey doubtless must renounce, beforo ho can be a loyal 
member of the Roman Catholic Church. 

But wo must not shrink from encountering the actual pas- 
sages textually quoted by Dr. Pusey from Catholic writers. 
Onr only diffienlty in treating separately each one of these, is 
the physical impossiblLity of doing so iu one article. Bnt 
since, the Eirenicon wns published, a selection has been made 
of thos*j propositions which, as they stand in its pages, are 
considered to present the greatest ddBculty to a Catholic mind. 
These are in number twenly-two; and wo imagine that Dr,^ 
Pusoy will himself consider them the most effective in hii| 
catalogue. Wo will consider each on© of these without ex- 
ception : — t ^_ 

1. S. AJphonsos says: "Those whom the jnstioe of Oofl 

• See his words qnoted hy lu Init April, p. 438. I 

+ U was alMolulely nLtMBaiy to meet these fMxu^ one I- \\ii vn 

have found oureelves iu)mI>Io ho to do, except at liio roit of nm nMIB 

Our nsulers, howcTor, who inAy not raiv for thU pnHinilar <ir,ru-s;..i:, m 

}Msii Ml once to ihe hal pamgrftph "^C Uiw ttri\cVe,^vn.wiV\<«,\nij,vmY importim 

poitiott of onra/girment. ^ 



Dr» Piuey on Marian Dovotion. 



191 



Wres notf the infinitd mercy of Mary saves hy her interces- 
^" Dr. I*u8ey {p. 103) nutBthowoi-d " infinite "iato italics, 
■howing tho poiut of his objcotiun ; but can he seriously 
mean that S. Alpliousus hvys ilovnif as a dogmatic pi-oposition, 
thv infiiiitadc of Atory's uttrilmtes ? '^ I Have taken infinite 
troublo to oblige you," saya u friend to Dr. Posey. " Sir/' 
gravely replies the Utter, *' you shock rau ; no one con do 
aaythiuf^ iufinite, save GoJ Aloue." S. Alphousus uienut, of 
course, that our Lady's mercy embraces every kind of evil, 
morml or spiritual, wluoh con possibly bo brought bcforo her 
in praror. 

2. S. Alphousns also says fp,103), "God hasresijifned into her 
hands {%/ one uiujht $tnj »'), His Omnipolence in the sphere of 

The very worda which we have italicized show that 
Eis not Bpeakiug literally ; and the general thought has been 
almdy explained by as. 

3. The vision of the two ladders, already treated. (See 

■4, ^. Bernardino of Buiitis says that " the Blessed Virgin is 
SQperior to Uod, . . . . iu respect of the manhood which He 
Mffurncd from her ;" and S. Bernardiue of Sienna that " He is 
•ubiect to her command " (p. 103). This we have already 
oxpUmed. 

6, 7. That most admirable man, M. Olier, exprossed himself 
ia the following strange way : — 

W« ue very aiinratthy tu dmw ucar unto Jesua : luid He luui a right 
r] iw, Wcaiiitfi of His Jiutic«, ftincc, havinij tutfral into 
Hi* F(tlhrr from ihc timt oj IJu \A<u«\ lUmirrrtiion, 
r« JVnrfto B*mt0f in thn tamf diapotiiion leilh tfu Father toward nniurc, 
Im., I» nyei ihtw ; <o Ot»U the 'Uffieuity m to imlut* Him to excbongo tbs 
oAee of Jnds:? far timt of Advocate ; and of a Judffc. to make Him a 
lnJlanL Now tbiN in whst the saints effect, and capccially the mo 
Viniin {p. 104). 



I 




Xow if M, Olier intemded t-hig dogmatically, he undoubtedly 
M!t<rped two heresies : yet most characteristically, while Dr. 
Puicy U extremely sensitive to the milder of the two, ho 
thowi himself profoundly unconscious of that which is far 
more ffriorous. U is undoubtedly heretical to think Mary's 
lovo 0? sinners greater than Christ's j but it is a far more 

r'.v.Ti-^ luTcsy to hold that the lovo felt for them by tho 
d, ia less than timt felt for them by tho oiikcrod 
Huiiiauii^ . As rcgardii, however, tho former horesy, which 
ia tho topic of Ur, Pusoy's indictment, Mr. Uhodos, iu 
one of his letters fTT'-A/y 7? ./ix/cr, March ^)^ y^\vS.^ tjvvV 
tluii io ilia rety prtvi-Jing page .M. Olier " ^procWxsAt ^\>X\ 



* 



19i 



Ik, P^uey en Maruin Bewtion, 



bh Duasunl swoelness and tcndcnioss, tho more usual docy 
trine" on our Lord's most tender sympathy with sinners.; 
We conclude, therefore, that if il.Olicr iutended dogmaticAllj? 
tho words above quoted, he wrote them under some temporary 
absence or ubscuration of mind. IJut we cauuot help regarding 
it as far more probable, that ho did not intend (horn dogmnti- 
cnlly at all ; but merely as a practical exhurtntion to Bitiner8,1 
that Ihey should approach Morj' as their special advocate and' 
mediatrix when they have offended her Son, 

8. S. Alphonsus adopts the statement (p. 103) that oar 
Lady " is tlie only refuge of those wlio have incurred the 
Divine indignation." This we have explained in p. 184, 

9. Dr. Pnsoy wos far oftener asked by Catholics to pray foi 
his conversion to our Lady than to her Son. He has beeitl 
tinderstood to infer from this that, in the opinion of such] 
Catholics, '* Mary alone can obtain a Protestant's conversion;"! 
but no such inference is over so remotely dcdncible from thai 
fact he mentions. As to that fact, wo have already con&idc 
it in p. 171. 

10. We now enter on fonr extracts from Salazar. It mas 
be remembered that his works have never been specially 



examined at Rome, as have been those of 8. Alphonsus and 
of Mont fort; nor, again, have the opiniomt cited from hin& 
any wide currency among Catholics, as have, c. <;., those from 



S. Alphonsus. There would be no difficulty whatever, there- 
fore, in any Catholic abandoning, aa theologic^ty erroneous 
and incapable of defence, whatever might be so judged by 
him in these respective extracts. Yet we should be oxtromely| 
surprised if any well-instructed Catholic were disposod t-o da 
so, who read them in the context; and to us, certainly, ihoy 
appear not only in no respect unsound, bnt edifying and 
beautiful. We should add also that ho is a thoroughly 
approved theologian ; and that those scholastics who refer tol 
him [Lugo docs so frequently) always speak of him with everyj 
respect. Firstly, then, he says — 

It, may be questioned whether, if, }>er \mpot$ifnI^, then had Immi 
'NVilt of the Father, and BU Mutlier alone wished oud decreed Uvt ! 
Son should ilie for men, Uii» wonU MiflSce ihat Christ, obeying His MothrrJ 
ibonid wiUtngty iiiider^ tlenth. I hcHevo that Christ ^o deferred to Hiii^ 
Mother, that it wuuld \mve suflbed. Let othfrs ihink at thtjf imTlL X 
ndd tliftt the Mother of iiod herself embnces the hucuu race with so 
much love and idl'eclion tluit if, m.'carding to tho afdrcnid snppoffitinu, 
thut Will of the KtiTnal Fiither wero wantiut^, nil* would yet, of hor own 
will. cbooKc iJuit her Son »>liould die fur iitcQ (p. 1&&-9). 

We oaa see nothing in tVU extract tqu^xtxu^ ^srszy^-xuNjUon d 



m^^ 



Dt, Pti3ctj on HuTiit)h Devotion, 



193 



oar only wonder is, that nay one Hhonld stumble at it. It 
I has been midcrstood, indeed, && declai-ing " tUal it ivould 
' Aovtf nt^cd for tlu^ niihatton of nti'n if our Lord had diedj 

not to obey Ilis Father, but to defer to tho decree of His 

Hothor ; " nud sucb a tenet would of courso bo heretical. 

Bat if Dr. Pnsej so understands it, his misapprehension seoms 

to us not only extreme but moat gratuitous. 

IL Am Ho ma Ute Son of God bj tuitan, bo, they say, was ftbe " by a more 
* right thu that of uiloption only, a right vhicli cmuLitM in a uuumor 
iaUation'(p. 161). 

I who read this sentence of Dr. Pnsey's will hardly be 
prepared for tho fact that, in close context with the words cited, 
, Salsaar says expressly, " Mary is the daughter of God by adop- 
Uoa and not by nature." Ho proceeds, however, to urge that in 
a certain senao she was the spouse of Chiist ; and that therefore 
—apart altogether from her nib>pU-d filiation, — ijho was in a 
cortain sense, not indeed God's *^M/l//^^,'J•, but His damjhi'T-in- 
Intr. We can readily understand tho opinion that this is a trivial 
fancy ; though for ourselves we are rather pleased and touchiMl 
" i : but when Dr. Pusev raises it into a serious ground of 

iipkinr, one's only le^timate inforenco is that ho must bo 

^Tcry hard pressed for evidence to his indictment. 

12. On the next head wo will insert a somewhat more 
extended extract than Dr. I'usey has given. It occurs in an 
oxpoaition of the trite text, Prov. viii. 22. 

B. AinbcQM by ihe vord " Tioniiii " luidcnlood virtues ; oud a£&nus that 
flirvt WM rpratcd by the Father m a boyinning of Ood'ji patha, )>pcausc (saya 
h$) to Rbawuaaus^odthtjirtt t^ibUiott of tttlgnatviriurt (matrnarum vir- 
tatam laanigaCin}, in such KnaOi nomely, tbnt (hose Evangelical virtues 
allldi httd been Uikaown in previous sj^ f<trc distlowl by Sim a* to many 
vm^fmlhM : I mean hnmility, virj^uity, pcvuly, and the like. Yet 1 know not 
nktCbrr Ittazy may not be raoro tnily cnlled tbc beginning of those paths or 
I llmnChrial. / am tpeatiti'j nf the (Htfinninyof rjrccufion.and ihnt hy ittty 
■ajpoCian, not tn A^tenm ofraust. (Initinro inquain exvcntioniii aoticipa' 
, Bfifl eaoiK.) B«causc the Vir)^ exercLfed in act those most txci-Uent 
ajl^kal virtus, before Cbiist came and UU{;ht them by word and exanipli^. 
And tnily it was niitable* that the mother iboold be strong in thoeo 
vtrtaoi whicb the Son wn» aftenraids to ctereiac, that Ho might W aaid 
1 " ■alnmiK," «.£^lo irprodnce Ria Mothci'a character (inatria atur moroa 
' rdttt*\ And tlioa it wan retiuisite (oportebat) that tho Virgin'* virtues 
dmdd ba mch, that th« Son ui imitating (imitans) ihom Bhoiild UHM tho 
igfSaTKmr. 





• •'Ito dMuaJ* Dr. Pnaey itwoiirly tnniUtM thb " ««* »*<A* W* 
mjL m.^no. vtu f^Vw Series.] O 



194 



Dr, Pusey on Marian Devotum. 



Now oar Lord " fnlfiUed tho office of Saviour," as in other 
ways, so also in leading a life of spotlena sanctity ; and it is 
of coarso to tliia paiticular that reference is Lere made. 
Sniazar says that Uq led a Rpotleas Hfo in imitatioj^ Jlis 
Mother's virtacs. Now undoubtedly if it were meant by this 
that, except for her example. He would not have known 
wherein true virtue consists, — not a word cxiuld bo said in 
extenuation of a sentiment so intolerable, revolting, and 
heretical. But a critic must bo absolutely blind with preja- 
dice, who can ascribe to the words any such sense. Salazar is 
pursning his favourite theme — the praises of the Deipara; 
and he gives one spoeial reason of congmity, why it was 
suitable that she should bo so bright and spoUess a specimea 
of virtue. His argument may be thus expressed : *' It is s 
great perfection in a son, as such, if, without thereby being at 
all the less excellent, he is a true imago both of father and 
mother. Why should we deny this perfection to Christ T I 
afTirm, therefore, that lie was a true image both of Father and 
Mother J that she exhibited tho very same virtues which wore 
conspicuous in Him. He led a fauJtless life then (Virginifi 
virtiit«9 imitans), in doing those veiy good acts which Ue saw 
His Mother do." 

13. Aa I have often inculcntcd, Christ lo wrought onr rcdcmpilon, as to alt 
in Mai7 aa nn aid in this work. Wherefore as the birth, nuttiro itadf gnidios. 
derircs KtfPTigth fWrni theniui, hnt, from the woiniui, forni nnrl liMnty ; ^oaIm 
our redemptiun (which was produced, as it were, through Miuy omd Chdst*) 
derires from Christ sufficiency, blrength, nnd consUtenoy, but from ^lur, 
beniity and lorcllness. For as therefrom, that Christ the Lord " ■: 

redemption, wo infer rightly, that nothing of sufficiency or uiigln 
wanting to it ; ao therelrom, that the Virgin oo-opented to tbti nor, «t 
rightly dwlnce, that nothing of form or beauty could be mlased in iL For In 
some way the gmoc and beauty of the redemption woidd fade, if the ofonsud 
co-opcmtion of the Virgin were lacking. — (Saloz. pro Imnuc. Vug. CoaCi 
§ 14, n. 171.) 

Almost immediately afl«r this, Salazar proceeds to Bay Uiifl 
the Blessed Virgin was " thu first and the nattem (pneviM 
avwnrf all the ToUemed;" words which renaer hia meaniiM 
absolutely unmistakabloj and which we think Dr. PuseS 
would havo done better to quote. As to the passage whitfl 
he does quote, — wo think it extremely beautiful, but that iiTfl 
matter of opinion; as to its theological snu}idnc$Sf we ctuinol^ 
make any defence where wo are absolutely nnabie to imagtse 
the ground of attack. 



• "ftrU par Maritm et Chrijrtwm." Dr. Puiev most 
tnuuinCtis ihia "^ome by Mary kcA CbxuC \-^, U^^-wA^. 



Vr, Putty on Marian Devotion. 



106 



14. From SnlAsar wo nonr proceed to tlio Vcn. Gricfnon 
|<to Montfort ; all whose works, be it romombered, havo beoa 
lollj QXftmined at Rome, aaid pronounced to contaiu 
DoUung contrary to faith or morals, or to the Church's commoa 
M&timcot and practice. On opcniu^ him wo find at once a 
emeii deeper and more eoUd vein of thoaght than in Salazar. 
He Mflnu to hnrc no leisure (as it were) for those bonutifnl 
fJMlwee which dehght tho Jcsnit scholastic; bocanse his whole 
attention is earnestly concentrated on tho great work of man's 
iuctification and f<nlTation. Nor are we at all surprised at 
F. Fiber's testimony (Preface, p. i.), " that those who tako 
him for their master will hardly bo ablo to name a saint or 
MoeticaU writer to whose grace and spirit their mind will bo 
more robjoct than to his." Further on P. Faber adds — 

Tken h ■ growing fmling of Hnmctbtng inspired and impomatunl Kbout 
I H, a* vc go on atuilying it ; and with that wr cannot help txperirncmf^, after 
nadi&gtt of it, that iu novelty never seenu to wcur off, nor ita 
I tall* diminiiht'd, nor the fipeah firagnuiceandiciiaiblofixeof il«uuctioa 
rtoi 



■ Amd hem, before considering in order those various propositions 
Hof hifl which we are specLaUy bo treat, we will give one or two 
BothflT eodnots ; as illm;trating tho relative position which ho 
Preepeettroly tiscribes to our Lord and His Blessed Mother. 

I «fow, *iU» all the Charch, that Moiy, being bnt a mere crcatnra Ihnt 
hm oamm fims thu bnntts of tlio Mewl High, iit, in compariaon nilh His 
Icflato* MnjaMy, lnM> ih.in an &tom ; or rather she is nothing at all, because 
H* floly Si " Be who i^'* ud thujt bjr conscqneooe that grand Lord, alvajrs 
Uipaad«Dl and raffident to Himself, never bad, and liaa not now, any 
•bMhtleated of the Holy Villain for the acoompliahment of Hia Will luul for 
the nuBiifeikBtion of His GloTy (p. 7). 

The ptradaaUaal* will know what is tbo moat sure, Um OKM Msy, the uiobt 
thmt, and tha moat perfect metua by which to yo to Jtmu €%ntt ; and thry 
vifi Minr tbsBtMlToa to M&ry, iKKty and soul, nithoat rcscrrc, thai Ou>j 
ma$ Atu UmB/ot Jaut Ckr%d(p.M). 

H Jaaoi Oawi our Barionr, tmc Ood and trxm Man, ought to Iw tho laat ccnd 
^■4f •Howotbor d^rottoM^^NlA/y an/aJMand tl<huivt, Jesoa Christ i« tlut 
^ril|pha mm! omtjfa, the ba^liuiiiig and the ouL of all things. We labour not, 
M tha ApmUm mtyuj axoept to render tnry man ptrftti in Jem* i.'hrut ; 
I h U 111 TTiiu alMw that (he whole plnhnd* of Che Piriuiiy dwells, 
*jO other pl«uitudaa of gneco, Tirtuet, and pcrfpctioaM ; 
i( » .M iiuii alone tlut wo hmT« bean blcMtd vith all apiriuutl ban** 
ik^an i mmA liemaBi* He ia our only MaiHn, who haa Lo taaoh oa j our only 
Jm^ on wham w* oi^glit to dcipend ; otir only HaMl, Ui whooi ^i% leraft. 
p; aartmfyMedai to whom w« ahould pontwm oQiiaVivi i ow wx\% 

1 




im 



De, Piuoi/ on Marutn Devotion, 



Ifitj$icuin who can h^al lu ; out only Shepherd who eon fttd tur ; our oiJy 
H'liy trho can Itnl iw; our only Tmth^ itho Hta innki iw i/roM* ; tmr 
only Life, who can animatt «« ; awl our onhj All in nti Utinff*, who can 
$Hffia lu. There haa been uo oUier name givpii under batrcn, vncvjpt tfat 
QAtnc of JeentH by u-hich uv can bt Mr»l Crod Ims laid do other fcnuidttioo 
of our HilvntiDii> of our perfection, and of onr glonr, exoepi Juiu lluist 
Every huiltUng which is hU bnilt upoti Outt finn rodt u /oundid «t|M>n rA* 
moving wcW. and aoontfc or laitr itill fall in/aUihly, ETC17 ono of ihv 
faithful who ii not united to Hiiii, as a bnvndi to the stock of the Tin*, almU 
fall, &lmU wither^ and sliaU be fit only to cast into the tire. If wen* b 
Jesus Christ, mid Jesus Christ m us, we have no condemnation to flatr. 
Neither the luigela of hcftvcn, not the men of earth, nor the dcrila of Eel], 
Bor auy other creatures, cau injure lu ; bccauw they canaol scpuaio m tnm 
the love of God which m ia Jeawa Chn-iU By Jesus Christ, with Jenu 
Chrittl, in Jestm Chmt^ ve cnii do nil things ; we can tender oil honour and 
glory to the Father in tlic unity of the Holy Gho«t ; we caa become pesfiect 
ourselves, aud b« to our nci^ibuur n good odour of eiemal Ule. 

If, then, wc et>tablii>h the soUd devotion to our Bl«B»ed Lady, it u onlv to 
atitblihh wore perfectly the devotion to Jesus Christy and to put fonrud an 
easy and uecure means for finding Jeeus Christ If dtrotioH to our /^fy 
Tcmoveil lu/rotn Jctnt Chrixti xct thoultl Aars to reject it tu an illurum o/iln 
devil ; but an the coutmry, bo far fnitn this beinfi tlie casCi thet« In nothiB^ 
which makes deroliou to our Lady more nec««sary for as, as X hare jUreidy 
shown, and will show still further hereafter, than that it it Ott vuaMif 
finding Jctxit Christ ptrftcUy, of loving JSTim (widcriy, and 0/ «emsf Hwi 
/aith/nUy [pp. 37-9). 

Wo think it most unfair in Dr. Posey — though wo by no 
means impute to liim intentional unfoimusa — that be haji been 
wholly silent on these most express testimouios. Aud now 
for those which he docs cite. 

God " recognizes " iu i[ai*y*s clieuta " the merits of His Son 
and of his Holy Mother" (p. IKJ). So, as wo have seen ia 
Hu iudulgenced prayer, we appeal to " the merits of •" 
Mary." But Dr. Pusey perverts this elemenrar)- - 
into the proposition (p. 1C3) that, " aa wo are clothed with tbir 
merits of Christ, so also with the merits of Marv ; " from whicli 
his readers would infer Montfort to have saidj that Catholics 
are clothed wjtii the merits of Mary, in ihc same /tens'. \a 
which they are clothed with those of Christ. It cannot bo 
necessary to explain for the benefit of any Catholic — it ii 
strange it shonld bo necessary for Dr. Pi]scj*8 — that, in Mont- 
fort's view, as in that of any other Catholic, Christ^a merit* 
avail to us in the way of condignity, Mary's only in the way of 
conj^uity; nay, and that Ifaiy's own merits rest npon hor 
Sou's as on their one solo condignly meritorious cnuue. 

15, 10, 17. We are tero mterrw^tcOt ^w imuxasixA. Xi^ throe > 



Dr. Titsaj on Marian DevoHon, 



197 




■fljjlyMtive propositions, takcu from a joung- pcclosiustic named 
fHwttld, *vhose work was placed on the Index. He was, no 
doulft, animated by tUo best intentions; fur whoa condemned 
"laodn' ■' subjpcit." 

AD t!) iiiiug propositions arc from Montfort. 

18. Uo mentions (p. 125) "soula which ai*o not born of 
Dood, nor of tlesh, nor of tlie will of man. but of God and 
yiwy ; " in other words, who savoiu* not of flesh, and bloud, 

hamun cornipUun, but of CitMl and Mary. Wo arc quito 
_ le to understand Dr. Pusey's JilHculty, in this must sug- 
gestive expression. But, a? ho refers vaguely iu a note to 
p. 74 a» giWnff special poison to the phrase, wo will gratify 
our pious rosacrs by extracting the page. 

^'' V Lilwar will have been well expeudotl if thU litllc Writinj, 

t»L. ■■ KimU nf X soul of good ilispositiynh, a bouI well boni, — lw>ni 

<S it*>A luul «f Murj', tihA not of hluod, nor of the will of the flosli, nor of the 
will of nw«i, — vhoiiM niifold to him, aud should, by the gmce of llic H'lly 
Ghti«t iiH]iirc hiiu with, x\\.v excellence and the price of that trtto antl solid 
drtflrtiott Lo uur BIcssc^l Lady, which I am goiiig presently to dc«cribc. If I 
bwv that my guilty blood could ncrrc in engraTing npon any om*s Iicati the 
Ich 1 aitt writiDj* in huiioiir of tny true Mutfacr and .Sovomj^i 
I wuuld ujw my blmxl in>)tcail of ink to fonu the U-ttt>ri» in the hoiw 
Mi)I« who, t»Y their 6ddity to Ihe prActico which I tviwh 
■!&• < my dcttx Mother and MistrcM for the 1om«s which she 

has- ^1 my ingrotitudo and infidelitiM. I feel myBclf more tlum 

rTri I 'liijvt' aud to 1*01* all vhi^-h I have had dwply eugnivi-n 

apoB lay haul, and havo aaked of God those many yon, uamcly, that sooniT 
m bUfir lliK BWttH'd Viiipn Uiall hare more children, aervant*, and alave^ of 
lora ihui «f«r ; and that, by thi* nuaH*, Jtiu* VkrxA, my (Cmt Jfai(«r, tkoil 
rvipni awrr in harit than ever (pp. 73-4). 

How cotild T)r. I'nsey liavc the heart to reat] barning words 
Kk«* thc»o with that cold spirit of criticism, which is so revolting 
a f«4.tnro in his whole treatment of Marian doctrine? 

19. The concluding extracts occur in au analogy, which to 
s may seem far-fotchod, but which to us appears singularly 
♦ifnl ; nn analogy between that joint office, on the one hand, 

1 1^ Hitly (Jhost aiid Mary produced Christ Himself, 

- J j.nt oiKce, on tho other hand, whereby they form 
in the individual soul. The parngrE^ihs are not 
distinctly expressed; but thero can be no doubt ns to 
the gtnoral doctrine which they contain. Certain souls permit 
iEary to "strikr- lirr ri>ots" in them; i.e., to produce iji them, 
by ner Wftichfiil vif.ninnce nud unremittiug inteivesaion, n 
rod tJioagli inipurfccl imngo of herself. When the Holy 
Ghost aea^ that Mary htis thus taken root ; — or (^to o&e IW 
vuthor'a expression), when he sees 5X«ry iu those &ou\a \ — -He 




198 



Dr. Puscy ait Marian Devotion, 



flies to them, and, in conjunction with Afary, perfortnB iha 
" startling wonder " (p. 20) of forming Christ within thcilH 
In other words, sanctity in its germs is specially attriLoled Ifl 
the author to Mary's intercession. In its maturity, howsTflfl 
it is described as the fommtion of Jesua Christ in the so^l 
through the joint agency of the Holy Ghost and Maty, ^fl 
watelifully intercedes ; ITo pnts forth His highest cmcacy fl 
training and nurturing the soul; and so the complete imaj 
of her Son is moro and more cffcctnally prodnced within 9 
We wish Dr. Pusey wonld make thia profound thought ■ 
matter for his pions contemplation, instead of his captiinfl 
criticism. ■ 

Wo shoold farther add, what is a first principle in tfaeologr, 
that the Holy Ghost differs from the other Divino Persoo^B 
that he has no Btvii^ Fecundity. The Father gouerat^^^| 
Son ; the Father and Son, by one nndividod spirJi^H 
produco the Holy Ghost; but He produces no Dirino PovMI 
It ia only, therefore, in acting on created things that Hm 
Fecundity exists. And now our readers will be aolo to uudcgfl 
stand the whole extract, as cited from Dr. Posey's poge^ 
"The Holy Ghost brings into fi-oitfulncss His action by hei^ 
producing in her and by her Jesus Christ in His members." ■ 

90. Mary is the Qtieen of heaven and earth by grace, as Jesus is the King J 
them by caturo and by conquest. Kon-, ag th« kmgdom of Jemt CUfl 
oon^sts principally in tho heai't anil interior of a inun — according tolfefl 
word, ** The kiii^oni of God \b wilhlu you," — in like nuuuier the kin^no 
of onr BkB9»ed Iduly is prioeipA Uy in the intorlor of « man, that is to say, ki» 
ttoiil ; lutd it \a principally in souls that she is more glorified with her 3iM 
than in all viBiblc creatures, and that we can call her, as tho Sainta do, tin 
Queen of hearts. 

We are unable to oonjecture the objection to those wordsi 
and so wo pass on. 

21, 22. "She and the Holy Ghost produce in the soal 
extraordinary things; and, when tho Holy Uhost finds Mary ifl 
a soul, He flies there." Thoso beautiful statements luilfl 
now been fully elucidated. ■ 

And this is all, which Dr. Posey's extensivo leaminff an^ 
intense hatred of Marian devotion hare enabled him to orinij 
fonvard I So far as oar own personal feeling is coucerutx^l 
we can but thank him for the dulight be hiis given us, rfl 
making or renewing acquaintance with thoughts so clevalinfl 
and heavenly. ^1 

We explumed at starting that wo hope in our next number to 
answer that objection to Marian devotion, which is fonnd*"''"! 'i*' 
tbo allegvd silence or coutrutiAct\ou ot fem^ViVica ^.ml Anti-^L: ;., . 



Bf. Fvgeij on Marian Devotion, 



199 



Tho particular objection bowererf to whicK we bave now re- 
lie*!, both (/<>■:* and (as we tbtnk) ifluyuld influence Protestants 
more profoundly than the other; tind we trust our readers 
Iky think that wo hare stoadily confronted it. This objection 
_ that the Church, by her encouragement of such devo- 
tioaa, obscures the thought of God, aud fosters in her children 

* certain approach to idolatry. We fiJIy agree with Canon 
Oak«h}y (pp. 40-11), "that this great crux of Dr. Pusey's is 

• phantom of the dcviPs creatingi and one among the many 
oridtttoea which history and cxporiouce famish of his im- 

hoatiUty to her whom he knows to bo the great 
St of his power." In regard to those Marian doctrines, 

. the Church inculcates mo^istorially on all her children^ 

we haro maintained that oTery Christian who accepts and acts 
on tfaetUj will find them invmuablo helps to true spirituality. 
In rogard to those further propositions, which have boon udvo- 
catoa by holy men with the Church's full permission, we have 
^ a middlfj course. We have pointed out on the one 

that though no Catholic may censure them, ho is not 
recraiTed in any way to believe or even to think about them ; 
ftna that many practices, most beneficial to one man, may be 
injnnouB to another. But wo have piven it as our own humble 
optmon, on the other hand, tliat those whom the Holy Uhost 
drmwB to accept and contemplate these propositions, have 
receivod from Him a high and special privilege ; because 
■neb coDt«mplation affords a help, inappreciable and quite 
nngnlar, towards acquiring nnworldliness of spirit, and grow- 
ing in on«rgotic aud tender lore for God and for Christ. 



• 



kMoUflntaUy omitted to mention in the proi)cr placo, thnt the error, on 
r I«dy*> GO-pmenoe in tbo Enchuist, will be more oonrenicnUy InxLied b 
b Mtiok on Dr. VuMsy. 



200 



(Sssajs ai^ ^tiscfKancoiis ^nptrs. 



[Wo do not identify ouwelves with Uie views MvitainoJ in tliis artidtl 
Lftjst July {p. 260) we expressed an CAnicat wish that " tbos£ who orefocj 
^lieeping nentheu Utemtorc in its present pre-eminence ^ would express their ' 
Ui»w(-r to obvious objections more clvjirly thiin (so fkr as we know) they baTi 
yet done. We have nuwh^ru scon tht^e objocliuod more clearly stated Uua 
in the fuUowisg paper ; but we still " hold oux ova <^iiuon in saspeoM;''] 



THE GAUME CONTROVERSY ON CLASSICAL 

STUDIES.* 

f^r^HERE have been several intimations of lato that tlie spir^ , 
JL which gave birth to the Gaume coutroverey has not heenA 
entirely cxtingnished. No man of candid mind, who hiw' 
given any attention to the subject, can for a moment think 
that tho question Ims ever been satisfactorily settled. Society j 
still continues steadily to advance towards the Paganism ofl 
tho past ; or, rather, revolving in a circle (if that can bo called 
advancing), the faster it appears to go forward, the quicker ibi 
is retiurniug back to the point fi-om whence it started. When 
' the circle can be measured by the eye, at a glance, there is no 
I possibility of deception ; but when it is as lai'ge as the orbit ' ' 
the earth, the delasion is easily kept np. Comparing thai 
progress of humanity bit by bit, there are certainly appoar-J 

* 1. Dueourttur ta Xaintf, la CausCy ft te Remise ; oUfmal Aetuel pron 
A Jiotnt. Par M^r, L'fevt'^iuc IVAyriLA. Paria : Balitoot 186&. 
S. Mfmoria daJirala aJtSpiteopiito i'aUolico Bitmitc in Boina tul. IHeS. 

3. It Paganuinw AiUico e ModerM, Curd, J&mia cvi Tijn dtiUt Cir 

CaUolica, 1862. 

4. Le Ver iian^tur. Par L'AbW J. Oaibib. BruxcUca. 1601. 

5. Der Kranh Zeitycidt, von A. PmuAUKTusA. Vien. 1860. 
a D«s Btutiti CUmiqua daru In SociJU ChrUiemu. Fhr le B. P. 

Daxiel, S.J. t^iris : Douniol. 1S&3. 

7. OtristiatL Clamct. Edited ly G. W. AsajtUAH^ AM., LLJ>. Dnblia '. 

Dnfly. 1660. 

8. Zf. nriiaifU Btprit (?« lEolizt. Pur l'Abb6 LABrDBitw, Paris ; '. 

1854. 
0. La NatuTa f. la Orfucui, THscorH «opm t'i Naturalitmo if. ' ' ''i in 
Roma wUa ^imrmwo del 1801. DaJ P. Vauuj M. <■ 1>U| 



blacli 



onOGS of iidviiDCcment ; but when the furthest extremes of 
cJTiHxatioQ are brought into iiixtaposilioa \vitb each other, oue 
would almost bo tempted to believe that tho circle has already 
been coin pie tod. 

ThHL (hi8 ifl the opioian of many thinking mon of tho 
presoat daVj who can still appreciate the possible influence of 
genouiG Chrixliauity, caunot be called in qnostion. I speak 
not of men, who, from the ardour of their temperament, or the 
prcjudico of educatiou, or that narrowness which contracts tho 
vistun upon a single point of an extensive field, are incapable 
of formmg a rational opinion ; but of men of calm judgment, 
nC large and cautious miuds, who hare silently, and steadily, 
ami for a length of time watched the movements of societVj 
marked itn progress, and measured its decay. Nor is this, 
either, the opinion of an isolated school; or the utterance of a 
•ociety of alarmists, who edge tho brightest things with 
black ; but the ex])re3a opinion of men, in other things, as 

do wnmder as tho poles, who, forming their premisses out of 

oommou Christianity, elicit an identical coucluHion. It 
woold almost seem that, if society continues in its present 
ooorve, the warning voices of thmking men will gradually 
OOMO; and that, like some great overflow, which replaces tho 
fBric^ted beauties of a smiling valley with a monotououa 
expuiao of turgid water, hiding even the very tree-tops from 
tke nght, by degrees even mmds, which occupy the most 
■laymtcd standpoints in the social world, will, at length, sink 
aad«r in the universal flood. Whether a man, then, bo h\eh 
or low ; whether ho see far or near ; if ho be bent beneath the 
flow of waters, he con bo of no more semco to liia fellow-men 
than a sonkeu light-house to a stranded ship. 

The danger of which I speak has been moro keenly felt and 
nore Ibrcibly expi-esscd by thinkers on the Continent than by 
oarmeivv*. Wo can Imrdly understand, and certainly we Cftu- 
aot ftUly realize, the intensity of their feeUngs on this point. 
Like tliu warnings of the Pmphets of old time, we atop, 
Uitcii, tiud go on oar way as if nothing at all had happened. 
We tlunk thut it is tho way of foreigners to be more demon- 
strative thuu oursclvcii ; and that, though they can muko much 
aoro noise than wo, and deal more liberally in superlatives ; 
■till, aflor all, wo are every bit as deep thinkers as tnomselves^ 
and infiiittrly moro occurato in tho expression of oar thoa^ht«. 
Tlu<, donbtlesK, is not without u "mndameutum vcritatis ; " 
fVt I An nnt believe that moro difference of temponunent 
aitt I ly account for tho vivid appreciation vvhiiU 

foruig.. .i.^..cn have of the imliappy state of modern Europe. 
Thvy arc in a iar better positioti for watching the lao^entfiwX* 



I 



I 



202 37t« Oaume Oontroteray mi Clw^tcal StudUa, 1 

of society tlian ourselves. The gtilf-stroam of Europoan 
thonghtj rushing into tlio future, aud eddyiug round the 
great centres of intellectual activity — Paris, BrasselBj Berlin, 
Vienuaj Turin, and Rome — but ^ntly toachoa our Kng-liih 
shores; and, when it strikes a little boisterously, the Euglish* 
mau makes as little account of it as of a gale of wind, or « 
spring-tide. As long as commerce, agriculture, and coosoU 
are "looking up," ho feels tolerably well contented. Ho can 
turn to his tire after breakfast, and run liia steady eye doini 
the columns of his morning paper, with the couscioDsness of 
a man who has made a hoarty meal; and it would take a gKtk 
maxLj foreign troubles to disturb the serenity of his disposition 
in this one of the happiest moments of his day. Nay, far 
from the insecurity of foreign governments and throaes, and 
the effect of Continental philosophies causing him sensatious 
of alarm ; ho rather strokes his beard with all the greater 
satisfaction ; and, by the very contrast, feels that he is founded 
on a rock, and thanks God for the British Constitution. I 
mean that ho would not feel that such occurrences came 
personally homo to him. He would act the part of a simple 
spectator ; as people at a play, or as lookers-on at a pageant 
Indeed, a little of tho "sensational" is rather in the fashion. 
There would bo "absolutely nothing in the papers," if i' 
were not some scandal at home, or some catastrophe ab: 
It would be the food without tlie condiments — so useful to 
secure an appetite, and give relish to a meal. I am, however, 
far from denying that there are thoughtful men, and many of 
them, who, lull of an amiable philanthropy, keenly sympathize 
with suffering in every shape; and that there are not a few, 
who, taking a larger view than is the custom with mon Uving 
in an insular position, clearly perceive how the philosophies, 
revolutions, and crises of a foreign nation can affect their own. 
But though this be granted upon tho one side, and mudi 
moro than this, it cannot be denied upon the other that a mMi 
who feels his house to be his " castle " has a much duller 
sense of danger than one who is standing on a mine. 

The true English feeling of security is a psychological &au>- 
tion almost unknown to foreign thinkers. They live under 
tho shadow of a volcano, and they troad on the aflhos of 
an exploded revolution. The danger is too near homo 
for them to treat it lightly. Its action is too recent, and ilA 
effects too hideously frightful, to be easily forgotten, Wholhdifl 
it be France, Italy, Belgium, Spain, or Germany, it ia thfl 
samo: the only question is a question of degree. Strand 
pressure, and the iron arm, are tho magistrates — onlike otff^ 
"great unpaid" — who Veep t\io pwkcc. %.«&. -na-^ be raleai, 



The Oaume Cmttrovci'stj on Olatsical StvdUg. 203 

■nd «elf-restrBincd ; bat it is not the silence of content ; rathor 
tiiat lull whicb, ill tlie tropics, is tliD horbingor of a coming 
Mtonn. The hurricane has swept past before, and maj sweep 
hf ftgwu. Despotism and Liccncej the two component parts 
of every revolution, as of old days, are not wanting to the 
worid. In every great city of the Continent there is a strong 
and keavittg mass of disaOected men, full of the spirit of '93^ 
idUi now, becaaso their honr hns not yet come, but ready, when 
^ lit does arrive, to rise on the surfiico of Society, 

l>illago, massacre, and blood, to inaugurate a second 
Bc^n of Terror. 

For French philosophy, which has long saturated the minds 
of cnltivated men, has penetrated to the masses. A common 
labourer^ in hia blouse, knows enough philosophy to enter 
into the spirit of any revolutionaiy scheme, but not sufficient 
to irara him of the consequences. In England, there are few 
mea who can be moved by an "idea;" in France, there are 
few who can withstand its force. Put an "idea" into a 
Frendi mind, and it becomes like carbon in a furnace. The 
qan^, hot energy of character; the vivacious, imaginative, 
mad ftchomiug mind, heated by a vague idea of " liberty," and 
mH on fire with the flash of " glory, acta with the force of a 
ifinolvent. The assertion that iin English boy pickH up notions 
of robelUon &om his author, would be met, had any one tho 
thonffhtlessness to make it, as it deserves, with shouts of 
lftiigfat«r; to make the same assertion of the French, would bo 
sxmply the enunciation of a tmth. No English boy, in his 
MSnses, would dream of being a Brutus or Lyourgus ; or if he 
^df the conceit would soon oe kicked oat of hun at school. 
One cannot imaffine English yonths capable of seizing hold 
of the heroes of antiquity, and so far identifying themselves 
wilh those wild, abandoned, desperato characters as to feel an 
impebe to imitate their lives. One can, indeed, imagine the 
wU, brilliancy, and puneent satire of Voltaire, seasoned with 
luB Itabitual contempt for things sacred and divine, gaining 
poasowion of tho French intcUigoncc; or the bold, vehement, 
and pathetic langusgo of Konssean leading men on to desperate 
nworrM ; or the uncompromising and awful logic of Babeuf, 
donehing in tbe reason that which had been pictured by the 
haey i or the grossness and obscenity of tho hidoouB 
3iifiK>eftO, finding a fitting resting place in minds only less 
brutal than his own, simply because they lacked his intellectual 
power ; bat for youths, for mere boys, to elicit a perfect syiitem 
of roTolntion, and fit it to the exigences of tneir own day, 
JTM of mi*n rrho lived two tliouswid ^oa-n %.^o, 
pieteJf diSircnt circumstance*, »ni Vtt. » iSii35«E«oSL 



I 
I 



Ite Qavme Controversy <m Clasfieal Stndtcs, 

dime — for mere boys to extricate the character of Pagan ' 
assassins and rcgicideSj in all tlie perfection of their liideoas 
proportions, from where they lay imbedded in the hard Latin i 
— for their minds to thus be set on fire by the books tlioy 
thumbed at school, — to the prosaic Engliahman is a pheou- 
menou to which he has no example to compare. And yet, 
the reverse of this, at one time at leaat, in France, seems t-> 
have been the exception. We have the testimony of the boys 
themselves to this startling fuct. For iustauce, in 1700, ono 
tcUs us that he and his companions were fully prepared at 
school for the revolution : " Tlie older ones amongst us," says 
ho, " tlie very day before the outbreak had gained the priio of ] 
rhetoric — the thome consisting of two orations aflor the manner 
of Seneca, in favour of the first and aocoud l^rutus. The day 
after, the revolution was the subject of conversation, and people I 
wondered ; just as if they ought not to know that in this j 
system of education the revolution is already made !" "As i 
boys," aaya another, *' we wero made familiar with Sulon, 
Lycurgus, and the two Kratus' ; and wo held them in admira- 
tion ; as men, we could not rufraiu from imitating them." 
A third, in 1S52, speaking for himself and his companions, 
exclaims ; " Wo wore revolutionists, and we glory in it ; bat | 
we were children of the rc^naiuHancc before we becurao children ' 
of tho revolution (** ^Mio wero they who stunned the terrified 
ears of t^uiet men in *i8 with those fearful cries of "Down 
witli the Jesuits, away with the blacks? "; and this not iu an 
isolated place but from Naples to Rome, and from Turin to 
Friburg? Why, they were the students in oar Catholic 
colleges, who, but a short time before, were parsing 
and construing, as other boys do, those very authors which 
had set their iutelligeuccs in a blaze. 

No wonder, theu, that foreign thiukers take a grjivor view 
of European society tlian ourselves ! They know the spirit 
which suiTOunds them. They feel the danger which harbours ai 
their doors. Tho diseases, not on the surface alone, but at the 
verjr heart of society, which threaten its disintegration, oppress 
thctr minds. 'ITie Church has poiuted out no fewer than eighty- 
four; and those all mortal. They feel that the political action 
of the world confirms the utterance of the Church. Kugland 
and Ireland, Piedmont and Italy, Russia and Poland, — they 
feel such things as these can never last. Tho Continent of i 
Europe may seem, indeed, to sleep; but it has the a|>pearance 
of a sleep which is to issue in ti terrific waldag. The maniac 
lies down exhausted, after Lis fit of desperjifiou — nataro is 
merely rocruitiug her energies for a feiu-iul rci»etitiou. "So \ 
n'oudvr that foreign tluukera a&'L ^^\iS. Kfst «ome saving 



remedy \ They do not desira the tragedies of the past to bo 
re-Actc^. Tiiey Uavo too vivid a picture before their oyca of 
past atroritiea — of a time, within tho ineraoiy of living man, 
when the streeta of Paris foamed with blood; when men, 
YTomen, and chitdren, were liiiddled together and piled into 
wvggxjDtfj to ho dragged off, through tho din of I*aris, to the 
Bbambles ; when tho guillotine with military regularity prosc- 
cqtcd itJ* daily work ; wlicn more than one river of France 
%r»s all alivo with birds of prey gorging themaelvc3 with 
hnnuin flesh, or following the stream whirling and ifliriekiog 
round tho corpses of tho dead j when, in fine, the rapacity of 
binb of prwrwas loving- kindness compared with the ferociona 
brutality or men — of monsters, intoxicated with delight, as 
they staffed their pockets full of human oars, or tore the 
fingers off the hands of little children to stick them for 
fcftthera tn their caps.* 

It woa with tlio horrors of '48 still fresh before his mind, 
and with soch pictures as theso of '93, burning in his imagi- 
nation, that Abb^ Ganme composed his "Ver Rongeur," 
That remarkable production bears within it an nnmistakeable 
testimony that it was ni'itton by a man with his intellect on. 
firc!. The calm and calcnlafcing temper of an abstract philoso- 
pher need not be looked for iu these pages. There is a 
nercencss, an energy, a recklessness of consequence, and an 
sadacity in the whSlo current of his argument, which spcnka 
of ft man who has been moved to write, not by tho origences 
of the laws of thought, bat by the terrible logic of facts — of 
iacts rach as the French nation alone seem ablo to produce; 
and who, by one desperate intellectual effort — by a kind of 
mental c<'Up iVetnt — would save a failing world. Nor can it 
hare been otherwise ivith any man of mind and heart. I 
would give httle for tho writings of a man at such a crisia, 
who could deliberately balance and poise to a hair the con- 
^etmg niceties which small and narrow men instiuctively 
"m> hold of for darkening and encumbering a great and 
endid argument. Who would give anything for the 
earnestness of a man who could coolly give his mind to snch 
contracted pedantry, when the Iwnc and sinew of tlie quc«tion 
WBA clear and nnmistakeable ; and when a bold utterance and 
an nncomproraising view might possibly savo thousands from 
deatmction ? It is with uufrigned reverence for tho writer, 
li«l I re«d tho " Vor Rongeur." lliore is a Catholic bre«idth 
of view, a grasp of the entire figure of truth, and an approcia- 



I 



I 



^^P The Qaivme Oontroversij on ClussUal SUuUes. \ 

tion of tho valae of principle}— of its awful powers— th&t may 
to souglit for, bufe never will be found, in the writinga of hia 

' opponents . Tboy excel more in the ininutiic. In this, A.bW 
Gaumo musb deliver them the palm.. Not even their most 
strenuous enemies, I imaginoj would deny that they havo 
hero and there succeeded in picking out a bit of mortar, orj 
chipi>ing a stone, or scratching their names upon a wall, orl 
oren breaking n window of that tcmplo of philosophic thoaghtJ 
which they hare been unable to destroy. One can almost] 
say to Abbe Gaume, with one or two important reservBtianif, ' 
what M. Montalembert wrote to him in October, '51 : — " Not* 
withstanding some inaccuracies and some exaggeratioos, 
which a strict critic would point out, the strength of your 
argument remains unimpaired, and the bold eloquence with 
which you develop your theory defies the attacks of your 
opponents."* 

One great evidence of the weight of metal of the "Ver 
Rongeur " is the deep impreBsion it produced. Like an earth- 
quake, it staggered the mind of intellectual France from end 
to end. No sooner did men recover thcmselvea a little, than 
the war began in earnest. They declared that they were 
fighting iiro art's et focU. The destmctive doctrines of the 
" Ver Bongeur " must be put down at any price. AU those 
engaged in education were on the more at once. Venerabia 
Frofeasors of seminaries, who had spent their lives in teach- 
ing Pagan clossicB, appealed to episcopal aathority. They 
would know, if with saife conscience they might continue in 
that system, which, for a long three hundred years, had been 
sanctioned by the Church. Mgr. Dupanlimp pnbliKhcKi a 
reply. With hia brilliant diction, hia pointed style, and his 
customary chivralry, he condemned the doctrines of the " Ver 
Bongeur." Gaumo defended himself in his nanal uncompro- 
mising way, httlo calculated to quench the flames ho nad 
enkindled. Tlie fire now flamed throughout literary France. 

I The daily and weekly papers woro full of tbo controversy. It ■< 

' was taken up by all the periodicals. Kach party made capitaU 
out of the general disturbance. Gallicans on the one sideJ 
Ultramontones on the other, thought that thov saw the &aita1 
of their fundamental principles; while the infidel oadj 
Voltaireon press found much to ridicule, and satirize, amll 

I BeOS' lit. Now was the time for sharp, stinging article«.l 
Hero was a grand opening for those rapid, brilliant thruKts,! 
those graceful displays of intellectual skill, which the French I 
alone con oidiibit in perfection. This was a glorious oppor-l 

I * TJie gnat CiuxUiml OowHseV «^iy\.e Vj ^ive sKn« tiGfocA.. 



2%a Oawno (hntroverfy on Clattslc- 



207 



tmutr, not only for tho usertion of firat principles of educa- 
tion, bnt Tor thjit peculiar kind of intellectual warfare in 
which the pobiihi^l satirL-, the stinging innendo^ the withering 
^^"^ tno bright-pointed ahaft, delivered with unerring 
aw each otlior with man'ellous rapidity, and aro 

r^ooed with each graceful dexterity and ease, as completely 
dasElo a simple looker on. Bnt the subject was far too 
sefioos eren for Frenchmen to keep on their best bohavionr 
tbnraghoat. Some of the blows were so heavy, and were 
dslnrered so well *' home," as serioosly to interfere with the 
pwfeot pmctice of the amenities. Our polite neighbours at 
leo^h became so sore, that flosh and blood burst through 
tiMir French polish. Their genuine nature came out. They 
■et to work in hearty oamest. The small arms, and the 
bbmAi] display, made way for what certainly was less polite, 
iaoagh perhaps more genuine. Bishop Dupanlonp was 
aocommI of " nourishing children with poison," and of" feeding 
a&gtls with the food of devils." Gaume, in turn, was stig- 
miUized aa *' dishonest ;" and was accused of &laifying the 
Cooncila, and misquoting the Fathers, and was set down, at 
onoej as a Janaenist, a Lnthorau, and a Manicliean. The whole 
cxNitrQnrotsy terminated, as most quarrels do, by a torrent of 
■boM on both sides, and by an oostinato claim of victory by 
MCil. The C<irrcJS}>onit'inl ,ihe Ami dc la JUUgionfthii Juwnial 
oIm Dt^itjf, are to bo found on the one side ; the Univerg, and 
then the UniversUt' CnihoJiqno^ the Annals (U hi PhilosopKie 
O4r^Fi0fUM upon the other. Abb^ Ganmo was attacked by 
lOL Lfloannant, Foiiset, and the pungent 8acy ; and ^fM. 
YcoiUot, ZVAbBOn, Roox Lavergne, and Montalombort, carried 
tbo war into the camp of the enemy.* 

Bni the momentary eflects of the "Ver Rongeur" are by no 
moBEui the only evidence of the weight of truth which it con- 
tained, 'lliere aro other evidences of Erreater force than these. 
I The views of tbo Uterary Catholic world have been gradually 
dnsolvine from old Pagan pictures, and fonning into better 
ttlBga. I do not ailirm that many men accept the doctriues 
of Aob^ Ganmo without reservation; but this I think no one 
eaa deny, rix., that a rapid advance, during the last few years, 
1m* been made in their direction. 
^HT' ' leal position of human afiairs , the corruption of man- 

^^k lie growing naturalism of the day, by their constant 

HpratBDre and presence, are beginning to moke thorn think. Men 
P now fo about in search of remedies ; thev study the disorder ; 
tiier WDokl tnce it to its spring ; they follow up the genesis of 



* H. JContehBtot's riews luo now soaewhat Imk ^^gtfSWBiaJL 



208 Tlie Gtmnne Conlrocersy on CUiseical Studict, 



mental tLouglit : — lliey get on to the question of education. 
The old arguments of the " Ver Bongour " arc drawn forth, 
clothed in modem garb, pared down into less startling pro- 
portions and more generally received; for men aro begiaJ^H 
to open their eyes to a very old truths which they coull^^| 
clearly see before ; partly, because it was distorted and eaiBH 
tiired unwillingly, by the impetnosity of him who lorecf™ 
most; andj partly, because their minds had not been in any 
way prepared for its reception. Several publications of recent 
date, the exponents of a large body of thinking men, mark, 
unmistakcably, this pivDgress; and let tis indalgo an earnest 
hope that some practice advantage to education may thcnc 
result. 

Here aro three instances of what I mean. 

1. Wo can have no better index to the general moremenl 
of the Catholic mind in literature and religion, than th 
utterances which, from time to time, come forth from 
Society of Jesns. Though essentially conservative, that 
remarkable Society has never held itself so far behind 
current of Catholic thought, as to lose its iuflaencc over itj 
nor has it placed itself so much in the advance, as to becou 
an object of general observation. It has, as a rule, firmly, 
cautiously, and with a practical wisdom, manifested to 
great an extent by no other order in the Churt^h, kept 
^Wth the general movement, and influenced its direction ; anJ 
when it has not been able, through the nnmanngeablo nature 
of the elements with which it has had to do, to lead, it has 
had the sagacity to bide its time and follow. It is this 
instinct which, though it may to "cai-nal men" savonr of 
human prudence, to men who see things through n 1 

eye, mauifesta the workings of a governing Pi ■ 

through one of the most able human instruments which ham 
ever undertaken God's work upon the earth. It ia this ropn^ 
tation for peculiar wisdom, which the Company of Jesus htm 
so fully earned, that gives to the utterances of its rcpre^ 
sentative men a weight which no other religious body cafl 
command. These utterances will be sure to possess threfl 
striking qualities, 'i'hey will always bo oilhodox; theyj|S 
never be extravagant ; and will betoken a prudont sagq^^H 
which not only knows what it ought to say, but when it o^^^ 
to say it. 1 should not, however, bo absolutely candid, if ■ 
did not point out what appears to me. (I will not »1 

ira^iorfection of those uttei-auces,) but that tiuality wli :J 

weighs them down from the category of absolute pcrfeciioiJ 
and keeps them in the number of human things : — T mean a^ 
extremcj nJinost, of caution. TlKcto wwxl'j ^Wa^a seem to bo 



I 



^p The Oitume Contravcrty on Clastieal Studies. 209 

powen and forcea in rcserre. The entire thing is seldom 
nmkedlj brought out. One is genorally tempted to foel thot 
•' tberu is a great deal more whore that came from." And 
jret, after all, this is the very quality which lends a special 
weifffct to what is said. 

Now Ftttlier Curci is certainly no ordinai-y or common-place 
member of this Society ; nor would ho publicly express senti- 
ments Hkely to be generally unpopular among his brctlircu. 
Whai has he said on education ? Daring the octavo of tho 
Bpiphany, 18G2, F. Curci delivere*!, iu tho church of S. Au- 
drc« dcUa Valle, in Rome, before a largo and distinguished 
•Ddience, a course of brilH&nt lectures on "Aucicut and 
Modern Paganism." These lectures were eventually printed 
by the press of the Cicilla CnihnJU-a. Few utterances, one 
would imagine, would be conceived in tcrtna of more rigid 
prudence, or bo placed before tho pabUc with greater weight 
of authority. 

Firat of all, what does the Father say of tho condition of 
•odoiy ? ITie picture which he draws of the state of modem 
Baropo surpasses all the " exaggerations *' of Abb^ Gaume. 
It is made up of broad streaks of crimson and carmine. The 
eloquent orator, surely, has drunk of the torrent of the " Ver 
Rongeur," and has added the vehemence of the Italian to the 
ifflpetuoaity of the French. Ancient Paganism has been 
rcsnacitBtod. Political Christianity, rationuism, naturalism, 
aoosttaliiEDi, Caesarism, are but other names fur the old Pagan- 
ism of Xfidd years ago. Its essonco was " the complete 
Mparation of Uic creature from tho creator in theory and 
practice" (p. 31). To this modem society is returning. 
" Modem society," he snys, " is retiu'mng with giant strides 
to pngiuiwm; and without resuscitatiug tho grossnoss of its 
idolMry [yet who wilt make so sure of this? It was brought 
about at the French Revolution, and may be brought about 
agfBTni, it is paganizing in its thoughts, in its loves, in its 
io< -, m its works, in its words. So much so indeed 

lUo: .- :.,^ contemporaries of Scipio or Coriolonus were to 
be rat«ed ont of this huge sepulchre of this Roman earth, »ud 
witlioat noticing our temples and ceremonial were only to 
attend to the thought, the aspirations, and the conversation 
of not a few, nbitn«- f I do not fancy that they would find iheuo 
vcn* difffront from tlierasclves, save in prfHtnUlcu of spirit 
una enrrrnlion o/ii'ilt" (p. 10). 

Horp, then, we have a prudent and illustTions member 
of tltc most prudent and illustrious order iu the Churcb 
^1^ ' ' ' ■ in Rome, bcforo the altar of GoA» m >Xi5^ 
^^: i </<■//» VaJIe — what? TUa.t & Wfte\wv- 

f-rwA. r//,— A't>. xiii, [New SeriesJ] V 



210 The Ganme Ccnh-oversy on Classical Studies, 



tioa of society in the Eternal City itselfj at the pirosent time, 
is more degraded than those pagans were whoso bones lie 
buried beneath their feet, and that the only point of any 
material diiferonce between the two consists in this, viz., that 
the modern pagans sufler from " a prostration of spirit on^ at* 
enorvation of will " to which the worshippers of Venna and 
ApoUo wero utter strangers. If any one will take the trooblft 
to read the hard thiuf^s that wei-e said of Ganme, bec«Qse ho 
ventured to suggest that society was becoming pagan ; how 
he was scoUed at and lampooned for an extravagont Don 
Quixote, because he saw further into the future than his boBy 
critics ; they will perhaps appi*eciate the advance that has 
been made by prudent and cautious men towards the utter- 
ances of the " Ver Rongeur.^' 

So much for the state of society. Here Gaome is, after a 
lapse of years, out-Graumed on his own ground ; and it is not 
for me to say that F. Curci has exaggerated, in reality, thi 
state of the case a bit. But what of the remedy ? 

Hero it must be confessed the " Ver Rongeur," &s far as the 
exponent of the Society is concerned, has kept its solitary 
stand. F. Curci does not absolutely condemn pagan classics 
in the uncompromising terms of Abb^ Gaumo. But stiU bo 
manifests a great movement of thought on this vexed question. 
It is not ridiculed, and satirized, and laughed at, and held up 
to vulgar scorn ; it is treated seriously, carelully ; and aa if Chfl 
speaker knew well what an immense influence the great 
thinkers of tho old world have on the present generation. 
Even thi^i makes oue breathe more freely, and look moro 
hopefully into the future. 

It is but natural to expect the lecturer to Rbate clearly, what 
he considers to be the causes of the paganism which he finds 
so rampant — ^what relation education, Cathobc education, has 
to the evil. And it is in this very question — the most ab- 
sorbing that could occupy tho Catholic mind, — that F. Curci 
thinks fit to display that extreme of caution which I have 
alluded to before. One feels disappoint etl, but not sorprised. 
With the writings of FF, Minestrier, Porsoy, Lebnin, Rapin, 
and Cotron; and, more recently, of FF. Daniol, Ca^ "■'■-- 
Prat, and Dcschamps, open before his eyes, a cautious 
anco must be expected. But, by his very weighing of ^^ cni-* 
in one place, and by Ids open expitssiou in anothur, F. Cura 
shows how far aheud he is of that body of writers which ran 
full tilt at the " Ver Roupeur." '* I don't want to seek (ia wtn 
v6 e^rcure) if, and how far, tho study of Greek and Romao 
classics, which our youth handle in the schools, may have ron- 
ttibttted to that exaggetattd wim\Tttv«i^ iJC Va'^uuisra whi. d 



Tkg Gaianc Controvorsif on Clasncal 8tudieg. 211 

[ luw come iato fhahion in the modem world/' Wliy doea not 
F. Curci wtt to tiud that out which everybody else is moat 
c«g<er to discover, and which stands at the very root of the 
ODtiro quostioa ? Uo continues, " 1 say thiu by the way, viz.. 
tliat such «tndy joined to the catcchi&m, and the holy fear of 
God,' has boen universal in ceuturies of moch faith, has been 
admired {ccUbrato) by men who were not only Christiana but 
■aiaxj, without any evil results. And hence if that same study 
teoda to paganize our youth it ought rather to bo attributed 
to the manner than the matter of study. But whether this or 
■my other be the caoao of it, iho fact is andcninblc ; — admira- 
tion of p&g&Q greatness in common, ia euconmgcd and di.^>s 
not ooniuiu itself to theory but enters into practice" (p. oti). 
Now what is F. Carci's real opinion on this point of Pagan 
cdosaics ^ Can it bo picked out of the curious uncci'tainty of 
hU czpreasiona ? When a man shirks a cardinal point in a 
tfroat (|aoatioif, ho does not do &o without a reason. Now, 
UltfO are some very weighty names, and weighty books too, 
occaawned by Uio Qaumo controversy, with which, naturally, 
the Father would prefer not to come into collision. If ho 
tboaglit as they, he could have no dilflcolty in Ba3ringBo; if 
he old Dot think with them, what could be more tmtural 
thfto to shirk tlie question with a " io non v6 corcare ? " This 
baliaadene; and, hence, it is but natural to surmise that, 
were be to utter out his own mind freely, ho would simply 
ivpaaC what the ascetic F. Gron, Pas, Andre, and Posscvin 
haro wad before him. At any rate this is certain ; that these 
oaatioaa utterances manifest — (I) that society looks upon the 
Ha— irml question as a far more serious question than it did ; 
and (3) that oven here the tide is steadily flowing towards the 
" Vor Hongcur." 

2, But if F. Curci did not think it prudent to draw the con- 

> dosiou himself, which manifestly Oows from his premisses, there 
were not wanting men who were onlv too deughted to draw 
it for him. Uis lectures of 1802 made so deep an impression 
on thinking minds tliat they could not resist the temptation to 

i fittsiab a minor aud conclusion to the major premiss which 
I had borrowed from the " Vor Ronguur." 
"SKortlv after the delivery of the lectures, a " Memorial " was 
I and " dedicated to the Catholic Kpiscopato assembled 
.'* The autlior, in weighty words, undertook, as "a sacred 
!aiy to society," — " to draw out the logical consequences 
which 6owod trom tbe solid principles eatablishod by rather 
ca.*' " The learned Jesuit," be says, nddrcssiDg the asscm- 

1 Epi»copato, " harii^ delineated with a power all bis own 

iho horrible picture of .^ganifim living and omiu^\iesD.\.'\xi ^& 



212 Tlie Gaume Controveretj on Claegieal Studies, 



midst of modem society ; nnd having iudicatcd in a certain mas* 
ner, though not without be»Itation, tliat the cause of this prra'. 
fact of modem paganism is just this — tho impradcnt (mp^i-m- 
vUla) admiratiun which has been produced in the minds of 
youth by the ideas, the men, and the objects of ancient paga- 
nism; and having come indirectly to say that society requires 
a grand reform in edacation; having proved to admiration the 
premisses of his argument; but not having drawn the conse- 
quences that necessarily flow ; as a Christian and a Cathohc I 
have considered it my duty to supply the ' lacima ' in thiis ' Me- 
morial.' " He thon goes on to state what he considers to be the 
" unico me^o " for arresting tho progrees of modem Paganism. 
It is this : " an nnti-pagan reaction, which alone can be effected 
by a mode of teaching which shall be thoroughly saturated 
with a Catholic element, and shall bo able to pour into the 
mind of youth gi-eater love for the men and things of Chris- 
tianity, and Jess lovo and enthusiasm for the men, the ideaa, 
and tne things of the Pagans" (p. 6). Again : '* It would be 
a crime not to modify {mmcdiahhf and prnfoumUy & system of 
teaching which has not prevented, if it has not prepared the 
way for, the supreme catastrophe with which the world is 
threatened. It must be admitted, then, that this reform in its 
essence must consist in giving tho frsi 'pJac^i to Christian 
authors ; and onhj tht' second to Pagan authors ; in being 
much more guarded in praising pe^nism, through its heroes 
and its worts; and much less so in extolling Christianity 
through its heroes, its literature, its fine arts, and its works"* 
(p. 41). So far, then, it can be seen (t) that F. Cnroi has 
out-distanced the " Ver Rongeur " in his picture of raodnm [ta- 
gonism ; and that the author of tho " Memorial " is at one with 
the illustrious Jesuit ; next, (2) that the author of the " Me- 
morial " is ahead of F. Cnrci, at all events in actual expreasioni 
respecting the remedy to be adopted ; and has advanced i 
good step nearer to Ahh6 Gaume. 

3. But not only does public feeling seem to bo bo for 
affected as to urge an address to tho Catholic Hierarchy ; but, 
moreover, what is most significant, a distinguished member 
of that venerable body boldly comes forward in tho Eter 
City and proclaims the very principles developed by 
Oaume. The Bishop of Aqnila read a paper in Septembo 
1864, before the Academy of the Catholic Religion in 1 
Ue was at liberty to select his own subject, lie chose, wl 
he considered, the most important question of the day. 
tretitcd of " tho nature, cause, and remedy of the present 



* Tho lU\ica •!« Vitt QTu. 



7%e QaufM Controversy on Chistical Studies. 213 



I 



I 



I 



His whole argament might hare been tAkcn from 
flie " Ver Rongear." It ia very simple. There are four groab 
" noiea " of modem society : — ICationalism, f^cnsoalism, Crcsnr- 
ism, and Anti-Catholicism. His lordship develops each of 
tlieso "notes;" and fearful indeed is the pictai-o that ho 
ilfmwB. He concludes that Europe is visibly hurryiiig on to 
{''aganisn) ; or, "to spcalc with more precision, to la^atanijiin" 
(p. 2y). He demonstrates how those four " notes" wore tho 
nurka of the ancient Pagan world. IIo declares Christendom 
to havo been Christian till tho Reuaissauco. Then Pagan 
classics were introduced. Eupopo becamo intoxicated with 
M evil, prevaricated, and bos completely fallen away, 
i-i the romwly ? There is " but one." "The salvation 
uf rind its return to sincere Christianity, alone can 

be by an intimate application of Catholicity to youth 

in ibiT period of literary and scientific education " (p. 53) 
HU lonUliin, who bad studied the ouestion — unlike those who 
hmvt had a fear of doing so — ia certain that a little " catechism" 
and " il santo timor di Dio" will not alone effect salvation. 
Toath ranst havo a "solid, cxtendod, and substantial religious 
mstracttou " (p. 57). Ho would replace the study of tlio 
Bi({iui classics by the study of (1) the Scriptures, (2) tho 
Fit hoi u^ (3) the lives of tho saints, and (4) the acts of the 
martyn. He does not cxpUcitIv state that ho absolutely ox- 
dadiNl All Paffan classics; but this ia cortaiUj that ho reduces 
them Co a mtmtmtm.* 

These are tho broad Imesof tho eloquent discoorse delivered 
\hy the learned Bishop. His views are in advance of F. Curci'a; 
are more explicit than tho " Memorial" — in point of fact, tha. 
whole brochure is nothing but Oaumr^ intensified by con 
protiion, and done into Itabau. In plain English, the Accademia 
frae lu1«niDg to tho " Ver Uongour ; " and seven Princes of tho 
Chnrch, a score of Bishops, and a large and brilliant company 
of Prelates, scientific mon, and learned racmberd of religious 
orden, attested, by their presence on that day, how great a 
change has come over tho minds of enlightened mon since 
1861. And when one comes to consider that the three works, 
which have jnst been noticed, severally represent a large, a 
growing daas of Catholic thinkers, who bold views more or 
lev identical with one or other of them ; when one couaiders 
what intcllccioal obstacles, what stumbling-blt>ckH o\' projndico, 
taste, and edncatton many of these men must have bad tu 
retno\-c away, before they could possibly arrive at their present 



• The B«hop u)J "D«r kmake Zt-itirt'isL'* are 6trikmij\y *t Qt« m^^«« 
I f jew of tht 0lale ofBCckt/. Sm " Vvr KftthoUk,* Man, v- Viti, 



214 The Qawne Controceray on Clcmsicai StudUe. 

intellectnal position ; when one stadics tho Gaomo contro- 
versy as it presents itself in 1851, witli its rabid "war 
to the knifo ; " aud then fixes ono'a thoughts on its position m 
IStiG, who can repress tho feeling tliat there must ho aome 
fearful " coming events " to cast snch shadows as these before? 
Like the dumb brutcSj one feels as if the ihuiider-clap is 
coming, aud the torrent will soon be hero; and one feels 
urged as by an instinct to walk (juietly and silently to shelter. 
A man may be conscious of its presence, though ho don't 
know how to prove it. And another thought ; this rapid 
advance upon unpalatable doctrine — ^which to many is bitter 
enough — this scream for tho knifo, to my mind is a stronger 
proof than all the logic in the world that an operatioa is 

' required. Who has the firm determined will, tho mstromcnt, 
the steady hand for lopping off the limb ? And who has the 
powor to summon up his eoergiea in tho centre of his soul, and 
keep them steady there, till ono-hulf his life be cut away ? 

But there is one other thought which bends one down by 
its oppressiveness, and creates a straining anxiety in the 
mind : — How do we stand in England T What bearing hare 
these growing views of Catholic continentul thinkers on oar 
country ? — on that small scattered few who are growing up 
like some chance seeds which have been dropped amidst the 
tboms and tangles of a wilderness t How far are the vie 
of F. Curci applicable here ? Can the " Memorial " be applii 
to us? Does the right Rev. Prelate's picture include the 
British Islands ? In a word, to put once more those simple 
questions to which we have principally confined onraelrea 
throughout : — What are the conditions of society in England? 
and what is the remedy for the diseasOj if disodso oxisia ? 

1. We have already witnessed to the growing feoHng an 
the Continent, that European society is swiltly tonoing to mA*~ 
its watchword, " Adoromiu Safanain." Now, let me grant, 
I willingly do, that society in England is as yet in a far ' 
debased condition than on many parts of the Continent. Si 
can any one with his eyes open doubt that it is d 
same direction ? Are not the four features by whi- 
of Aquila identifies modern with anciout Paganism as t: 
visible, though not as prominent, in England as abroad ? 
there not (1) "an emancipation of reason from all div; 
authority respecting dogma ? " ts thoro not {2) " ^ 
tion of tho tiesh from all divine authority reg: 

I and private manners?" i« there not (3) "an oni 
eocial power fi*om all divine authority in' polilii 
thvro not (4) every bit as gn»9b ** » Wtwid of tii< 
Charch and her institutional ^. V2.V ^ ^^ "^'^*' 



T%$ Oaume Controversy <m Clasnc&l 8hidie«, 215 

not see that there is, nnfortunately we have no space to prove 
it to him here. 

Bat ho may urM that we have ahready destroyed, or at all 
orrata considerably weatceued, the force of our armament at 
tbe b«gfitining of this papor ; for we stated that the Eog-lish 
mind ia very difforont, c.ij.j from tho French — liiat Knglishmen 

(1) are not moved to revolution by their books at school ; that 

(2) they aro not easily inflamed by an idea ; and (3) that they 
powoas n sense of security unknown to foreigners. This is 
true } and it would seem that thoRo three facts — two relating 
to the " intellectnal build " of Gngliahmen^ and the thinl to 
the circnmstances of their lives, — are the throe very conditions 
which render English Paganism far more difficult tu deal with 
Ihaa tho foreign form. It is tho nature of foreign Paganism 
to mamfest itself in iancifu] extravagance; the foundation on 
which foreigners build their " castles " is not much more 
rabstanttal than the superstructures ; the eai'thqnokc of a 
rerohition, or some frightful catastrophe, generally the result 
indiBttd of their "ideas/' quenches their fever, and brings 
tlMOi to their senses. With the Englitibman the case is 
diflerent. Uo is more cool, calculating, and plodding : if ho 
does Pii^anize, he does so commercially. There is a basis of 
hardj common, worldly sense to ^1 ho does. He does not 
CftsOy sHow himself to be canght in an absnrdity. He pos- 
■eiiei SB innate respect for power and authority. In his 
own wfty he fears Goa and honours tho king. This temper of 
mind, which may be the result of the practical working of tho 
pofilgr imder which he ]ires, permeates all his religions views. 
tadeod, now-a-days, there is a large, and it may bo hoped, 
•a increasing body of men who, breaking through mere 
kaman propnetv and ideas of fitness, really apprehend the 
•tmematural. From those, downwards to the most gross- 
Btmded unbeliever, there is a gentle gradation, tho groat bulk 
bttDg^ made up of those who transfor the political temper of 
tbetr minds to their relation with the Creator and Master of 
all. Their human appreciation of order, dignity, and position 
— their acknowledgement of the good, the beautiful, and tho 
tnic in the plane of religion, gives a respectability and a 
■e uu iagneaa to their religions perfomuuioee, and a tone of 
deforenoo to their conduct, which, in the absence of something 
fai^v and more ennobling, is by no means to bo denpisooL 
laaeed this kind of apprectatioa for the sapomatural is far 
more wide-spread in their country than is the cntholiu feeling 
for it on tiie Continent. Like gold-leaf it spreads over a very 
extensiTO area, but when put in the balance, it does iiot^fA^ 
~ ~gp amUs. WbM gaiu-i in cjctonsioa in this cQUU^ , ^uxa 



I 
* 



216 The Gaume Controversy on Cla$8iaU SUtdtft, 

in intensity abroad. Wliere the sapematoral ia acknowledged 
on the Continent it is put down at its real worth — it at onM 
makes the balance kick the beam. 

In Englandf then, men quietly, natnraUy, and withoot any 
shock at all — indeed, as im act of just propriety — afiaimilsw 
theuisclvos to the systems which they sec around them^ and 
according to the nature of each, sink or rise between the two 
extremes of utter unbeUef or fragmentary adherence to a super* 
natural standard. Which way nalure is inclined to turn the 
scale is very evident. And the danger of such vacillation is 
not to be ignored. More or less, natnralism mast infect tlio 
country — for it is Protestant.' The questiou ia only of degree. 
The pure value of the supernatural is not found outside tho 
Church of God. And if a man places himself upon an 
inclined piano, we know pretty well which way ho slips. What 
we call naturalism, F. Curci calls by the more startling 
epithet of '* Paganism." " Don't imagincj" says this Father, 
" that a man cannot be a Pagan without adoring idols ; nothing 
of the kind I {oh ! tiienU affatto /) Paganism in ita conatitntiro 
parts, in its formal nature [nella sua r gioM formalc di CMcn) 
means nothing more or less than naiuralisni" (p. H). 
England, then, in ita own way, may be said to suffer from i 
less intensive form of the disease of Paganism than the Con- 
tinent. It ia not fantastical — not " French." It is founded 
more ou propriety, fitness, and a reverence for order and 
authority, which is peculiar to the people. 

It is into this atmosphere, created by the breath of seven- 
teen million lungs, more or less corrupted by the taint 
naturalism, that the hope and promise of England as a Catholio 
country is thrown. And on tliinking npon the small handful 
that represents the Church — how our young men are enveloped 
with this atmosphere deprived of every element of life ; what 
temptations are held out to them abroad ; how the spirit of cba 
times even finds them out at home ; how easily they can foi^i 
the serious resjKJnsibility of their lives ; how they will have to 
answer for more than the number of rabbits they hare iboCi 
how many fish they have killed, or how best they have beca 
able to while away their time in frivolities which are often wotm 
thou useless ; — tho heart would almost sink within one. Bat 
then, again, let us fix our thoughts on what they might bo, thtfj 
work they mi^A^ accomplish, the great things that a few eamesi|| 
detached men might achieve in England, where even what is' 
noble in a Catholic character finds its recognition at last ; when 
tho imagination, or ratiier the reasoning faculty, is sti^' 
draw legitimate condnsions — which spread out before ti; i 

like a sort of Paradise — froinViypo\iieaeft'VjV\c\v,^« Y)\%tq ahame, 



la 

4 

lioH 
•ol^ 



Tftc Ouiime Controversy oa GJassical Sindiea. 217 

[)fr bo called cxtrava^^t. Wlicn Buck ploy as tMs is given 

the intelligence, both heiirt and head ut once arc tired with 

flainu of hope that something muy yet be done ; that minds, 

»t broad, oxpcricnccdj many-sided minda, will look into 

dangor, aua provide a remedy against that Ughtuess of 

ter, that easy-goin^ dilcUante spirit, that small appro- 

on of tlie serious position of Catholic men in this country, 

[that want of a hLrgo, broad. Catholic view of life, — that 

of all the pores of the spirit open to the poiaonouftJ 

Here of the pagan English world, which, alas t is far 

prevalent with our rising generation. Who is coming on f 

lo whom have we to look? Who are to be our Catholic 

^cadcris, to give a tone to Catholic thought, to displav the 

relinesa of our Religion, to prove to the p^nn world in 

rhich they live, like the great men of old, that Christ is more 

itiful than the world, that His Truth is deeper, wider, 

e encompassiug than the Pa^n counterfeit; that we 

be poU&hcd, refined, educated; that wo can win and 

come; that we have power and strength? Who, I say, 

lean show Catholicity impefnonalvd^ and by his very manhood, 

ittg with true Christian grace, shame into their hiding- 

I tboso bold, proud, seducing representatives of naturalism, 

atalk before us aa sj)ecimens of perfection, and mastera 

ke world ? 

Unless a very powerful antidote bo applied against that 

lism which is the ocean in which men live their lives ; 

MRneihiug, not negative alone, but positive, be douo 

the human npirit when first it begins to open out and fcol 

^way in this auoi-chical world in which we live; unless the 

bo treated in its first symptoms, I say firmly, and with 

it«mnes8 filling my mind, that those grand, those 

^lorioQA possibilities, which overQow the heart, and almost 

the eyes swim to think of them, will drop down dead 

I withered like the blighted promises of spring. 

Wh»(, then, it will here bo asked, do 1 propose for 
Dgthening the system, and preparing it against the mdo 

of Knglish life '( 
lie aiuwer to this question is contuned in the history of 
Ttho Unirenal Church, not for threo or four short centuries), 
[bni dnrin^ the long term of fourteen hundred years. I pur- 
J tojgivc a very short but broad, clear, general impres- 
kof tbia temper of the teaching element during that aporo ; 
.'parpoiely avoid, in so tloing, idl small, narrow qnestions, 
fwIiicD present diflicuJties, but cannot obscure the grand 
IfMwnl resalt. Too much has been made of tViese. V.\>am\^\% 
9t fcrretisg into details, like a Gcrmou vxk\,(^vo,ii>i^ » 



218 The Oaumo Controvtrsy on OtasMuat Studio. 



for aaght elso bnt the 



has seemingly rained his vi; 

screws, ana wheels of historjr, and has utterly imfittea mm 
for that broad philosophy which gives them a position and 
signiHcancc, and points ont their relative worth. Compare, u& 
glaring example of what I mean, his chapter on the Renais- 
sance, with what Dr. Newman says of it.* All these minatin 
must be cast aside, not because they are not valnable in their 
proper place, bnt bocanso here, in reality, they are besidd 
the issue. 

First, theuj T will give the broad effect of teachings (1) from 
the Apostles to the destruction of the Boman Empire, very 
rapidly : then (2) from the destruction of the Roman Empire 
to the Renaissance. In this the answer is held in solotioc; 
presently it will be precipitated into a tangible form. 

1. The education, then, which children received in the age 
of the Apostles, a 'priori, one would imagine would be 
Apostolic. The Miracles and merciful Passion of our Sanoor 
had hardly had time to pass into the pages of history. His 
blessed Ui'c was still sufficiently near to invigorate with its 
presence the minds of his followers. The Apostles, moroorw, 
had borne away a portion of that fire in their breasts whtrh 
had consumed the Victim of Ca\'alT7, and kept alive tho 
heroism of the Cross in the hearts of tho faithful. But, be- 
sides receiving an illumination &om so great a noamoju to 
Christ, there were other motives, sterner and sadder, whid 
urged Christians to keep close under tho light of Truth, and 
build themselves up in fear, yea^ aud in tremblmg too, under the 
mighty Hand of God. Those were seasons of expectation and 
of prayer — of waiting for the day to be revealed. Those wei^i 
seasons in which parents kept their garments, and watche^^H 
and prepared their children to be strong and steadfast^ to b^* 
pure, holy, and undefiled in the midst of a corrupt generation 
and a persecuting race. Naturally, the edncation of those 
days would receive its colour from tho circumstances with 
which it was surrounded. I^ho supernatural wonld be all iu 
all. The possibilities of the future would keep the Christian'* 
mind on a higher goal than earth. He would look upon his 
child as a tender ** lily among thorns." He would point o^^ 
to him the better land — to which he might any day be calleo^H 
He would direct his young eyes to tlie invisible, teach }^t 



* Cbmmre np. rii. p. 17f>. seq. of "Dos Etadea daadquas dAni It 

Sunittd Chi^toenne " of P. Daniel. wiUi Dr. Newnuui'i ** Miaitoa of & lIuLi) 

Jfrri." p. 8 ; alao with " Leclui«ft ou. ihe ^raicat Poutuw of Catholics in 

J^nhndj" lecture IL p. fib. 



M 



The Oonme Confroverinf oii Cla$8wU Studies. 219 

yoong lioaii to lore the heroism of the Croaa, and his wholo 
Mpirftticm to be afler the kingdom to come. 

In those duvs our present classics were in the full ^ngonr of 
their life. \S hut wo now leam with ranch drudgon', they 
acquired with all the ease of the vernacular. Honcc^ children 
did not go so soon as we to echool. They remained longer 
onder the imteruit! roof, and breathed for a longer while the 
, iholthy atiuosphero of homo influeuoe. Their classics were 
BbclnnTcly Christian. The letters of the Popes^ the lires of 
" ft " . the acts of the Martyrs» — these were their Horace, 
I'll 10, their Virgil. Thou they wore praciisod in sacrod 

song, 'llioy learnt by heart the Psalter of David. They 
were inatmctcd in the mysteries of Faith, in tho life of Christ, 
in high and noble principles of Christian charity, in sacrifice 
of acTf, and self-abandonment to God — in a word, they were 
moalded into athletes ready to fight the battles of Christianity, 
Mtd to bold life cheap, in a question of testifying to the faith 
bypersonal loss. 

The Apostolic Constitntiona aro a ralnablo witness to the 
Spirit which animated the disciples of old. They stigmatize, 
in no vtry measured terms. Pagan writings oa profane and 
diaboUcaL They warn tho faithful against tnom, in somewhat 
tliA loine spirit with which tho Jews, anterior to the captivity, 
wore warned agaim^t worshipping stocks and stones. A kind 
of infection was supposed to attach to them j and the htera- 
tnro of the heuthen world was avoided^ as we should shun the 
habilimenta of a man who had diod of plague. The Scripture 
was the grand dialnfector of those days. If the mind of 
yooth were steeped in its holy spirit there would be com- 
pantiroly little danger, it was thought, from the poison 
■■pstxDg 10 the Pagan atmosphere of tho heathen world. This 
^Hb*^Dg faith in the efficacy of the Word of God runs through 
Iho entire history of the early ages. In the Hvos of all cclo- 
beated Christian men and euligntened women, this one trait 
it Dcrer wanting. What is more affecting than the young 
Origon, drinking deep of the spirit of the fire of tho chalico of 
Uio Lord in teuder youth, and his preparation, through that 
niTigorating dranght, for liis eventful and chequered Ufe f 
What EumJoB says of Origan can, with little vuriation, bo 
aUo said of the early days of S. Gregory and S. Basil. They 
WBTD nortared in the same fear and loro, and were, &om the 
sprin^-daj of their intellectual life, ignited with the aame 
nel<t«tml nro. The early education of Macrina, as written by 
8. OregWT of Kysaa, opens another cleft in the rock of tho 
which Clin onsily bo seen how w\i\ti-VQit«iiA ^»ii 
mj-r ^rn/yfure educntion in nncietit iVKy%. l&Mxm:^^ 



220 The Qaumo Oontrovorsy on Olastieal Studiee. 



herself was educated by a mother of gentle, holy life, in tha 
unspotted light of Gospel truth. She handed down tlwj 
tradition kIic received. She brought up her brother, Peter, as i 
she had been brought up hcrsolf. It is but natural that youths, f 
who had thuB been educated, should feel anxioua that others^ 
ebould reap the samo advantages as themselves. The 
Fathers, east and west, accord in their appreciation of Gospel 
education. S. Jerome, in his letter to Gaudentius, makes oat 
a complete curriculum for various portions of Holy Writ for 
young Pacatula. And with the same earnestness with which 
ho recommenda the Word of God, he condemns any pre- 1 
dominance being given to Pagan letters. " It is always a ] 
scandal," ho says, in his vigorous way, " to see a Christiaa 
Boul in a temple of idols." ti. Chrysostom and S. Basil taka 
the same view as S. Jerome. They lay it down as a first 
principle of Christian education tlmt children destined for the 
world should learn and live in the atmosphere of Sacred 
Scripture. 

It was thus that they were prepared for the heathen antbor, 
or to git at the feet of the Pagan professor, S. Chrysostom 
and Basil were already men when they studied under the 
rhetorician Lihanius. S. Gregory of Nazianzen had passed 
boyhood, wlien he commenced his travels to Ciesarea, to 
Alexandria, and to Athena. S. Jerome was eighteen when 
he commenced grammar under Bonatus. For, bo it remem- 
bered, to gain over so alight a tincture of letters in the dsys 
of the early Church, it was absolutely necessary to drink from 
a Pagan fount. The Pagans had entirely monopolized tho 
rich domain of literature and science. Every chair of learning 

I was filled by a Pagan professor. If a Christian would teacli, 
perfoi-ce he would have to make use of the models of 
elegance and purity of style in fashion in those days. If ha 
would have schohirs, he must teach what scholars would caro 
to learn. 

But in spite of this Booming necessity for frequenting Pagan 
fjchools, and perusing Pagan authors, the majority of tho i 
Fathers looked uufavoarably on the practice. The minority, ^| 
who, seeing the difficulty in which Clmstians were idaeed, had ^^ 
approved the custom which had obtained, no sooner perceived 
tlio appearances of a germ of literature in the field of CUriBtian 
speculation, than they warned their children with groat 
earnestness of the danger to which their souU were exposed i 
by the influence of Pagan letters. Tho writings of S- Atluuia-] 
sius and S. Basil, and of the two SS. Gregorys, are sufficient J 
roniirmation of this statement ; while S. Chrysostom, S. 

Jerome, and S. Augustine, seem Vo\uxv6\)t5:a\«iT^ft>wiVjT«acil 



< 



The Gaume Oon(roicra\f on Cla8*ieal Studies. 221 

np for closing the doors of tlio Pagan ecliools, and beginning a 
BOW literary era. Then come tho grand crash — Imperial 
B'joie with its monnmeDt^i} ita arts, its closBica, its rheto- 
riciouis, its luxarics and fagcinatioua, snnk nnder and perished 
ID the flood that swept down from the North. 

(2) But tho destruction of the Roman empire by the bar- 
lankn hordes did not annihilate the tradition of Christian 
Hbiing. Though the Chnrch was bent down for the moment 
In tho genenil visitation, uhe rose up from her trial more 
|>owcrfaI and raoro vigorons than boforo. Tho very move- 
meut create in her by the angor of tho elements, fastened 
bcr roots tlic more firmly to tho rock ; and tho fall and crash of 
thu giant which overshadowed her, heralded in her undivided 
ftwiHT over a renovated world. 

Now, at last, she had full scope for carrying ont, in ita entire 

bresdih, the Divine commission with which she had been 

•otmstcd. Now, at length, tho grand obstacle had been 

imaoTod, which stood in the way of the onward press of her 

power. Tho Itomona of tho ompiro had perished, together 

■with tho civilization which they had created. A now race, 

yigfXQJlB, virgin, and robust ; unbroken by tho efTemiuocy of 

jMft aoenrating civilization ; fVeah out of the glowing hand of a 

^nde and healthy nature ; brave, honest, ana impressionable ; 

adorned with tho Bablime simplicity of unadulterated manhood ; 

Aod though half-educated, half-polished, and unrefined, still 

eapAblo of being tempered into tho noblest types of civilized 

kmbctiou ; occupied the place of that effete and sickly gene* 

pntion which had paaaed away. ITie penetrating eye of tho 

[C'hurch Haw her advantage at a glance. She looked with 

niiinp2i on those rough treasures which had been collected 

mt 01 tho fastnesses of the North, and had been, with a pro* 

bae Irai not too gentle hand, showered at her feet. She saw in 

2io«e strong ana hardy frames, in those bravo and simple 

lOftrta, material which might bo manipulatod to high and 

wly purpOBCs. Sho felt herself ut once a " ifatrom liliorum 

■tontMO." And, with all that confidence wliich inspiration 

^T«B, and all that joy which 

lOooeM, she sot about raising 

Abrnhans. 

And how did she set about her work ? Did sho collect 

together the du'ta of the ancient philosophers, ransack the 

barth for their hiddeu wisdom, and eudeavotir to dig out uf tho 

ruins of an empire that was, matorials for insuring the splcii- 

rdtnir of on empire to bo? Did she draw together tho bhreda 

^■aud tattent of ancient letters which had been scatterod aboub 

r; and ewtay to dmn-, oat of the dust of ;uv ox^Vo^^ii \A<i, 



illamiuates the certuinty of 
of those stones children to 




TJie Oaume Controversy on CJassiotl £i/u<2*<tf. 

that poliali of maimers and tbat refinement of mind whi 
throw a hiUo of fiisoinatiou over the huge politr)r of Rome a« _ 
crumbled to the fall ? Did she try to lift np tho fallen worldj 
set it on ita feet, and drug it into life with potions of tbafc 
Greco-Roman civilization which had once animated it* frame 
from end to end ? No. She cast her eyes back, indeed, int' 
the past; but not into the past of Pagan greatness. Hi 
vision carried her not to the Domus Anroa of the Caesars, bi 
to the Cross of Calvary } not to the learning of the philos 
phers, but to tho simple principles of apostolic life ; not 
the gloiy of this world, but to the gloiy of the world to come. 
Bhe stood to her Traditions. Her only aim and the sunmuU 
point of her dearest ambition watf to plant Christ Crad£ed x 
the midst of those rugged natures which hod collected ronn< 
her, and to construct a new civilization, not upon the frail 
but gorgeous ])latform of worldly greatmss, but npon the 
imperishable framework of an overlaying religion. By whai 
means was this accomplished ? By the means which die had 
made use of Irom the beginning — by oduoatiou. By a Chriatiui 
education. By a Christian education of the young. By Uut 
very same means which had^ over and over again, beeu 
recommended by tho groat doctors of the Early Church, 
S- Basil, by S. Gregory, by S. Chrysostom, by S. Jerome, 
S. Austin. By forming tho supple heart and elastic nuBd 
youth on a Christian model. 

And how was this accomplished ? Tho Latin UugnagOf 
during the middle ages, or, at least, during a great part of 
them, was the common language of the people of Europe. 
Up to the ninth century, Greek, abo, seoma to have been 
pi*etty generally known. Hence, as in the first ages, childrto 
remained long under tho paternal roof. Their classics were 
almost the Hamo as in the ilays of the Empire. Bnt there wis 
this significant diilerence — the use of Pagan clasaica had 

greatly diminished, whereas the number of Ohriatisii dassioa 
ad considerably increased. The Scriptures, the Liber PM- 
sionum, the works of the Fathers, the Legends of tho Satnt«, 
tho histories of the holy wars, tho Travels of IHlgrims, tho 
wonderful hvos of remarkable men, and founders of religiou 
orders; these wore the chief instruments for fonmug tl 
minds of youth. Nor was this all. The influence ofChri; 
tianit^ was brought to bear npon tho plastic heart 
intolligenco of the child, not only through the clasadcii, bat i 
a still more constraining manner, by means of that TasI 
organization which by degrees spread itself over tho face of 
Europe. Its ruins aro still amongst us, which, beautiful itt 
their decay, even now proclaim tbe majesty of our Fathers i 



i 



2^ Qattme Contivverejf on CtoBsical Studies, 

tbeir gczLeration^ the catKedrals and monasteries, tbo prosbjr- 
teries and palaces, which, like the night stars of H&aveu, shed 
tiuir calnii intellectual Hght, over a cbristiimized world. In 
UlM* seed-plote of a noble and elevated Christianity, the same 
OOvne of oaacutioD which had been initiated at home, was 
more fuller developed. Those who had abandoned everything 
out of love for the Cmcified, were not the men to hide the fire 
in their boeoms. They were as incendiaries, setting ovcry- 
on* on fire with tho love of Christ. That which so folly 
pooBOWed their beiu^'^, penetrated into every manifestation of 
tlwir Uvea. The very system of knowledge which they 
imparted^ partook of tne universal inHueuce. God was all in 
alL He was King, Lord, Master, of every order, of every 
ntisa* From the huge foundations to the uttermost spiral 
wboH of that splendid cathedral of mediioval knowledge, one 
mint vaa made manifest, — ouo simple and sublime spirit^ 
Which gmve a nnity to its overwhelming complexity of parts, 
■nd brvathed a meaning into every stoni^— the spirit of the 
Crodfied. In literature, in language, in arts, in philosophy, 
in scienco, in religion, in the fumily, and in society, wherever 
nan livod, wherever the influence of man's hand or mind 
axtendod; wherever you could ti-ace his breath — there 
brMthod the dominant spirit of the Ages of Faith — there was 
ioetffkat^, in oil and in glass, in stone and in marble, in poetry 
Aod to fiction, in drama and in song, in public and in private, 
on the hill-top and in the valley, in the town and in the 
ooontry,— ufei-yu*', that which gave breath, life, reality, mean- 
ing to the existence of the creature, — Christ Crucified. The 
VTvat aim of man, then, seems to have been to moke Christ 
Eve Dpou the earth. Christian society became enamoured of 
onr Lonl. And the more men tliought of Him» tbo more 
they melted everything into Uis image. They would aa soon 
bavo thought of creating light by blotting out the Sun, aa of 
gaining trvt'n so poor a glimmering of science, where God was 
not. 

Nor did the leaven of religion, which ran through their 
tnarlitngt interfere with the strictness of scientilic method. 
Tbo DalabliKhing the Creator in the midst of His creatures, 
did not make truth leeu true, nor science less persuasive. 
God was the acknowledged centre, from which &U rays of 
hmnan knowledge How, and to which they all should tend. 
But tbo c«ntre, far from confusing the circunifercuco, lent to 
U a reality^ which belonged to its very dcfiuiiion. Around 
this oe&Iro, the wcr expanding circle of human cognition 
dereloped in Ihe foluess of God's light. As is natural, the 
partook in their degree of tbu sXaVA\l^ cA VU^sl Xm 



1 
4 



I 



rieage 

FmooH 



22-t The Gamnc Oonhroveray on ClasBxcal Studies, 

whom they were referred. The woU-knovm course of 
trhium and tjuadriinum, with little variation, can be tr 
from the days of Capollaj in the iiflh ccntaiy, to the end 
the ages of Faith. For many centuriea it hold undivided away. 
It formed generations of wise and holy men. It formed mei 
of every variety of type, of every variety of ocoupatio 
Philosophers, statesmen, lawgivers, kings, popes, sol* 
poets; men eloquent with the tongue, men eloquent with 
pen — it laid for them all one thing in common — a broad, d 
consolidated, granite foundation of science, not seculariz«i 
from God, but acknowledging and adoring Him in the midst 
Him they know to be the Stay, as well as the Maker of alL 
They felt, as it were, in their own weakness, that the scitnlff 
like the foundations of the world itself, rested on the Liring 
God — that " underneath were the Eternal Arms." God is 
not separate from knowledge in reaUty ; nor ia knowledge 
scpanito from God ; nor was there one in those days who dar 
divorce them by a vicious abstraction from each other. Fill' 
with the holy traditions of his childhood, and illumined by 
Christian course of education, the Christian youth left the 
calm atmosphere of the cloister, the Presbytery, or BiBhop'd 
Palace, and commenced, with a heart aa full of God as of 
knowledge, his university cai-eer. 

At the university ho found the same spirit) which he had 
learned to admire when poring over the Liber Passionum, or 
the Life of our Lord, in the days of his boyhood. He found 
that same spirit elevated, expanded, developed to a system,— 
and fitting to the growth and maturity of his mind. What, 
as a boy, had merely tho power to stir the depth of bis heart 
or set his fancy in a Same, now could be weighed and appre- 
ciated by his intelligence, and become rootetl in the uewly- 
cultivated ground of hia expanding reason. AVbat borne had 
done for his heart, what school had done for his memory, — 
that tho University did for his intelligence. Tlio spring 
of his affections had been directed to his Supreme Good in 
the first; his memory had been stored with a varied wciiitU 
of )ioi-a ef iv?/pm in the second; in the third, ho learnt how to 
grasp his knowledge us u wholu, how to understand tho relations 
ofitsvariou3parte,and their respective values: what was his own 
position — his relation to God, to man, to Creation; he leimr 
to adore hia Maker, to grasp the tti-ibile, and to nndcrsi-i^ ! 
himself; he was unfolded from the Christian boy into ih<: 
Chrisliun man ; he was prepured to meet the world, to strng^iLrlo 
with it, to do hia work iii his place, and ever to keep his <^yo 
upon that last end for which he wa« created. Hia infnnrj-, hU 
bojhood, his youth, his ■manhood, uU^ewi ^iiiCT *iiia supremo. 




The Oaum» Coniroverfif on Classical Studies, 225 

iKsorbing, ubidtng' infliieuco^ — tlie lufluence of an unspotted 

?brutiaii Koli^on, luiDiuona iii so many exumples of tlie past, 

rillmnt in i»o many examples of the present, streaming forth 

jni every pore of thai great society which pressed upon him 

every side, and encompassed him with an atmoBphere of 

ith and chanty, which in itself was littlole^a than nmcdecine 

jf life nnd immortality. 

Now, what i« the impression left npon the mind by the out- 

I we bare attempted to draw ? 1 do not ask whether it be 

i or /aUc that classics wero much studied before the Re- 

hnce; nor do I enter into the influence of living Paganism 

I Christian mind in ihe early ages. I am not discussing 

M? fr evil etiucts of the revival of letters ; nor is thcro 

■ llic endletis disputes which would make S. Jerome, 

- Austin, and a dozen moi*o Fathci's and schoolmen, 

□Dtnwlict each other, and themselves, in successive sentences 

the question of education. Kor, supposing the students of 

be middle ages did pore over the writings of the E'agans, am 

'Jed opoD to demonstrate that the wretched nmiiHscripts 

. which they studiedj were of themselves sufiicient preser- 

\ team d&ngor. All these are very interesting, and by 

leans animportant topics : but they have little to say to 

one large general impression — the striking picture left 

tho mind nfler the study of those fourteen centuries of 

oily. They may present, indeed, difficulties, — but 

' can no more prevent the onward How of the majestic 

~ Dtuuy teaching of the Churcli, than the pebbles that 

r % ripplo in a atroom can impede the steady progress of ita 

And lhin is where, in my poor opinion. Abbe Oanme, not- 
his breadth of view, made a great mistako. I 
£s furwartl now, because it leada straight to the 
It was a natural mistake when wo think of his posi- 
Ho saw the cr)ing need. Ho felt that some specific 
BL'my had done these thmgs. Besides, Uie public would not 
rngoo and general complaints. It must bo a distinct 
I against a specific evil. Where, then, could the dovas- 
' em*my Ix* fmmd — thu wild beast which had done such 
•? Thu Abbt? trucked him to his earth, by thcbUnidy 
rkfi of tho French Kevolntion. Here, thought he to 
air, is tho animal at lost, wliich has committed all this 
avtic — we most destroy hiui, and then peace and plenty will 
ar wluux* agnin : — littlo tliinktu^r, seemingly, that a forvst 
could produce one sucli beast, most prol>*bIy would 
[lur luaity more. 
\at Pagna classics had a ^rcot share in the (XvicnoT^xcm o1 



Tfio Oaume Oontroverty on Olatneal 8tudie§^ 

the world on tho Continent, where they were Uirown into 
furnaces of French and Imlian minds, is a proposition, I prosunie, 
no thinking man would deny. But tliat the sum of human 
miacries, even on the Continent, should be put down oxclusireljr 
to their door^ seems to me very like ignoring altogother oiher 
osaaea of disorder, that, in renlity, every one believe to han 
a substantive exist<?ncc. I bc'licvo that tho wood contaioi 
more than one wild beast ; and that Pugan classics h»Te quite 
onongh to answer for on their own acconntj without being 
mode tho icapc^oat for tho accumulated sins of the civiltMa 
world, llad Abb)$ Graume been satisfie<l with showing the 
real mischief they had done, and tho real danger they contain; 
had he pointed out the abnormal position which they oct-upy. 
ho wonld have i-ondcrcd a still greater snrvico to societv. ha\, 
as has been said before, he drew a picture which repoUed maaj, 
because the proportions wore extraragant. 

Ue made also, I think, another mistake ; riz., in the pv* 
ticular shape which he gave to his practical saggestions. It 
would have been better to lay his whole 8tre!;& and emphssii 
on i]io positive element which ho desired to introduce; and to 
speak against classical studies only so fur as their undue pre- 
eminence interferes with giving a primary place to whst » 
really primary. 

Still be has done incalculable service. His admirable il&* 
velopment of the Christian " System," and its working in 
human life, boa never been surpassed. It is a grand vifiiou of 
a Cliristian intelligence j and the offects of tho Pagan " sys- 
tem, " which stands over against it, throw a strong glare of 
light upon tho bidoons proportions of tho merely natural man. 
But, as I said just now, the desired end is not tlircdhj to 
overthrow what is heathen; but to do so hulurrthj through 
introducing what is Christian. Life is intensely positive; nvA 
to g^ve life, or to sustain its energy, somethiu;; pnas: 
required. A Jiajntive good will not do; tho good m: - 
positive. As justification consists, not so much in being fr« 
from sin, as in being possessed of a positive spiritual favonr; 
just as a man should not only avoid eril, but should do gooi 
also : — so the remedy for tho corrupt state of society must con- 
sist in some positive actual good: — a positive good, indivi!. 
the privation of which constitutes that verj' di8':':i.so wh 
presence is calculated to cure. What, then, is ilu- 'I'-- 
the present day? Wo have seen, NatnralUm* What i 
ismr P. Curci has already told us: — ''Thocomplot© .-. 
of tho creature from tho Creator in theory and in i>n 
(p. 3J), What is the ^wivaUow ov Iork w-hii 
diaeaae ? The loss of Itc Cre«Aot . "^"W-V \ , 



The Oaume Controversy on Claaeicul Biudiee. 227 

• man again to God. How i» this effected? By realizing 
Uto Sopernaturnl. " TitnlUv Uw Supt^nafitml" — this grana 
fimnola covers tUo eat'im area of tbo broad qiie<)tioD of 
I l^Bgaoisui. It contains a force equal, nay, more ttiun equalj 
^to tbo energy of tbo discaso. It is not a barren fact, orn 
Itnarft hiatus, — but a large, cmcompaesing principle, pregnant 
'wif' V : — Uko the "Fiafc Inx" of old, which tJoahcd day 

' ov> I. a. 

'i'hia ii ia that viao done in the fourteen first centuries of 
Clirifltoudom — (be supernatui'at was reoUxcd. This, I main- 
tain, ia tho grand, general improssion left upon the mind after 
[stiidyiDg tho history of tb»t raat tract of Christianity. From 
I the ApotUeB t<i tho Apologists; from the Apolo^i»ta to tho 
ooiuBinal Fathers; — from the Catiicombs to the glories of 
ICedueral times, this n*idizution seems to have been the main 
gOTeming Uw of tbo human spint. 1 have only spaco to 
baaggeat tnat such waa the cuse, and that this formula la a key 
capable cf solving ditlicultirs, which, without it, never could 
[bo aoawtrrcd. It explains the tear tlio Fathcra bad of ancient 
kJatten; it answers iheir seemingly couflictiug &tale>uient6 upon 
tdaa^ical lore. I do not nt thiB moment remember one single 
[iaatance, among&t the multitude which Abbe Landrtot brings 
' forward, of the favourable expreBsion of Fathers and achool. 
men regarding tho study of Pagan classics, which cannot, by 
an ap^uication of our formula of the supernatural, be reconciled 
wi' 'iHicting extracts of tho " Ver Bongeur." 

II in baud is respecting ourselves — tho 
rvmedy, not ao much for the NaturaltHm of Protestants whom 
we cannot reach oa of CathoUcs, whom wo can. Whut ia 
to give Cat holic vigour to the rising generation ? and what will 
picaeivc ibeiu again&t tho awful dangers of English society 
—I not only speak of the rich but of the poor — of all, from tho 
' tbo LoKt, — what ? I would boldly proclaim to them, 
".e bbiit of a trumpet if I could, — Realize — learn at school 
to realixe — the Snpcmatnrul. I strongly suspect that scholarship 
will not be the caose of the loss of many souls amongst us juat 
at present ; but will not KaturaliBm ? And suppoamg Pagan 
Lclaauca are too promiueut, and absorb precious time which 
Fangfaft be better "iicnt, how is this evil tirst to be seen and 
tbe-n Ut hv 1 ? Simply, I say, by realizing the snper- 

n»iiir7il who realizes tlie supernatural, truly realizes 

tli> r of things. He sees the multiplicity of things 

**one simple Light, which gives tJiem unity, 
on — in iiiwine Tvo viiifl-intus l»wrn. As 

iitiTttivto ii.;, iiiuLs i^r rvuuir 1 ■ : ' R(i?AV\i^ Vu » 



228 The Oaume Controversy on Ola$tUal Siadiei. 



according to tho simplicity of a siugle law, so with tiio acts nod 
the facta of life, — illuiuinateJ by tho briglituess of the sapoifl 
natural, — each would tend towards ita proper placo, accordiJ 
to its intrinsic worth in the mind of Him who is the AU-WisdoH 
For, tho light of the supernatural being cast upon tho facts aal 
the acts of life, tho eyes of tbo mind can clearly see tho directij 
they are taking under tho supremo law, and inatead M 
crushing thoui or chaugiug their true direction, throngh Ufl 
obscurity and darkness of an uuilluDunated intelligence, it 
sees them, and each ntorement of them, so viWdly in Lbe 
light of the supernatural, that the mind has no difHcolt^ in 
even forecasting their position and anticipating the ordetr 
thot they will occupy, iu obedieuce to tlie mind of the Creator. 
ClassicBl studios are one of these facts. Would \-ou know 
the position they should occupy ? Realize thu Supematunl. 
See them in the I/i/jhl : if you venture to more amongst theni 
in tho dark, your moromonts will result in utter confustOD 
and disoi-der. The supernatural must bo realized; for in the 
sapematural alone is the " hix vera " to be found. 

How to realize the supernatural in detail ; how to make it 
enter into the life of school ; how it illmninatea the whole 
course of teaching; how it throws its light upon the relation 
of master to boy, and of boy to master ; how it dictatt-s 
the conduct of boy to boy; how it gathers into ono tho i^' 
Catholic system, and gives it a unity which becomes 
and more developed as the mind e.\pftnd« and feels its 
further towards truth; how it ox])l:iins the system w 
stands in antagonism to itself, aud lights up its hidden dark- 
ness, and makes ntimifest to the intelligence the broad ch'ASta 
between the two ; those are points which would occupy no 
entire article. Nor have I space left to dcmon.stnite, wen.> it 
necessary, how it is the specific against the noxious atniospht^it 
of English society ; how it sobers the mind, implants in it " 
sense of responsibility, and tends to make men earnest, 
voted, and attached ; how it can make them patterns of 
gentleness, refinement, and nobility, while it sinks the 
of true humility and modesty deep into their souU ; how, 
a word, it has tho power, if applied in its fulness, ttj 
shadow the mere veneering and gloss of the snpertiLi 
tion of tho present day, and create substantial pertt'ctii 
founded, not on lbe frail and perishing foundation u( fashi' 
or toatti, but on tlie immutable principles of Oiristian pi 
sopby: all this, too, perforce, I must for Uie [irosent lea' 
alone, and rest in the hopo that on another opportunitv I may 
he suffered lo develop the thoughts which fill my mind. " 




m 



220 



p 



IN FAVOUR OF "LA CIVILTA CATTOLICA." 

WB hurt pecnluur pleoBore in pUemg berorc our renHcTs the following 
Brief w 

Tba moiit vcigfaty office of Onr tupraiue Apostolic niinUtiy absolutely 
inqnifW tikal with mott intent care we ahoatd iilwafs provide for *h«> 
-pttfComouK* of tliow lliit^pi, uf which we know that they uny conduce in any 
w»y lo prouoti? the cau>e of the (Vthuttc Church, and the salvation of soiiU 
whick lUd bet-D intruBted to lu from God by the Lord Christ UiaueLf. 
Truly, wb«n we new mined to tliis Chuir of PeUjr, by no meritA of our own, 
ittt by tbo worct coiuuol of Divine ProvideDct, we mw and lamented, with 
ikcTedibiUi wmw of lonl, the grievous and nexet sufficiently to be himent«l 
cafausitiM and eTiU which in thcM inobt bitter times arc inflicted ou the 
Cailkolic rvligion, and on civil society it^'lf, by men who hate nil justice and 
tmth, titnm^ pratilential lKx>k-(, paiiipldots, and i<s|M^ijilIy jonruitlti, Klled 
wit h cv«y mon pcmiciond error and evil doctrine, and written with 
^fett bitter and allogetlier diabolicul hatred against onr diviuc ndi^on, and 
^B&ahad and diawminuted far and wide among the multitude. For this 
resf-on, among other things, we did not foil again and again to urge men who 
wm cuduwod wilh piety, ability, tuid ftonnd doctrine, that, principally undvr 
the gn'uhuico. mch nutn of his own biahop, they should by their writings 
aHfttiA ivligion, rWiitc ita assailants, detect, expose, overthrow »o 
pMdtgiea of their npintotiH, and pnlighten with tnith especially 
of onwniy men and of incxpcrionced youth, which may be moulded 
UkM WkZ in an evil direction (Alloc. April 20, 1&49). And certainly we are 




■anKbOit 



ORAVuannm iuprem! Nottri Apo«to1ici miniaterii munuii omnino poctoUt 
[vl itttcatiMioio (ititdio on temper peni^enda cun^utta, quae ad Citholicao 
Qf aniiiiarumque lalutcm Nobis ab ipso Christo Domino divi< 
iMHnfalUB luendam (]aoTia modo cociducore potae cognoscimua. In- 
[ etfte onimi No«>tri moerore, uhi ail lunc Petri Catheilnuu nullis 
I4<Htrii mteritis, »cd an-unu divinac ])rovidcntiao roiuilio, fiiimua eTBcti, 
rHlionnaet UmtrutatJ miuius matirun et niiiii|imm uitis lugcnda damna et 
, i]tauarp«rriniU hisrc l«'nip.>riIiiH ••itTli.ilii.iie religion!, ac vel ipsi dviU 
rtats itifiniiitni .il' .ui.iil)* iiutiiifip jh" v.-ril-itia oaoribua per peatiftms 
Kbc |ihemeriili-fl |X'niii.'io«us»iniui i)uiliuiii(UP erroribiw, 

pcti ...■*, ac Bcerrinirt ct planrdiabulico contra divinam 

■Mtruft n^^iudriiii oiho <.'ouM*nptii8. uc toiij^'c Iiiteiiue in vulgiui e<litaa, ao 
iliiMiiiiiiiirii lintptt* irtff !*lin lm«d nnitKimtiR vinw pietste, inpBmo.Baiiaquo 
dvttja* < XL'ilarc, ut M\h pn^prii putinaunum 

AayM** <m m«tniiii rcltgioneui OMiRndflnst, 

tKKwi illonim ojiiiiionnm portenU 
ituntui ()nie<*Ttim howwwi'Wi.fto 
\-riy:ir in \ Nrjfj limi lucntcs iinimOKjM ^ wAalia NurcCwA 
•c. iiif ^f vtj>riJ. Itmt.) Ac noo vMdUed cc^ «SbcucB»x 




230 Sn/if til favour of "La OwiWi Cattoluia." ' 

filled with no small joy, i»Liice mtuy won haro ercirwhm) amen who, mfiit 
wiUingly obuyiii^' these our exhorttttioiw, and unimiited with udmiraUo I'J 
towanLi the Ciithi>Uc Cburuh And thU Holy .Sov, do not ccui«, with honotit ./i 
thtir uiimCj to oppose with appropriato vritin^,^ the muoil fuul stream of to 
Qijiny Krowing errors iwd tha iatal plngtio of evil jouniaLt, aad to defeutl 
truth luiil jiiHtia>. But, iu order that there should erer be certain appointed 
nmn who, boiitg hcariily devoted to Ua And to Um Chuir of Peter, and 
eminent for their lore of oiir moat holy relij^lon and celebmted for *oofHl 
and solid doctrine and erudition, may be »ble to fight the good tV ■ 
their writing's to dcfcuJ unremittingly Catliolic interoils uid suun : 
And to Tiudicatc the same from the falhicies, injUBtieea, and errnn it 
oppoueuta, we desired th&t certain reUgiotis of the illiutxioiu Sociv<y of 
Jesus should coiutitnte a CoUc^ of Wiiters, formed of memben of that 
Society, who, by opporttmo and sppruprialo writings, should, with nklll and 
lt>uniing, confute so nuiny f»L>e opinions apriiijflng furlh from daj^nca^ 
and «houlil uniiilei-miuingly defend with their whole Ntrun^^ the CothnUo 
religion, ita doctrine and rigbtfi. Which aforcsitid rclij,;ious, most wiliinj^lv 
seconding our wishes with nil obscn'ance and seal, undertook from 
that very time (the year Iti&l); the writing and publishing a joimud cidkd 
"La Civilti\ CrtttoliciL" And, foUowtug the illustrious footdU-ps of their 
predccc«»orEi, and never spiu-ing caro or Inhour, by means of that jounud, 
diligently and wisely ooiiducted, they liad nothing neiirctat heart, than bf 
their learned and erudite elucubmtions m.-uifully to protect and defend 
Dinae tnith of ooi august religion, and the suprcoio dignity, luithurii 
power, and iuteresta of this Apostolic See ; lo touch and propagate 
doctrine ; to exixisc luid resist p^uljculiirly the multifold errors of oar 
uuhuppy age ; ita aberrations ; its poisoned writings, so peniicious both to 



n b; 



laetitiOf cum coiuplurcs ubiqiie surrexerint viri, qai Noatris hisce edit 

tiouibuA »c votia pcrlibeuter obaequcutes, et egregio er-^^ ( ^..n..l..^..... y, 

Hium, i>t hiiiic; Saiii;t;iiii .Seileni Htiidiu uiiiiiiali, idt>iieis ■-' 

scrpenliuiii errurum colluviem, ac futu'Ktaui pnivanuu 

propiilMre, et voritAtcm iiu>titLim>|ue tutari cum sui &< 

nunt, Ut nutcm certi semper cxiMten-nt homines, qui . 

Cathedrae ex oniuioaddiuti, ACKimctU(«inme niMtnic rcligionis . 

solidaeque doclrinae, et eniditioni^ Undo xpectjiti viUoaiit b<' 

tamcn, suisquo scriptij rem catholicum, Hiluuireiiuiuv d'x'trituaui ixiui 

tueri, et ubadveisariorumfiillacili, iuiurii»,H erroribua vin-ii- ,tp 

ut Keli^ioni incl,i|-tij* ijocietAtis lesu viri Scriptorum ' 

tiocietAtis Sodittibus wnHnlum, oonstituerent, qui o|^ri 

totfiUiu ex tenebri-4 einorMA doetrinns naviter scienti?ri^ii 

caihoboun religionem, ciijBi|ue di>otrinam, ao iura toil-) vir 

propngnjiront. Qui Keli^iiwi Viri, Nuutria dtsiduriis 

Ktuuio quitni libeiitixhiiui^ ubai-cimdanles, iam inde Hbant: 

cui titulus La Cirilt^ CtiUuiicii^ poiwcribeudn- : ' ■, - ■ 

iMrunU Atquc iUustriii muionim suorum i. 

,„,H..„M.. l,l,.,rl,„. „n.,„.... ...r...„;.,., ,.■.,. ... 

aui:- 

wain liitiun Ap>>i!l\yUt.'ui.' ».u\c\i\, iv 

rirtiitet tuori, defenders, : ^i 4w:uW.>' 



exhort»> 

i> 1 : 



Brief in favour of ** Lit GiviUa Oaitoliea,*' 231 

CSmrdi uid 8tAte ; and lo repel the Dcfuiouii enterpriMs of tboite who 
ndacnnr to ovorthrDw (if it vero pfiftgiblo), flrom it« very fonndat'ion, tbu 
ClIhoBo Cliarch anJ civil iraciety iUdf. From irhenoe it cosuct tbiit the 
I of the aforesud joarnal hava desenredly ererjr daj obtained for thoin- 
\ ID a gr«»t«r degree onr good will and hi^ eetimation, and the pnii^a 
vcocnblp bnthnm the luihopa, and of [other] moot iUuBtrioiu 
t ; and that their journal has been, and is, held in the (neatest 
valiift by all good and ri|fht-tlj inking men. And oinco from this journal, now 
■bctoao jnin old, do slight bonctiU have redounded to the Church nnd to 
BtanlWi by Ood's Help and to our vast joy, therefore it ia a matter of our 
L dwire tJiat ao adminbte a work ihotdd for ever rpmain in a stiihle 
ilnunihing Btat<, for the adraocement of God's greater i^lory and the 
I of aooU, and for promoting daily moro and more a true method of 

Tlwrvforp, by tbeao iHttT*. by Our Apostolic Authority we erect for ever the 
Mid Jaroit L'oUcgr of the Writers of the Journal " La Civiltii Cattolica," 
Co be filed in a home peculiar to themselTea ; and we establish it 
; to the lawi and privileges which other Collegea of the sume Sodetj 
poMoaa and eifjoy ; in Bucb sense, nerertfaeleaa, *» thai the said 
nuttt bo ta all thinfls entirely dependent on the General uf the 
, And we decree that the contititutjon of this College shall )w, that 
I who hav« been selected by the aud Oeneral to carty on the wud journal 
Eprodaoe otltet writings, as shall appear mors opportime to Dunelves or to 
tilt Bonuui Pontiffi our Suecoasors, nitist Redulonaly devote all their labour, 
iadfeaciT, and teal to (he compoHition and piibliottion of writings for the 
dAoea of the Oitholii^ religion and this Holy See. For which reason we 



pCcM baioB pmecipue infelirimimae nmlnie setatis errares, abenaUonoft. et 

vaMuatasrtipta ctmi duvtitiniie, tuiii r-ivili reiputliciu? tnutopcre pcmicioiui 
dvU^nv, Mpii'.Tiarp, ao nr>fitrioti illoruin coiiatua r«tunderc, qui mthoticam 
KocMiai iinqimii) potaot, ct civilem ipnm aodctatcm fnndiuis ever- 

Caes O01-. 1 ■ Kx i|(iii ermit ut eommemomtae Ephvnit-HiliK iicriptorca 

NeaCzuu UutiToU-utiutii, rt;intiiiintionrnu|ur, rt Vcnrmbilium yratnim Sa- 
ffonun AatUtiiuin, ol oliiri>iiiu(irjtu Virunim Ixiudo^ »ibi quotidie uiu^^is mcrito 
"pUv ' :<• Kplienicrix u btjuis omnibus, ac bene scQlieutibus 

I Pit orit hiibitM, et hutwatur. £t quooiiuu ex huin>iuodi 

Tiuf, «i:x<ii:-citii atthtnc annua vifEcnte, non levia ui mu (-hri^Liiiiiiini, et 
m Tsmpublkun basM, Dao besie iuvante, cum ini^nti aitimi NiMtri 
gndio rednndaruot ; iccirco NoKtritt tn xci\.\a omnino eat, ut tarn pmecUrum 
oyoi ad maiorem Dei ftloriiaii. aT)imi)rum<|U(> Mihit*.'m curaudam, atqna ad 
I itodionuu raltonctn mn(^ in dim iuvaiMlam stabile ^eipetoo consiatat, 
MCiL Itaqnc hi»ce Liiierift id<m Collaghini Soeletatis leau SeripComra 
■W& Tiil,'!^ I .i t'ivtito CnitttftCfi m peenliart if«i* domu bivbondum 
Attctcritate N •uilim, pr>rT>etunmhiiuDdum eri^'iiiiii>>. ''t us 

tuta Ihjrt, ■ . luil'ii'^ .ili.t cinsdem Soctelatirt Iniu Co)l' '% 

tttntji Urn idrm a IVsepoailo (Jcncr ->>- 

caetatu (Iplirrit ITiiiin atilmi ColV;. > .m 

nilaiittUN. itL I ' i clrrti fuonnt atl (•iuuti-m 

Ti' Nuliiii, nut llumiiuiji PontU 

SneDcmnribiu ?• tur, dv\ieanv untB&MncBi 



252 Jirio/ in favour of* La OmUa OaUoUcaJ' 

doerec that the mma writers ccntmue to dwell in the abode which wo haY« 
Luaigxicd to tliem in Rome, those conditlous being observed which we have 
p^prescribod ; and thin until a more conveuieut dwuUing can be obuioed. Ami 
we permit to them that, for the fitlfihuent of their office, thoy ituty jywMM 
uftii-«4 fur printing, and may print and publish booltfl, and vt^ll tbeui, aod 
spread and disseminuto theui far and wide over M coiuitrto*. But the 
rorenaes which exist now, or shall cxiitt hereafter, miut be deruled to 
BUpjiortiu;; and ilaily C[ilaT);in(r the sa:no work, in order that a contiouaUjr 
fp«ikter and utronger force inay be eniplnyeii in opjioaition to so many and 
greot aggressions of ill-disposed men. But, if it should ever happen 
in any ciisc that the ttnid College has to depart from ttiis Our city, ve will 
that tiicy may bo nblo to establish themselves in any other city [at the time] 
mure convenient, which may 1>c named by the Gt'jiuml of the Society of Jerai 
with Our consent and that of the Roman PontitFfi our Sucocasoni, and there 
to fiilfit their oflitv until (the im]>i:diuienta having be«n removed) they may be 
railed luick by the same General to their ancient home. But i^ by chanoe, 
no suitable place con be found for prosecuting the work, then we will thai 
both funds and revenues be reserved for promptly r«ncwiu^ the work at 
first possible moment. And wc grant all these faculties in perpetuity, 

■ only to the present members of the aforesaid CoUeger but to othera alao 
I aludl be elected by the OcnenU in i[ie*c or future tiroes to perfonn this 

vHice ; reserving to Ourselves and our Sut^esKurs atom* the {xjwer of making 
any chiuige in respect to tliis dille;^ of Whtens of the Society of Jesoa ; soek 

V power being entirely refused to all othera, of whatever di^ty, authori^, 

" and degree. 

All these things we appoint, will, concede, enjoin, and cotumjuid ; decRetng 

icriptls pru catholicae rcligiom*. et huitis Sanctae Sedis defenBone. Quodrea 
voluuitis, ut iiilcm Scriptures per^'^itit habitant in nedibus, quns tjisis in Hos* 
pitio hie in Ur1>e haereticiis conveitendis L-uu dcsiinavnims, iis tAmen serratii 
conditionibus, quas prttoscripaimus, Rt<^ue id donee oppitrtuniur dumui onm- 
purari queat. (.'oneedimus aulera, ut ildem pro sui uiuneria ratioac poaatnt 
libnu-ias offietnas habere, librusqne typis in hieem nlcrc, et vf mlere, ac loogH 
hiteque in omnes re>;iunes sptu^'eiv, ac disseminare. Redditus vctry. qui Jfl 
pmescntiit sunt, quique in po&tcruin esse iMterunt, ad opus i! 'cxiMfl 

(uiiii, iw; nui^H in dies am^lilicandum adhiberi debent, ut tot t '^^| 

coniin huminum a>;;^-s»ii(inilms ampliora semper, ac vnlidiiH.i '■nn'^i^^^l 
praesidia. Quod si uiiquaiti miocuuKinc casti cuntigerit, ut cidt^ni Scrip^^^f 
. Colle>rio ab hac ulma Urbe Nostm sii K-txnlendum, volumus, ut ipsi ^i^ 

■ (lUalibet opptirtunionj civii-ute u Pmepotuto Sudetatis leisu Geaerati ctUU 

■ Nostro, et Uonudiorum Poutilii-ruiii Su(Tc<^!Mu^um Ncist-rnnnn cuum'iuusIiiMm 
da, pfj^int consistere, ibiqno ituum munuii oliirv, qiioa<) anintia impedliB^^I 
in prisunam Sedem ab eo<lcm I'moposito Geuciuli revuccntur. Si i^^H 
nullus forte opportunus locus ofkert proseqocndo re{)e>TiMtur. rulumui, u^^H 
fundi, tu in redditus lit eamdom operam resorvt'ntur, mntttn' in-^tatunii^^H 
Ql>i pritiiuui Ijeuerit. Atque lias omnes faculUitt:^ noi' - iomN^^H 
commomomti Col]c);ti Soctis, vei-uni etiam aliis, <|ui a Pi, "nr>f^^H 
idem munu^ ohenndum hoc, futuri^quc temporibui> doli;;<.'uui. "^^1 
modum cono-Jimns, irser^-utn Nobis, ac Suocessoribus N ' '^^^1 
factlttate nliqui'I circa idvm Sociotatis It^u SrriplorumC'onr;;iuut iiumll^^H 

0t aiiia wnuihtu cuiusquc diguiUlia, nuuVunlalut, <£V 1grai^^la \k,u^va vntoi^^H 



thai 

ttha^J 
', nol^H 
• wIh^H 



* in favour of "La Civilfa CaftotUa," 



233 



Um* onr l«U«n and all things tlierctn coiiUiiied— not even ou the 
I thnt any oit^n intcrostcci, or profeuing to he so, tiAr« oot be«n cftUed 
[ haanl, nor •^rD*«l to the forego iujr,— can ever be noted or impugned for 
I of MibRption or obrcption, or for nullity, or for fault of our intention 
'Cm any other MibfltAtitial defect: nor otbenriae in&inged, suspended, 
UiDil«d, or c;Uled into controveny ; &x., &c. 

Given at Home, at S. Pctei's, andcr the Ftshcmuu'a ring, Feb, 12, 1860, in 
(ho tironlioth ynit of Our Ponti6cate. 



Wtbope In our next nunibor to )^ve a geneni account of the Civiitit 
CUbJioa, of it* hiiilofy.and of the importaot work which it has acoompliBhed 
and ia accomplukin;^ Meanwhile, we mxist not dehiy for one quarter to dniw 
aUcntioa to the Uoty Father's express judgiuent, that the jounuti in question 
*'iUHb«*aand is held in the greatest value by idl good and right-thinlunf; 
UMIL* Wa bare a pentonal reason for drawing attention to ihLi. No one 
eta havt Rad the eytnicta from the CivUta^ which have from time to time 
nndcr our head of "Foreign Periodical Literature," mithout ob- 
', th»t ita piincipkfl are precisely identical with thofie, on which wc eu- 
> cuoftiet^utly to conduct litis review. In further illuntnition of this, 
the following passage, whicli appears in the rei^ number of the 
CVmIU ooDtaining the Papal Brief. 

** To <!?hritiiaiiize liberalism ! Such w cnrely a ftight ei fancy higher than 
Pindaric ! .... In wliat niuuner do you think of mukmg lihcraliiuu 
Chrifcttan, and ou g>^«>il tcnus «ilh the Pope i Certainly (vou can only do so] 
■ inducing it fully t« nilinil the fitfllahtts, and condtmn aU tkc errors thtrcin 
rifrcrf. .... Yon think then of inducing it to condemn civil mar- 
I'luoii. Ixsiti). aooomplishcil fncts (lix.',i, noii- intervention Jxii.}, librrly of 
li/H (Ixxrii.), lihcriy vt thought and o/ fA« jtreu (Ixxix.). separation uf 
I Statu froiji the Church (IvA .... Liheraliirm does not consist iu 
a MmlnmrntAl constitution, snd the institutions of repretcntatiro 
bU If ihi>n' were onl^ que»tiiin of that, there would be nodiffictUty 
[ at ui. ' ■ ' AC and liberal ; ko only that the constitution were in 
iity tt Uad ininciplea, snd the national representative* were 

I in ol>- - DAUie. Tne Church is indifferent towdrda any pnr- 

rfarai < ' ' government, eo only it be legitinuita in origin and 

t o|tti»Ui<a yi', :iiif 30). 



i 



Haac nn: iniis. vulumnts cMicedumu, praecijiiums, atque niandamus, 

dccwnu'i, x'strss Litlcns, k in eisooutcnta quAcctmiqiie. ctiniu ex eo 

■lood quilibt:!. ui(A!t«HO hftbentus, vel habere pmetonilcntes vocuti, "t ou'liti 
Doa Aunint, tw pmamiMri* non oonneiisuriut, nulln uniiuniu tt*ni|ii>ro dc »u1>- 
■pttaoif. ' ' < ' ' I'ttaliit, s«u inletitiouiH Not<tnit; vitiu, rel iiliu 

1 IBcCbn ' notari, impu^mri, nut alias infriugi, hU9- 

fB^ rr»innj£i, iiiiiitofij vci in i:i-'utruver«iam vucnri, tiC, &c 



^34 



Itotues of §o0hs. 



The Anglican Theory of Unity. A Second Letter to the Clergy of tlw Diomm 
of BirmiDglmm. By the Ri^t Bot. Bishop Uluithorkr. London : 
Bums & Co. 

IT is a veiy unnsiial circumstance that two works should be simnltaDeona^ 
going through the press, so strikingly similar in great part of thnr 
argument, as this work and the pamphlet of Mr. Allies, which we noticed 
by anticipation in our last mimber. The bishop's argument is in &ct simpfy 
identical with Mr. Allies's, so far as he is occupied with assailing Dr. Fnaef's 
miserable tIcw of ecclesiastical unity, and miserable attempt to defend tkit 
view by the precedent of S. Augiistine. Tet even on this head he pats forth 
one or two very important criticisms of the Eirenicon, which ' had not 
occurred to Mr. Allies. The following, e. g., is the firat Catholic comment 
which we happen to have seen, on the most fundamental of all Dr. Posey's 
errors concerning the Church's constitution ; nor can anything be mott 
forcibly thought and expressed. 

" But Dr. Pusey separates these attributes, and constructs four Chorches 
from them, of which one is inviitible, and three are Tisible. To the one 
Church ho ascribe:) holiness and universality ; to the three he attiibata 
Apostolicity. Thnn ho not only divides Apostolicity from being commeih 
hurato with the C>ne Oitholic Church, but ho divides Apostolicity itself, and 
diuti'ibutes that qualification into three separate comniunioos. Thns fail 
theory is an eclecticism from the doctrines of the Low and the High Chuidi 
parties of Anglicaniflm — nn attempt to reconcile the two at the cost of the 
Creeds. His sympathy with the Evangelicals he does not merely leaye w 
to conjecture ; he tells us plainly : ' I Mlicve them to be " of the buth." I 
have ever believed, and believe, tiiat their faith was, and is, on some points 
of doctiine, much tnier thnn their words.' He accordingly adopts their 
theory of im invisible Chxm^h" (p. 16). 

The Bishop is also the first Catholic critic who has exposed the misenUs 
subjectivity of Dr. Pusey's scheino ; its practical and virtual OTerthrow of lU 

ecclesiastical organization whatever. 

" Little can the advocates of this system have reflected how oftm, and 
under what circumBtances, this theory of a spiritual Cimrch has been raised; 
or what fanaticism, what spiritual solf-inebriating and bitter pride it hu 
called up ; or what social as well as mora) disorders it has engendered and 
juBtiScd. It has been the invariable refuge of those sects miich hare ■■- 
Baulted the Apostolic ministry at ihe Chxot^ V\^^axai^<sG&ia)i%\w«tQitY ; and 



NoticM of Bocla. 235 

if the tTnUtnitto wiiihed to deetrof iostMd of roumting tboM thrw ruible 
oomjuoniow, tbcr coulH uiko no more effcctuid w»y (ban by inculcating 
tfcM Um Od* C«inotic Church of Cbrixt coiiaii>tA 011I7 of npiriltial lov«n, n>- 
[ sU Uuir gifts directly from God. They niiiy mrivc to check the 
^^^ ^laeoost by tuning tbo neoeuity of koidd viniblo Apostolic miui^tjy oa 
Ttwi^inm uf pBce ; bat othoni will not oonsiiier thciiuelvcs bound to foUow 
tiuno into this port of ihvit theory. Evcti Dr. Puwy ban hliuaelf IniruUod 
bflyottd &U bounds " (pp. 20-27J. 

And tb« Author then prooeeda to cite Br. Txaefn part«ntoa8 niggestlon, 
tiat •* Prcfbytcriaus hAve what lA<y believe, we whiit wa b«liere f ai though 
■n uum as a uuttcr uf oottne poaaeased ereiy spiiituul privilege which they 
bdine tbnnselves to ponaoss. 

On the af};;uiuent from S. AugtutUw wo will not here apeiik at length, be- 
caaa m oommented on it in our notice of Mr. Allies. Wc will only rcpest 
what wit said dq thnt ooouioit : vi/,., UihI Dr. Pusey is imperatively cftUcd on, 
t tho very direct and heu\7 blows dealt by the Biithop, or die 
;T. At but cannot poeslbly Iw denied) tlut his wIk)1o reatoning 

I tliti jUn'.^ou Ch\irth la one mass of worthletu bopbintty, 

Thm fblUiwing remarks are especially opportune iit the present tunc, when 
doebiMB nioet ancjaesUonally Csibolic are a^un and again osBaiied as 
** extffae " and as cboncterifltic of a " party." 

** Lm me, before proceeding, take note of this abase of tho word tntror 
memtmu. It is here put offensively for the whole Catholic communion ; and 
1 un Sony to sm Dr. Pus«y guilty of tbe saiuo otiemiveneas in sundry 
jhew, As a contrarersiiil trick, it is simply unworthy ; a sort of substi- 
Mlaoa for the wortl f'fyji^ni. which lust haa grown vulmr. The word C7(ro- 
(wmUium baa a dr'< 1 ^ense as (^)posed to uio word Oalticunitm, 

U be«c» •xcltvivt 1 ir (luettious lekting to the prerogalire* of 

(bo Soweigu PonUlt J', a utilnir scd angeneroui to speak nf doetriuM 
•I Ultmnontaoe, or as hold by Ultramontanes, which urc uniTenully huM in 

■Cathoti c and fiomuu ciiamuniou ; thus leaving the ctfect of on inainnatioa 

tliey are the drKlniic.* of fomc pnrty nmotigttt us. Evou that antago- 

k which existed buiwovti (iiUUauiijitu luid I'llmiuuiitttuiamt as it stoufl 

IJCaown special ground iu Uie rn'rentmith ivtituiy, exists no more. Il 
■ainly owing to thr Fp'urji Cotirt, iui canrtlera tuid Inwycn. Pnsad 
adit during Uw height of the ciiitilMtf cuuld nut lu't[) uotking, that 
*Stanaif •ft|riB4cr> trtepi m Frunct ti il tUiuwablu in Lheee liar's to say thab 
the Oouocil is obovo uiti i'ope.' OAiticanitm^ ai cIauiUn|r <>■> awpnonal 
«Ms4if»«>A /vr Fnitut. >^V(f kiI/i t/i<r ofd regime. Naoolsoo Kiasiwtod iU 
■rtnfi|dw in the Oivanic Articles ; a grote fmml upon toe CunconUt, which 
Im oKqr setrM to kv^ alive a utrenuoiis rniisl«nue to their authority, as 
mil m the pari of the Vreiich Lliutvh, as un thut of tJie Sovereign iVmiiflik 
Smi Ou prtroffotivt* 0/ l/i< iiol}/ Set, m ibvy iire uuivonudiy bebeved 
dknqdbout the Cutliwlic Church, artnol ((f VUnmwntaiu but ^ V*ttiiolic 
dodnmt " (p. SC. :), 



I 



,10 occaiiou fur i^oing further to show itliat the t^lloidtU uicaui 

\n ^.. J menical iiitrrcouimiiiiiyn wliicb wa» exiiltltg hvTun tlu: di%isiuu 

W £m% and Weau' Tbej- aivau that ihe Pojie should cwft* ;V«V*' 

V» alw moAeitimd wb} l/re-ve writers lore to call oaCixvu •_ L\xaxB«nir 



236 Notices of Booh^. 

taues ; it means that we are Papists. And this aasocution tonu out, ia 
effect, to be a society of prayer for the cessation of that supremacy which oar 
Lord established in Peter. ExOer Hall w nothing eUeJ* 

We are very grateful also to the author for making us aoqnainted with 
the admirably-reasoned passage from F. I^cordaire, which is inserted from 
p. 93 to p. 95. 

Our readers may remember Dr. Littledale's language in regard to the fint 
Roman decree against the A. P. U. C. He said that that decree " wu 
obtained by the intrigues of three or four well-known oonTertSf* especially 
that " master of the art of suppression and nus-statement," Hgr. Maiming. 
It now appears that, whether or no Dr. Littledale knew better when he thus 
wrote, at all events the secretary of the A. P. U. C. was at that time well 
aware how absolutely unfounded was the notion of Mgr. Manning having had 
anything whatever to do with the matter. The Bishop had told him, as he 
now tells the world (p. 5), that the Roman decree originated with Cardinal 
Wiseman and with the Bishop himself, who, with unanimous episcopal 
approval, had addressed the Holy See for instructions on the subject. The 
Bishop has made no comment on Dr. Littledale's mis-statement We suppote 
he thought that the only reasonable comment would be a more serere one 
than he chose to place on permanent and public record. 

With a surprise which wo cannot express, we have seen it recently stated 
by a Catholic writer that the condemnation of the A. P. V. C. was based, 
not on the essentially anti-Catholic principle of that association, but on the 
tone and temper of the Vnion Review. This is simply to say, in other words, 
that the Roman congregiition professed one ground, but acted on another 
totally different. The viirious extravagant statements, of which this is a 
specimen, do but show more impressively how distinct and unmistakeable 
has been the ecclesiastical condemnation of the association ; and all Catholics 
owe a heavy debt of gmtitude to Bishop Ullnthome, for the attitude of 
opposition which ho has so consistently maintained from the very first 



The Secojid Eve, or the Mother of Life. By V. Dechamps, Bishop of 
Namur. Authorized Translation, London : Bums & Co. 

PERHAPS English Catholics are indebted for this volume to th« 
Eirenicon. We know the case of one person many years ago, then on 
her way to the Church, who was goaded {us it were) into saying her first 
"Hail Maiy," by way of repitration for the shocking insults on our Lady 
which she heard uttered by a Protestant bishop. In like manner there is 
more than one person, to our certain knowledge, and we believe there aw 
several, who have been driven, by Dr. Pusey's irreverence, to study S. 
Alphonsus and Montfort with far greater zest and far more hearty appreda- 
Mon than ever before. It must not, of course, be foigotten that Mgr. 
Ihcbamps ia one of S. Alphonaua^a spvnVuJL ^^dx^u^ wA ^2bet«,{otQ aa 



KoHces of Book9. 



237 



in hk defeoce. 8tUl, &fler tohIu^ Dr. Ptuej^ it is almost 
to find th*' "Cioritw of Mait'' ihoa epoken of. "Thu ts irrjr 
I tkomuimetCT." miid a friead to the imthor ; ** when I am cart-lea and 
loStrmuttf the treotiw no longer euitft mc ; but vrheo the eve of 1117 bouI is 
WitowJ to its •trttt^ ainl psirity, it finds itself io uniou with this prvcioas 
book " {p. xil). The aatknr. indeml, do«s not agne with this <^>inion ; bat 
luB diMgrwwnt onscs from his thinking snch praise too little. " Experience 
jnrtm dnilr thnt the 'Olaries of Morj' toadiM alnncn and brin;^ th«>ra 
: to God," no Icoi trulj thim it cdittes those who arc interior and tuuntlj. 
DoehaiQiMi's oirn work, howerer, is on a dilTerrJit plan from the 
of Mary," being br more doctrinal and «ysteiiuitic. A carcfttl 
lar foaDdatioD is laid down for the whole devutionol sapentnicture ; 
9 tuicy thftt aereml nfidcra nmy find the present Tohuoc most intei^ 
and satitfactory, who du not rolue the "Glories uf Mary" as that 
•dmiialile treatise descnrca In Uct, the Bthbop of Namur has uuule every 
ckopter a brief du-^utltc essay, close^l by a, suitable prayer. 

Wc n^vd hjtrdly mention — the Bishop Ix'ing a Rcdemptorist— that his 
ihr?otwo appcrtoins throu^iout to that " extreme" or Alphonsine type, with 
whkb we an oonielves far more in aympsthy thoii with any other. He 
flw O w gB iy XVI. OS pronouncing that S. Alphonsns himself ** shines 
iBMig Uw gnatost iumiiiiirirg of the (Church " (p. 80). '* i/oir biiitd do IAoh 
r, *A LortI, irko /tar to «y too wn^h of thy MoUur" .' (p. 27}. "The 
fkilhfnlljr wo fiiltow Lht< Divine order by cnnstsntl/ appnmcluiig Him 
by tbe Ideaied mrdiiim of His Mother, the more shull we find our proyera 
laci— SB in the coufideucc which reudem them effic&ciouH. . . . Do we 
IP Ins directly to GotI by ^ing in oompauy with il-ii Mother?" (p^ 9G). 
*X«I es TcnentA Mmy with all the powera of our soul and all the iflectioos 
•f oat bfmn" (p. Oi^). ^^ There it nothing tchtdi «m may nof Aop^ from a 
bart which is fiiithful to tim deTotiou- a heart which does not Iom bold of 
Ami sum/si rAain by which God has bound the hearts of Hli profUgal 
la all aj^ to Himsell No wonder, then, that theoloKiaris Kive 
Uj Mary a» otu nf tAs moaf eeriain tigm 0/ pmlatiruition " ({k I9£D. 
8. StenisUus Kotska " ncrcr began any action without first tonung to an 
bongeof Maiy to auk her Uening" (p. 108). "The Sun, Omnipotent by 
naXni«T hoc mode Uii Mother omnipotent by grace" ij>. 204). And the oatmf 
•deatiftc ton* in which the volume is written addi threefold force to such 

» lliiiah<iiiii is beantiliiUy executed ; and wc hnvc to expren otir heart- 
I for the boon bestowed by it on EngLutb Catholics. 



' H^itman attd Bitiufp ChaJUnur. By Ber. J. StDDiir. 
RichanlaotL 



London : 



MR SIDPEN writ*s in a moit gonial and kindly tpirit, and Km ■ [food 
wiwd for fvery onr N'»r Kin snylhing bo more eicitiUcmV>)aA&>3ft« 
Ho (hixilu that nmaj Afi^kiiQau m« wm l4&^ 



p ar piwe «/Au pampbkt. 



288 



NoHees of BooJcft. 



prepared to become Catholics, w«re the^ not deterred by titetr nlArm of 
*' UjirioUtrr:'* and bo Tkn^hea to show them that their aWni is $^uad1cM. 

But, although we cannot but profoundly respect both Mr. Siddou'a 

character nnd hia intentions, we nre ol>1tged, nercrtheleas, to think the nieuu 

adopted by him entirely inflppropriute to his end. He lims, of ooane, 

at influencing^not riulent fanatics— but pioiw, intelHtri-nt, and candid 

Anglicanji : yet the truths on wliich lie lays stress are uuch, that no men 

of thitt kind ever doubted them. He points out (p. C) that S. AJphnaann^a 

extreme exprefisions, " howerer mLsintclU^ble by English separatiBU, bua.p 

ft truly Christian and devout fionao ; " nod h« al»o expluiu that, tcoording 

to the belief of every Catholic, our Lady can no otherwise benefit us than 

by her prayera. But tturely it is only the more violent and prejudiced of 

LProteatonta, who have any doul't on then two facta; and the atmubHnj^ 

ihlock of candid and intelligDnt Anglican! is Bomething quito diffi^reut. The/ 

VVould probably have no great objection to our oddresaing the most Btened 

iVirpn from time to time, with> view to obtaining her prayen. What 

alarms them, in the prominent po«ition held by her in the inind of devout 

[ Cfttholica; the extremely ini)>ortjuit place assigned to her worship in the 

nrhole interior life ; the constant and (as it were) indissoluble union betweou 

rihe thought of her and of her Son. For instance (aeo p. U6 of our present 

Kliusiber), pmyen indul^rcncecl by succosoire Popes use such cxpT«aaions u 

these :— "I giro thee [Mary] nil myself;" "I Aoiisecrate myself to tfara 

without reacrvo ;" " JoHeph, nblaiu for tu that we may be entirely devoted 

to tJu Movicc of Jemtt anW ^f^lr^f." As Dr. Pnsey hsa uiged again and atcoiiii 

all this is quite different in kind from a mere pnicUce of oocasionaDy a^ing 

her to intercede for us ; and we do not aee that Mr. Sidden has said ono 

word to lonove this dilUcidty. 

The real question for a CathoUc^s consideration is surely thb:— Docs the 

Church, or docfl she not> conmol the habitual and (as it were) unint^noittent 

thought imd n'membrunco of the Most Holy Virgin f la suclt thou^rJit and 

Liemembronce, or ia it not, an invaluable means of gmoe } Does It, or does 

ht not, give extraordinary help in acquiring a true lore for her Son } If it 

Moes not, then Kurely — considering the fn^tfol prejudice excited in the non- 

roatholic mind by Marian devotions — it is the dictnto of charity grti^tly to 

curtail and pore down thoae devotiODs ; to oeoiio from obtscniiig Uic Month 

of Maty ; to exhibit her images Cur le«s oonspicuously in our churches ; &&, 

&.C. And thin, a9 we shall iiiiniediat4)ly see, is Mr. Siddeu's own pmctlcal 

conclusion. But if, on the contniy, tlie preceding question ahonld be answered 

in the aftinnative, then a ColhoUc will r^ard AngUoui objections to hk 

|Wor«hip of Maiy, just as he reguds Dnitanan objections to his wonhip uf 

pjeans. 

Mr Sidden, we sny.doci! not explicitly treat the preceding question at all ; J 
but implicitly he answers it iu the negative. *' Let us not ucodlaasly add," bal 
nays (pt 12), " to the raireasouing foam of our Protestant fellow-rumitrrmrTi ; 
net u-s in oU uneoinroonded fonn* of wonhlp or devotion in public, thnrihtbl^i 
T^rain from muck Utat, not hcinff MCewary /<<»* ourH^tu. might tend kJ 
■jd^tain our neighbuun in a mere fntgntentaty L1iri.<<tianity" ^p. la). Hal 
MiTino4 of oouno mean tliut, for Uw eak« of not ahockiug Pi-ottatauts, w^l 



I 



Kotirea of Boohs* 



881 



■hould tbgtatn from pmuog fbrw&rd n devotion, ciuinontlf Mmducivo to the 
loFo uf God and of Christ ; aud he must buUI, therefDre. t)uU hnbituji) nnd 
imintenniiting rifrntjon to our Bteesod Lady is iu>t thus conducive. We are 
nnt here nrj^iiit^ ni^iiiil this opiiiiun : we lire ouly pointing out timt luoh 
in th« Kal question at i&iuc, uod tlmt Mr. Sidden nowhmv oonfronl^ it 

We will make one final obwrration. Ltt us here uRaumo, tluit tlio t 
miRircr (o this queittion is contmdictory to tluit implied bjr Mr. Sidden ; 
Ifft OS fliippose accordinf^y, that a number of interior and fervent loula do 
tbfir tfaoiightJi constantly on Mary. Tbeir devout meditatioua will inde> 
finitely diflL-r from each otlur, according to tlic ciromn^taiiccs of penoiutl or 
natfouil character i of cdiiCALion ; of intellectiml power ; of accidental habit ; 
and Ibo like : but in one {XHtit, rely on it, they wilt oil af^ree ; viz., in being 
nnspenkshly startling nnd rppiilftivo to an ordinnry Anglican. It U not tho 
parfteuldr aA<i;M into which S. Alphoiuus and Montfort have thrown their 
nfleotiomi, that repeli such men m Dr. Piucy ; for no two ihapea can be 
more extremely diAerent. It vt not because they arc foreignent and be an 
ED^lishinan, that he finds their devotions so absolutely intolerable. It ia 
becanw their t}i<iu;;hts in any sliapo are fixed so consliint ly, inteudyf reverently, 
nn a cre^itiire. Bel vceu him and devont wonhipper» of Mary lies a broad gulf 
of doctriiud scpamtion ; and wc cannot tliuik that Mr. Siddeii's pamphlet 
will give liim any help for crossing it. 

Wc hav* been the more full in noticmg ikb short pauiphlet, because we 
think that some sach method of meeting Protestant object iutu tindi favour 
with various exoellently-mtentioiiod Catholics ; nnd iM-'cansc ire are eonvineed 
tint it must totally fail It does not deserve suoccss, because it is altogether 
flUlacimu ; and tt will not obtain success, beouue it is keenly fell by all 
ProUatanta u> evade their real difllcultv. 



luofa 
iido-^ 



/prtnsfAl/y iZmrv for June 15th, Ait 3. London : Chapman & Flail. 

IT is certainly a curious proof how large a portion of the Englixh publio 
now gives itA atlctition to theology in general, and to the Unioui&t mure- 
inent in particular, wbiti wo find even tho FortnigJilli/ Htview devoting on 
arliL-le tu the subject lliia id written by the Hcv. W. Kirkus. Its purpose 
is to show that ** Romanian, Ajiglicaai«ra, and Evonj^Uctdium " an ** logically 
idoulical,** as l«iiig based on the common principle of authoritative dogma ; 
and that what Catbolios calls rationnlism is the only form of religion whid) 
ou bfl rtosonikbly embraced. Wo oan sat no trace* whatever of intellectual 
■hmtgr hi the article ; itur have wa observed in il one new remark. Wo 
fbotdd not tbcrcf<:>re liavr tlmti^ht vt noticing it, except for two reasons. 

(1) Wv have n):LiiitaiMed »U iitnn^ in this Review that Ur. rii>ov*s Bironicon 
ElMlf— OS distinct frnin ita antlw^ petMoal tntentions—ia imbii'd with I 
moat tmfrien'lly npirit towards tho Roiuao Catholic Church. Mr, Kirkiu, i 
impartial witnesa, Is explicit on this head. 

" For many a lonir year to come th^ * EiretdooA* will bo ona of the Imm 
taBiabfld ■naoories for those who wlih and NuJcaTOHr to bfwg ai/out i 



240 Notieet of Books. 

dtttrudion of the Church of Rams. It is scarcely too much to say tiiat no 
hock writUn within the praent century has so completely demonstrated the 
hideoutj not to tay bkuphemotu, characttr of popular Romanism^ (p. 285). 

(2) Mr. KIrkus adds on his ovn account that '* no Protestant need hesitate 
to denounce with the utmost scTerity mdi extravagances of Mariolatry as are 
quoted in the Eirenicon, when even Dr. Neurman himself can only speak 
of them in such tenns as these f and then follows a well-known passage from 
F. Newman's letter to Dr. Pusey. But the passage itself as it sbuids in Mr. 
Eirkus's own article, testifies the erroneousness of Mr. Kirkus's statement. 
F. Newman does not odinit in that passage at all, that the writers cited by Dr. 
Pusey have uttered any " extravagances." On the contraiy — as has been more 
than once pointed out in the Month — he expresses his conviction that the 
writers " did not use such sentences and phrases in their literal and absolute 
sense -^ nor will he speak unfavourably of " these statements (u(A«y an /oimd 
tn their authorsy" because he believes that those authors " have not meant " 
what Dr. Pusey supposes. We are the more anxious to point this out, because 
more than one Protestant writer has carelessly overlooked this most importAnt 
explanation, given by F. Newman himself of lus own meaning. 



Etndes JUligietues ITittoriques ei JMtiraireSy Juin, 1866. Paris : Albanel. 

THE Etuda for January, February, and March contained three communi- 
cated papers on the Eirenicon, with many parta of which we were 
ourselves totally out of sympathy. It wiw expressed, however, both in the 
January and February numbere, that "' la direction " was by no means identified 
with these papers ; and we observe with great satisfaction that the present 
number comntenccs a ^;c^ics of articles on the Eirenicon, which promises 
to be of considerable value. The particuLir doctrine to be treated is that of 
ecclesiastical unity ; and the first article examines very satisfactorily the 
question of S. Victor and the Quartodecimans. We hope to avail ourselves 
of these articles, when our own controversy with Dr. Pusey reaches the 
question of Papal Supremacy. 



Dr. Putey's Eirenicon considered in relation to Catholic Unity, By H. N. 
OxBNHAU, M. A. London : Longmans. 

THE Unionist party seems always profoundly unconscious, that those 
writers most opposed to it are no less keenly desirous for the reunion 
of Christendom, than is the Unionist party itselH One would have thought 
it imp(»sible, after the Archbishop's Pastoral, that this misconception should 
continue ; but here is Mr. Oxenham exhibiting it again in its full extrava- 
gance. We cannot, then, express our judgment on his pamphlet, till we 
have made this matter clear. Those Catholics from whom Mr. Oxenham 
meet violently dissents, hold such opinions as the following :— 
^e Cbarch ia m£UIibIe, not only at " Urtja'' axid « yxdax," bat equally aa 



Noiice$ of Books, 



241 



** nMgtttm." The one ftppointe^I way for leanuDg the true road to unctifioa- 
Uoii oftd itlmtioD, is the inquinnt; into her true mlod nnd her pncticul 
to e hi n g. It is true that, in this or that local church of this af that par- 
ticuUr period, the Catholic iua;^1«riuia may be lew fully and piir»ly ex* 
hibttrd than eluewherc ; hnt ihh i.% always becaose the inflaence of Konie 
U thpn> le>» ppnriwive and dnniinant. If, then, lliaw Catholics ore Vt bo 
piliMl who have been educated where the Holy See has k-as inflaence, 
haw ta more deplorable is their lot who are nttiially external to tta 
fsannnunioii. An a matter of mere ChriBtian charity, one cannot be too 
Bealoiu, — by orutimeitt, ejipLinutiun, and evciy other avnilable mviins, — 
in placing emphatically and convincingly, both before Catliolics and I'ro- 
Uiunto, the dirinely-Kiven prerogatiree and privUegce of Kome. And 
ftmher. were a conaideniblo approach realty made to the reunion of 
Gbnatciidotn, such approach wonld be tDUpcnkably beneficial, not only to 
Ibe individnal souU newly imbncd with knowledge of the Truth, but to the 
whole Church ; nay, and to the whole world. Once let all earnest rcUj!;ioD bo 
Iblly and purely Catbolie, the advantage would be quite inappn-oiRble, as 
Hoards whether the BanctificAtion of iniUvidual», or the Cliurch'n iidluenco 
over mankind tn L^neral. 60 vaat, indeed, ia this advantage, that in cvvry 
coantry wh«re Catholic unity exinta, the civil power should use the RinleritU 
furce at tta command, for the purpose of preservuig that unity free from 
■ g g w ion and intemtptioo. 

Sucfc is the langua^ which has beea lued age aft«r age by orthodox and 
•abtJy Catholics ; and no one can aay that luch aspirations after unity are 
Ina ke«a, than those exliibitixl by Mr. Oxenhain. Htn own view uuiy be 
ttfreaied aouiewhat as follows ; though of courae lie is not responsible for an 
oppoocatl'a wording of it : — 

"The Church is infallible in her definitions of faith, but her infaUibility 
** extends no further. As regards all external to these, the Church's 
"pnvBlent opinion ia left by God to depend on pnrvly human and 
'^MCODdaiy causes. Hero we see a peculiar evil, wLi(^ has rasutted from 
**\im divtaiona of Christendom. The Churches jmiWicoI f«acA»H9,aa distinct 
"flrom her deoreea of faith, depends for its purity, not on God's promises to 
**& Peter's Chair, but on the free and uiut^uvUy corrective admixture of 
** conflicting elcnientt. A nd by consequenoe the oocnpantive afaseaee of the 
^ Teutonic race for no many ceutories, baa been a fruitful uraroe of cor- 
^ ruption as to the doctrine pmoticaUy taught The reunion of Chxiileitdoia 
** then is eminently desimhle, as for other reasons, to also in ordor thote mora 
** healthy spirit nuy animate the (ninrch. CatboUce bare almost as much to 
** Uam tmva Protestanta, as these from Cathulica." 

Kow WB are the very lost to undeiHfultnute the contrast between this view 
ud oar own : but it is evidently monstrous to speak as though thi^* diffi>T> 
aooe ttuned. in any degree whatever, on a greater or leas desire of Lliriitiaa 
mininn. It tnms on a question ab»oIutely and totJilly distinct ; viz., the 
diviuf )y-given privilegM of the Cbnrch in general, and of Kome in particular. 
Il is a curious Inatanoa, then, of &tr. Oxeoham's chancteriititi mistiuesH, 
thai ihsro is no profoBiioa of reasoning, throughout his pan^lei, as to Uwwb 
nan wrious quMtiona whicli are really **• ieBne bet«M9ft\u.m%xiil>a>»Ca3dD^aA 
Voz. m.—No. xsiu [New Seriee.^ 



242 



NoHeos of Booh$. 



opponents. He doea not argue at oU, except for coQcltuiont, which hia op* , 
ponents cither thonuolves hoiurtily embmce or at leutt regard u uiideserrin^ i 
of niiy censure. For instiuio& By far the most B}'steniatic counc of arf^ument 
in hifl whole pamphlet, and, wo thint, m every respect the iiblcBt portion 
of it, is from p, 07 to p. €5 ; and to what concliuion does thAt or^ment 
profeMf^Iy t«>ud 1 To the conchiaion that inappreciable bleaungB would 
ome if Christendom were rennited. What iuiaf:inabIo opponent ia hodicant- 
ing of ? Who in there thnt ever thvbted this couclusion f We cannot, 
indcedt concur with ereiy individnal expression contAtned in these page* ; 
but, on the whole, we can sincerely reconuuend them to oar readen : for 
Tery great benefit often arises from being practically reminded of tmtha, 
which npeciitntively no ono evpr thought of denying. Mr. Oxenhara points 
out with undeniable force the rant bene(it« which wonld accrue if "the 
relijnous eneiyieJi of Clirivtendoni were concentrated on a common puipoto 
and a common truth'' (p, 68); if Catholics could devote themselrea exdv- 
sivcly to an appreciation and remedy of erila existing within the Church, 
instead of haring alio to defend her sgaiuKt the attack of enemies (p. 71); 
if Christendom in its visible unity could be a public witness to the heathen 
(p. 74) ; if Christiana in England could comliine ngainat the frightful social 
evils under which their country groans (p. 7i>i ; if they could more unitedly 
contend against scepticism (p. 79) ; and if those impediments to boUnesB 
were removed, which ore bo largely engendered by the " religions esprit do 
corpa," " obtruded " na it is " in its least amiable form " (p. 80). And, for 
CUT own part, God forbid we should raise the cry of '* visionaiy," "Quixotic,'' 
** enlhuaiaat " (p. 63), against any number of men who should make it th«lr 
real practical end to labour against ail those frightful evilg which flow from 
disunion. How strange Mr. Oxenluun should not see, that all this is com- 
mon ground between Iiiip and ouraeWes 1 The one point really at issue is 
this ; whether Christian union is to be sooght in tho way of abeolnte and 
unrvecrred submission lo the Holy See— to all its formal utteranoes, and to 
its whole practical magtsterinm,^or by some different meUiod which Mr. 
Oxenham is to explain. But on t^is question, not one single syllable of 
elncidation or argument docs he attempt from first to lost. He well knows 
the low opiuion which we have formed cf himosathiukcramlareawoer : here 
is an exceUent opportunity presented liini, both f»rrebukingus and for proving i 
himself to poewess ihnt ability which we do not ascribe to him. He has not 
even taken the trouble to glaooe at the argument which has been drawn out 
in this Re\'iew, for the in^Ulibility of Papal Allocutions and EncydloaU.* 
Let hiui (airly confront that argnmcnt and attempt an answer. 



* We say that he has not even glanced at our argument^ for this reason : — 
He ooiisidcrs us to hold (p. 4o, note) that " every passing and inciilenta! 
expression in such documeuts is verltally inxpired ;" whemM if he hail so 
much as glanced at any one thing wo have wntten on the subject, he would 
have 8(*n that we rt^rd such "incidentnl expressions " not only aa not 
" verbally inspired," but not even aa in aulwr.wce inriillihly tmo. Wo have 
(jiiit*' invariably conflno<l the claim of infallibility to tho*»e doctrinal instruc- 
tioBs trjlricii are dfrectt)t eonveyed, m ttislinct from " passing and iooidailal 



KoHces of B/vJes. 



243 



And (Ui vili be * good pUoe far tayiag «hkleT«r u -oKitatuy, on h» 
VAriew critiauntt of ihU Berier. tlmt ^ 44; h« sapposes Out Dr. Pom; 
1ms pratelted aguiat ■ome pvticular doctrine ftf Papal iufiillibUttT, pni 
forth in Ihii Rerier : whcnM in enrj am Dr. Piwey pnK«ft«d» ttM 
■gaiiui 4D7 cUim put forth in fchu Berirv, bat BgahiBi the abnu pot 
forth &y tks Pofa hima Uf . Mr. Oxentuun's maappRJieiuion U tb« mora 
ttUMoUBtable, beontse be expresty dtes ^ 44, note) tiro difltixwt puagca 
of the KraucDO ; aad the Intgmge d both is quite anmistalceeble. In 
p. B»0 Dr. Pnaej ^eeln of "the dum now nu»«l ' by " 1A« Eneyt^ieaX 
of 1664" (p. 288); adding (d.) that the Dcblii; Rc^ixw has shown roch 
oLun to hare been nally made by that Encyclical. And in p. 303, which 
Ur. Oxeuham also cit«s, Dr. Posey ia not alluding to thu Review crer 
w dictant^ ; but ipealdDg of ** tbe in&lUbility daimod " for Filial decrees 
by tkt rvomi S}fiabut. Nay, in a note at the preceding page. Dr. Pusey 
actually oooipIainB of this It«Tiev, as M.ytdtntatiHg the iloctrine put forth 
liy Piiu IX. on his ctril princealam. Lastly, no one, who fairly examines 
Dr. PiBoy's citations, will dontit that the Pope does daiui the fullest extent 
of infallibility which we hare eTer ascribed to him. Consequently the 
^ itnuilp anertiona " and " startling eccenlricities," on which Mr. Oxenluuii 
OdBtmeiitB (p. 44), an nothing less than the authoritative declsiations of that 
Pontiff who baa been appointed by God as " the toftcher of all Chriniiana." | 
The anthoritatiTe teaching, we say, of Pins IX. is denounced by Mr. Oxen- 
ham ss a "* Ktortliag eccentricity.'' 

Mr. Oxonham also commenta (p. 39) on our " somewhat tardy aduuBion " 
that this Rovtcw "is now a purely private and unoffictsl poriodicaL* What 
SW lb* £HCis ' III Jftnuaiy we aaid accidentally that uhvii it wu the 
•dmittfid or^D uf Canlinal Wtsctnan, it had more ditim on Dr. Pusey's 
attention than in its prenent **part>ly private and unofficial " position. A 
oorrespoudfrut of the Wtrkly UtyisUr drew attention to this statement, and 
Oflded that a diffcrvnt iroprearion had been widely prevalent as to this 
Bevitw't renl diaraotar. The Editor wrote that rery veek to the Reyimr^ 
•lalbg that be had had no idea bcforv of such a miaeonoeiption exialing ; and 
that otherwise he should have contradicted il for more einphiinoally. An 
exphuiatJon is not iMually considered ** tanly," whirh is |iiit furth the very 
moment one heara of the misundetxtanding ; but in thia oaae ve aoetdentally 
nado it ewn at a somewhat Mrlitr period. 

In other particulars Mr. Oxenliom's language about this Renew exon- . 
plifles a gcncial oud imfxirtAnt truth. His notion of large-minded noaa, is to 
see imieflnita good in almost eTsryfonn of religious error ettpnisl to the 
riiurch : and to it^jard <ne set of opiniona, almoat atona, as simply coif 
txmptiblo and df^tuatabla : ihtl OM MoapCcd diM oonilrtingof CatboUea, who j 
prafaM unroserred lubiaiaMOB to the Holy Father^ anthoritat ive teaching. In 
behalf ufthosA whom he •oinewbere c^** Roman UltnuiioniAQes," he has 
B0t one syltoble of sympathy or oxtenuation. Hr> exprrssra his " conviction^ I 
(p. IS) that Anglioan (sbamium "will find not only its needful convotiTo. 
bnt u plau an*f a honu la a founited ChriiUndea :* but ha has nowhofo 
aUcnrpted to »T|)lain bowMKh a C%nrch as he drsty« ia to couttuxi \!Q«Wi Vm 
lioMRly bold mtMutcoUato doctrine. Ilo concun in VbA'yt^iw^^^'*^^^'*^^ 



244 



KotUca of Boolfs. 



tbe InnguAge of tho Yea. Grignon de Hontibrt Is " nuschicroua and] 
bereUcal ;" though lie qualifies liU concurrence by an ftdmismon that it is 
not HO in the sense inteiideLl by the writer (p. 4S). Thits Mr. Oxeiihani 
spoUu of laagiia^e, vhich liu be«n iitiUiuriUitivcly decided at Rome to be 
free from uiytbiu<; tlieolu^ically c«mtumblo ; Huch id liia syriiputhy wttk 
error, and sucb his antipulhy to tbe Truth. And so it has crer been. AH 
fonns of error ever gmrttate townrda eaoh other ; while they are evoi- in- 
tolerant of the one exclusive Truth. 

But tJiiit asHUui|}lioii of lu-yc^uiiiided apprcciatiou on which wo haro | 
just Apokea, is surely not leMi unreal than it ia oQcniure. In ]l 95, j 
not«t ho quoUis from Mr. Lccky a statement, aa beui^ substantially true 
tboujjh exnpgemted, that " the very nton who would once have been 
conspicuous saints ore now conspicuous revolutionists.'' He then proceeds 
on his own ncouunt to improve on Mr. Lecky, by adding that " there ar« 
poinlfi of cout&ct between the chanictcrs of «S. Bernard and Qtmbaldi ;" and 
further that the uihcist " ShcUcy had the making of a Boint in Aim." We 
do Mr. Oxenhaiii the jiutice to believe, that he ii^tes such wordi with the view 
of exiubitiug bis huj^e-miudeduess, but with no definite meaning. 

There is one other conclusion, in addition to that luentioned ld the earlier 
port of onr notice, fur which Mr. 0.xenhain does argue ; rix., that varioos 
poxtie* in the Church of Enghind are for bett«r disposed towards OathoUcinnf 
than iti]p<>jir9 on thu surface. We think hi« remarks on that bend nndoTiafr- 
in^Iy crude, shallow, and feeble in the extremo ; but we have no room left 
for replying to them. The question is n perfectly ojK'n one ; and any 
OatJiolicM uiI}^itgo Mr. OxenbamV wbule length in a hu{>erul view of Angli- 
canism, without being at all mixed np with his theological errotv. Cardinal 
Wiseman, eg., na Mr. Oxenhnm has pointed out, at one time of his lifo 
entertained so sanguine a view, ita to astoond the present writer eren when 
him.'M^lf an Auj^lican ; and whicli appears ou retrospection even moro niar- 
%'cllous tbin it ap|)«uvd then. Put Mr. Oxeidiaiu ha<i not shown, nor can 
he by potMiUlity show, that the Continal expreasc<l .auy idea by tlie tcna 
" iinioa," except thiit of tho most absolutely unroscr^'od submission to the 
Holy See. There is no good Catholic, then, who would not be delighted, if 
be could bring himself to believe that the Cardinal's sanguine anticipations 
were really based on solid fact 

As to this matter, (hen, we will make but two commenta on Mr. Oxen- 
horn. Piratly, even if the Anglican clergy and laity were aa much inclined 
aa be aupjioses towards '* retmion" in hi* sense, — it by no means follows that 
they are disposed to tlut humble and nnconditionid submiitsion, which is 
really exacted of them by the Church. Secondly, Mr. Oxenbam'a great 
Anglican authority is throu^out Dr. Fusey. Kuw, only two yean ftgO 
Dr. Pusey so des]:>onded ou the pnxspccts of bis own communion, that he 
lOKlitated seoessiou from the Establiiihmcnt 

Uowover, it would be, of course, a simple hapiiineiift to any piod Catholic, 

if ho could bolie\'o that submission to the Cluircli throughout Enghind is 

jin.biiblc on a large scale. The project of (orj/ttntti uni'iJi ^Luids on totally 

rJjjrifji'iit ^Tinuid. lu this Review we have ngnin and again oxpressetl one 

Mmp/c objection to iU God has impoaod on all men n precept of submitting 



Notices of Books. 



2-i3 



tttiMBenvdIy to the Boman CiiilioUc Church. This preempt bind;* all witiiiMit. 
cxcoplioTi who Imvc me^iM of kiiowiiif^ it ; or in other wo^].^, no iiiilivitltial 
in ilUpciuu.'tl fruui it exix'pt l>y iitrinciblc i^oranoe of ils cxiatcncr. Nor, 
ou tha other hoiitl, ciin any iiuii W a<1iiulieil into the Catholic Chim-h, until 
be MievM Uiat Ihia procvpl haa been giren. Sappose an Andean btt>hop 
becomes convinced thnt tbti precept has been imposed. 'Would Mr. Oxcd- 
bmn hATC him diescmhlc his conriction, and continue U.* exerciac (^i9coi<iil ' 
(unctions in n society which he uow kriovs to W M'hiHiiintKul t Such a pni- ' 
pool Mr. Oxcnhum would undonbLcdly etit^nuiti/^ im nn- English ; but I 
w« hope he would alito pronounce on it tho iiunieasumlily more im* { 
portont oensuro of On bcin^f un-Chriatiau. Unlew, therefore, you suppose I 
whokeala episcopal hypocrisy, and that of the most frightful character, tlio 
pioapect of corporate reunion resolres itself into this. Mr. Oxeuhum mu.Ht 
expM* that, some day or other, a lorf^e uiajority of Anglican biidiopti, with a 
great number of clen;^ and laity, shall be struck at one and the same 
moment, as by a light fium heaven, with tbo sudden convietion that this 
precept of rabmission has been imjMWMl by Clod. Even then one does not 
•ee whnt advanUigc woald be gaine<l by their stibmiiision bein;* made 
ooUedively rathor than snocoisively. But to atiLiciinte euriionitc reunion, h 
to aatieipate either that Qo<l will work an ustonnding and most unprecedented 
ninde, or else that a nuinlxT of Protestant bishops und clerj^y shall l>o 
guilty of the basest treacbety and tiy|K>criHT. Wc hare urged this ui^funipnl 
again and again in former numbers ; and this being a parlicolnr on which 
naaoning is mlly needed, is of course one oa vhich Mr. Oxcuham has not 
attftnjtt<ti to reason. 

We will conclude by aniinfldvcrting on three isolated tbet^ogical state- 
menta. 

t. " When Anglicans become avare how completely the recent definition " 
of the Inunaculate Conception, ** — apart from any question about the bind- 
ing authority of Papal Bulls as such, — was endoratd^ or mther anticipat«d, 
by the verdict of the Miuiu JUItliuvt, they will not be unwilling to accept" 
it **as a doctrine*' fp. 54). Ortainly Mr. Oxenham has liberty to thiuk 
that the Papol definition of this doctrine was not infallible, apart frr>m 
episcopal tiAsent. But the abure words contain no reference whatever to tlio 
OathoJjc Episcopate ; and most peraona will ondeniand them as implyintf. 
that the "endorsement" of tho minu/iihliuM is reqoiaite as a condition of 
inblljbility. Mr. Oxenham, of couiw, cannot intend thii, because ho is a 
OftUiolic ; but w(< wish ho hml ur)t cxpreased himself in words ao ixpiti to 
idaapprehrnsiou. An it is, wc caiiuut eren eoQ}eoture his meaning. ^ 

8. Mr. Oxenham con^idrni (p. Kl) ihnt the Photian schisni was "the ^l^H 
gnat sdilam which not the nnlty of Christendom," and thn Refontialion tl^^ 
■oooad. Sudi language h moat intellij^iblc front an Ant*liean Unionist ; for 
be thinks that on both these oeeaalons true bnuiches of tlie Chunili be^pm Ut 
rimain separate from each other. But what can Mr. OjmJiam ponihly 
toean by the statementf Was not the Ariau henay a feorfVil "rent in the 
unity of riiri*t<!udrint '" and the NesloriaD J and the many branches of tha 
EuUrliiiLn t And did not all ihcae ptrcolc thr VWiVion^ 

3. Mr. Oxoaimm {p. 41) czpnstH iigTCcmeut wvibk ui o^wiiix>3baX''>: 



246 



Notices of Books. 



Church Catholic ocloiowUdj^ no other authoritative stendards of teadilng 
than . . GcaenU Council*.*' Ho rDj;anlii it, no doubt, »a of motJl 5coouii^ 
that this error has been expreaaly ooodomnetl in the Munich Brief ; yet in 
the pr«aeni c&w, at all ereote, doferenco to Papal authority would hare 
saved him from a palpable blunder. For it foUowi from such a view, that 
during the fint thrci^ hundred years of her existence the Church had no 
"authoritative stamiurd of teaching" whatever : except, indeol, on any doo- 
triuol matter decided in the Apostolic Council of JeruHulem. 

Here wo cloae our remarks On the personal charocteriatica displayed in 
this pamphlotf wo porposely abstain from exprcssin;; any opimou. 



Dr. Pjuiffi Eirenicon, A Review, by GBaAi.D Mollot, D.D., Professor <rf 
Theology at St. PatricVe College, Maynuoih. London : Longnuma. 

rpiHIS ia Ota reprint of an article which has appeared in the ''Iriih 
A. EcclceinBtical Record.'* Wo most heartily reoommond it to our reodcn ; 
fur while ita tone \i most courteous, its principles ore most G&lliolic, and its 
orgumcata moat forcible. 

In regard to Dr. Pueey'B Marian citaldoDs, Dr. Molloy pointa out that no 
oce wlio hii» been educated n Catholic can by pueidbiUCy minuideistand 
"ambiguous or exaggerated'* phrases, even should he meet with auofa in 
Catholic writers ; becaufte *' it has bees mgHMtd on hu mind from earliat 
infancy as the fixed unalterable teaching of the Catholic Church," that ^ iho 
honour which ia duo to the Blewed Virgin is vuty different in kind from the 
hi>iinur which in due tu God" ip. 2Ji. And in his wtioli? tn-atmeiit of this 
delicate subject, the author, we thiiik, exactly hits the happy mean. On 
the one hand he hiui no wish to cxtouuute .'Uiy doctrinal err\ir which the 
Church may have oocdenmed ; but, on the other hand, be doefi justice to "the 
deplh and tenderness of deToliun " (f*. 22), which are Maiy'a due, and rejoices 
that a Catholic should *' rush eagerly to her as a child to the embraoea of hia 
mother," interchanging with her *' fond endeonnente ** (p. 21). 

On the infoUibility question Dr. MoUoy is equally snlisfactory. He main- 
taina confidently (p. 16) that the Church is infallible, not only in her formal 
decrms, but in her whole practical teaching -, norliavo we auywhoro seen this 
doctrine more clearly exprcssetl in a few worda. As nigards her fonnul decrees 
themselves, he protests ogainst Dr. Puaey'e notion that any Catholiui consider 
her to be infallible " In tbc incidetUal itatcnunlt, or the aryumaitM, cv<?n of a 
dogmatic bull " (p. 34). Again, no pronouncement can he considered inCmible 
even in snbetanoe, " unless it trails of some question which apiwrtains to faiUif 
[directly or indirectly] and unless it be addresned [in eScct] to the umversol 
Church" (p. 32). 

So much on the "object*^ of in&Uibiltty. As reguda its "inbject," Dr. 

Molloy considers that " the belief in Papal infalUbility " i* now very t^neral 

in tlie Church, and that it may ponibly become at some future period the 

fuf'^t o/a/»ri)%al c^mfion ' ^p. 20, 301 God grant this in Uis own good 

time t 



NoHees of Sookt, 



247 



Th* Firsi Agt of CKriiiianiiy and the Church. By Johx Iovatiub DOl- 
USOBS, D.D. IHosUtcd by Uxmut Nutcokbe Oxzsuam, MJL 
Lomdoti : AJIcd & Co. 

OUR readera are veil ftwnre that ve profouDdly dirtrust Br. XKillmger, 
and roiisidur bU recent course opposed both to tnie theologicnl 
prxflciple and to the iuteresU of rcU^OD. There ia no occasion, however, hero 
to eipruM our reMoiu for this opintoD, lu the work bcforo us occuplcn ground 
Almost eotircly cxt^msl to the poiuiB at iiuue. We do not deny, indeed, that 
wo Dpca ony vohiiue of his with ao antoceilent pr«Jndico ; on thv contrary, 
we maiotutu llut such is the legitlninie attitude of a good Oitholio's mind : 
hot we have huneatly endeavoured to ettimate thin work £urly on ita own 
marita, 

](a idea leouu to tis lulmimble, nud (so fiw as we know) quite origtuai The 
anthor ooiuldert that tiuch a continuous huitot; of the Chiixtiau Cbuxch u ho 
oonteinplnt(» in future volumes, if it is to lie rvaily sstisfactury, iduiuM bo 
pncodcd by a osruful trealuent of our Lord's ministiy and of the Apoelolio 
period ; and that such tnatrarnt should be mainly grounded on a most carc> 
fol and exhatutive study of the New Testament Such, then, ia Dr. DoUin- 
gcr's cxctllc-nt plan. Tho execution of that plan Monu to us varying in 
xniitit. In many iKtrtiond itisAsaduitableasthepbnitsdf ; in olher portions 
dd^ocUre ; in a few, even deeerrinj; of reprehentnon. And our rttaden will 
the better understand tho tciuwn of this variety, if they oomldor the author's 
peculiar characteiistiGi. 

Of those Biudica which are appropriate to a CathoUc tlieologian as suoh 
— puttiuj; aside those merely philoMfphical — some an punnied with fully 
«(}qjU (|iexhaps, alas 1 with greater) zeal by Proleatants ; while there are othcn 
of which tho PiutcBtaut world hardly knows the existence. Of this UUar 
kind is the acicniific masbeii.- of Dogma as a whole ; a^pun, Moral Theology ; 
ud agsin, Aj>4X-tiud and My^cal : of the fonser kind u inquiry into tho 
nature and extent of insptivtion ; critical cxrgeus of Scripture ; oritiosl 
examination, both of ocdeiiasticiil history in general, snd of doctrins] de- 
yriopment in particular. Xuw mo do not object at tUl to the mcro fiuA of 
Dr. Dullinger hitvitig ^iveii tut mora profound attention Iq the latt«r than to 
the foruKT class of a(udii!a ; for we believe that a largely increased division 
of thcolofpcal labour is smoog the exigencies of the timck But we do think 
(1) thai vnrj CsthoUc tb«ologian of eminouce shouhl pow ew more acquaint 
ance with tlit? foruior diuM than the present author displays ; and (S) that 
Dr. Dulliu^er muit uufortunately and narrow-mindedly undcr^Ktimates thoao 
ifatdies which are not to hi* own taste. The hugusge, iudced, on schohutlcism, 
vUeh he held in hi* celebrated ii»eech et Munich, is absolutely identical with 
what the (Irnrch fans stnoa oondomned ; * and wo think that these volumes 
present abuudaul flvMeDee oi a rimllar spirit. 

For instance; Consiilcriug the siionnous (trejiunderance saumied hy dogma 



* See SylUbue, pxop. 13U. 



2-18 



Notices of Baohn. 



in the ecdcaiusticAl bwloiy of every age, we cannot tkuik that he has here 
Uid down anjthiD^ like »n adequate doctriniil fntmdiitioD for hU future 
vnlumes ; on the contnirj', we liold that specWIy dogmutic investigations 
should occupy at leaat ten tinics tlie Hjmce which lie has a*ai^u?d to theni. 
No enUrrpript' can well be imagined, either more important at this time in 
it«c-tf, or more sen'ioeiible for n rt-al titudy of ecclesiastical hUtory, than to 
examine in detail the full evidence furnished by the New TeBtament — (I) 
on the bcMly of dngina rec«iTed by the Apostles from otu Lord ; (2) on 
the doctrines taught by thoni to the Torioiu classes of their converts ; nud C3) 
on thn prtrticuUr shnpi- in whicli they cxprcibtcd those doctrines on this or that 
occfuion. This is what Dr. DoUinget'a ondertaking required ; but whnt in 
our judj^ent ho has by uo means accomplished. Wo lu-e far from under- 
valuinj; the singular power and skill which ho has displayed throughout in 
bringing together from vnrioos parte of Scriptore, and combining into on© 
vrhole, a vast number of scatttrcd doctrinal rcfcrencea. He haK fulfilled bis 
own conception, speaking gencraUy, with remnrkable completeneas and 
aoootts ; but the conception itself (ai we have said) seems to lu csaeatialljr 
defective. 

We could easily illustrate oar criticism from various doctrines ; but our ' 
limits confine us to one instance. We will take, then, pnrjKieely one par- 
ticular point, on which we (i.e. the present writer) warmly concur with Dr. 
PoUinger's doctrinal view. There is hanlly nny more critical qnestion, in 
oxumining S. Paul's view of Justification, than the drift of his constant con- 
trast between " works" and " good works." It is admitted by all Catbolica 
tliat the latter term means with bun ** works fotmdcd on faith i" and that he 
always considers " works '^ iisdiifering in this respect from "good woika." But 
it is a most important question, whether by the term " works" 8. Paul geno- 
tally means to express " actions morally good, not founded on Dutb^ and of 
the purely rutturol order ;*' or whether he attaches to the tenu some sense 
altogether di^erent. Dr. Dollinger (as we understand him) adopta the lattor 
alternative. We roust consider, indeed, some among his incidental aLite- 
ments of doctrine as mistaken ; * still we think that on the whole he haa 
thoroughly seized the tnie drift of S. PatiTs teaching ; and we cannot but 
wannJy ndmire the power with which ho boa broaght together, within so short 
u compass, so large and well- connected a gronp of Pniilino dicta. But why 
rfuf he confine his treatment of the matter within so short a compaits 1 A 
full syateinatic exhibiticHi of S. Pnurfl teaching on Justification could not, 
we verily believe, be presented in lees than half a volume of the alio 
before us ; and we n^Hll here mention only one of the defects which acbe^ 
from the brief treutment adopted by our author. 

Tlie Church lian pronounccil variuns most important judgments againal 
Rtins and Janseoius. It would not of course be appropriate to have coo- 



• Thus, " Th€ fffrm Khich righttoHtne*t takt» in man^ Paol calls /nith,'* 
^^nn*ft " righteinisneiis u noth ing rht Ihaif faith " (vol. I p. 273). " Hope, lovr, 
fear, tnist, huuiilitr, steadfiistnesa, and xoid all art comprUfd iu JuHtifring 
faith " (p. 274). 1^ hingUBgo also about original sin, in p. SM, strikes tis as 



incorrect. 



Noticea of Books, 



249 



kirlMnd in tlie present work thasK judtfiuentM na sack ; bnl it wna iiupentU-cly 
railed for that S. Paul's i1i>etruii>, in diiqnnj[ement of "works," shoiilrt he 
tlrawti out with ho much fulnesM and iLccuntcy, as to ahow it» ci)iii])lcic lUit- 
iinctncH from all those orrore which the Church HfterwarHs conJeuined. Bnt 
to do this ftdvqtutely, would re(|uiro a larger and d«>per scientific mastery 
of dogma, thiin 11117 which (so far as wc know) Dr. Dolliuger has ever 

Imiccl, w« niaj go further. We fuUy boUere indeed (as we hare wiid) 
Uiat Uw antlior d(M^ not undcratond S. Pniil to uso the word " works ** lU 

' er p WBiu ig " morally good vrorks of the natnnU order." Wc arc led to tUs 
opinion, not only >'y various oxprcss stAtcincnt^, but by the whole drift of hu 
docirJn&l cKi><i»ition. Yet he ha5 not by any means expressed this elenientary 
propoiitbn with tbe vleamess which was desirable ; and still leaa has ha 
girea any distinct explanation of what S. Paul does mean by the tann. In 
]X S0& this obscurity is especifllly notable. He suys, firstly, tbat S. Panl 
etptTssBs by the term ** works wlion the mere outward act, and not the 
principle or motive, is the thing ooasideivd f and tmch works of ooaiae an 
for the most port not morally good at all. He then Enya that theee ** works " 
" are dooe indeed from obedience to a command, but from a sclfi^, blind^ 
ilaTiah obedience ; " from which erplanation no one, wo think, will derire 
any precise iuiprcMiion Hbatcver. Finnlly, he adds, that tlioy are "works 
which the unenlightened man, left to himself, does from his own natural 
powtn ;" and this phnuc rather points to the interpretation which he ntarted 
by excluding' ; viz., tbat ibey are momlly good nets of the natural order. And 
if tho reader will carefully examine his language in pp. 35^^ 261, 264, 973, 
S79, S40, 2A4, he will find suvenU instances of similar indistinctness and 
apparent vacillation. 

Wo have been obliged by oar Umlta to take an instance from one parti- 

cnUar portion of one particular doctrine ; but remarks more or less similar 

migbt be made on every part of Apostolic Dogma which he has treated 

at all 

And thia very phrase reminds as of one doctrinal subject which he has 

\ nbMlotaly omitted. Surely, considering the immense development of Marian 
Atrtfiim which has grown up in the Chiircb, it was iucumbcut on Dr. 
iNilfingar — in order that in bis siibttequent Tolumea be might appreciate that 
dtTotkm'— to examine carefully tbe question, wh:.t the New Testament 
dadares concerning the Mother of God ; to cxpnas on opinion as to the 

I digrat of Yeucmtion in which she war held by tho Apostlea ; and on tho pUcc 
irUoh aho occupied in tho Church, wheihor boforo or alter htr Son's 

I weanaian. In vol i., p. 173, he explains Apoc x\u 1-0 without any 

' fanDOStoonr lAdy, sncl (so far) in direct ronlnwliction toCalholirsi'ntintr-nt j 
bill oil positive mi-nllon of the Mont Holy Vi^n ha seems, as if on ] 
to have carefully avotdod. 

In ToL L, (L 3E2«, ihc author amaics us by saying that " the first deposit 1 
JucUinc •■ — by which we understand him to menu the doctrine delivered by^ 
the Apfwtles during their life — "con»wtiHi uiatuly of factJi, jirinciplcs, dog- 
luatiL- t/trmM ftiid indu:ai\ffu.'* Why, we need nut go beyond these vulamas 
tut an uvcnrlu'buiog refutation of »u stmngc a thought. Road that veqr 




2S0 



Notices of Booles. 



compnsMd and pregnant analyBia of S. F&al'a doctrin« on Justification, to 
irhicb vo have boon lo Teccntij referring ; is that aioomblAgc of beratiAit j 
doctrino a mere germ f a mere luimlwr ot/iuU / or of prineipla t orofituifc- ' 
MttoM f And whether one reaiU the anthor'B account of our Lord's teadi- 
iog (toI. L, p. 23 to p. 47) or the wbole seoood ohapter of hia second book, one 
is strack vith ever-inoreasing ostoDishment that the theolos;iant vho wrctte i 
theso expuBitioiu, should have expressed him&elf in the strange miy onwhioh 1 
we are ouuuutinting. | 

His tranalutor is even more obriously self-oontnuliotot^. In Or. DoUinger 
the above exprcMioti scctna to have been (as it were) casual and incideutal ; 
but Mr. Oxcoham quoted and laid eaniest streas on it, in an express treatiso 
on dcvelopnicut Yot in Im prdoce (p. ix) to the present vork he give* an 
opinion, we think a moet just one, thAiS-Pnal's *' statements "ou justification < 
are '• fuller '' even tiiaa those of the Tridentine C^inciL 

We regret to odd that Br. Dullingcr's inadequate dogmatic study ha» led 
him to one £ar more serious inadvertence. In voL L, p. M, speaking of our 
Lord's agony, he sayn, " a jxuting vsith eame ovtr Him that, if it vcre possildo, 
thia chalice of agony might poM from Him . . . But ikt not vnatoHi tJi* . 
clear rtlumin^ coniiciDURueaa of the trrefuvable couiutel of God InitrnfAsii in I 
Uiui." And this unluippy mistake leads us to lay grenter stress tJuia wa 
should othci'wise have done, on inaccorades, much less aetioas but in the 6aud 
direction, which occur in pp. 7, lu, and 16. 

We have said so luuch on the rjueatiou of dogma, that we can but most 

hrieily expreca a similar remark on that of ascetics. There is a most defioito 

riheory of the interior life pervading all Catholic asccticul works, and con- 

Unsting emphatically with Protestant " spirituahtj.'' It would be a mo»t 

ISm|)ortant and iutemting task to exhibit the ])rof<:iund bnnnouy of this theoiy 

rsrith the Apostolic teaching, and with our L<^>rd's mcred Words. Now we ue 

Teiy fkr from wiiihiog to unclervulue llie ndminible remarks mode by Dr. 

Ddllinger in voL ii., pi>. ISl-l^ri, and elu^where ; but do one will say that bo 

Ufls seriously applied himself to such an enUTprisc as that above sketched. 

"Yet it was an enterprise, we think, entirely callc<l for ta a foundation 

for his subsequent history. And it is n consequence of this unfortunate brevi^ 

on dogma and on ascetics, that snbjerts, which might liave been made tnn- 

•ceudently ioterestiug, asstune tn these volumes a somewhat dry and n> 

pulsivc appearance. 

We wish we could have left ounelves room to dwell on the more simplj 

favourmblo aide of our oomracnt. A-i tbinjiiis arc, however, we most be btief 

in expressing onr most hearty and unqoalitlcd sdmintiou of many portions. 

Th*! second and third chapters of the first book, and almost the whole 

second volume, arc most exceltoDt and instructiTe. We wonld porticolariy 

refer to Dr. DoUinger^s treatment of the episcopal question (vol ii., 

pp. 104-141) ; of the j^npiV/jarA (pp. 1&2-159) ; and of Christ'i tMching on 

bianiage (pp. 222-233). Our present impression is Indeed, (hat this Utter 

Bi tho fint thonragfaly satisfactory explanation which baa been given of & 

kiort sezums difficult. 

We amt {ffotast) howerer, apunsL the theoiy of incpintioii implied to 



Kotices of Books. 251 



tbo fint lino of p. 216 in toL I ; luid perhaps ebewfaem. But we canni 
enter Itere oa ihu theme. 

With 3l!] dniwbaoks, these Tolnmes constitate t very raluable lulditioa 
Kngtiith Cntbolio litemtitro ; and oven had Mr. Oxenhani done hk work 
rou^'hlf and inelegantly, he voiild hare conferred a i'lgaal serricc. But we 
■re bound to add that (w for lu one unncquainted with German can judge) 
tbii translation ta adminbiy executed ; and the additional ootea are gencmlly 
unpretending and nsefuL 

We wish the inoif , then, that Mr. Oxenham had not obUfifed u» to ciiticixe 
him unfavonnil)!}', by his exlruordinnry rciiinrks in p. x'l. of his preface. There 
■re varioua Catholus — we are ourselves in tbo number— who coniider that 
Dr. Dollinger is theotogioUly unsound for two reaaoufli to mention no otben : 
(1) and cbictly, because he doc* not aooept as inblbble any dccuioni 
of the Church, except deSoitiona of faith ; and (3) becauue he does not accept 
■■ in£dtible that pitritcular decision (Sylbibus, propixiiL} which concemj> echo- 
laaticum. We hare often enough giTcn our reaAonB for thus thinking, luid 
Ml Oxenhum wai moit free to reply to thme reovons. Instead of making 
neh an attempt, he oracularly pronoimces that "sut^ a method of Derring" 
lh« Cbnrch'e *' cause " as our own appean to aoch men as Dr. Dotllnger ** tA« 
M0#l /dfci/. because the lout intentional, amtribvtiott to the proffntt of «ii- 
Mi^." It wiJt be a raiy welcome novelty, when nU tliis vague dedarna- 
iton ta fluccecdcd by at Inst some little attempt at argument. As yet it 
would appnu- thai iill the ai^iment is to be left in exclusive poeiiemion of the 
** bigots ; " and that " liberals " will condescend to no other line of oppo- 
■iUoD, than that of unreaaoning invective- 
Mr. Oxenham further, without giving one tin^e rcaaon for Us Judgment^ 
dcttmiieesonr ooune aa " nn-OathoUc," " nn-nrrman " and " im-F.ngUiih.'' He 
do«s not, however, ftocm bo clear whether a is al^i un-Frcucb, mi-&puni»h, on* 
Be1g:tan, or nu-ltolion. 



*, 



Jn Soneti Orrgftrii Jfynmt H Origmia jcnptd H tloclrinam nOflS ttoeruio, 
aim App€ndutd« AttisSifncdi V.aetantnita,per AtxyntxmYiratiitl, 
itk Amono ftrc/tiyymas i o Litterwitm Sdmiicarum frofcuonm : 
T<dL 4. Morini, Bonuv. 1864. 

IT was about the yonr 307 that S. FAinphQns, eooa to become ■ martyr, 
wrote, in hin prison at Cnsarea of Falcwtine, tiio Apologia pro Ori^en^ 
Xa this work tbefaoly Confiwort who had aptut « long life uf aaoed litenry 
labour on the aoaaa of tW aclioeli of Oiigili, ma aasUted by bi« fellow- 
priaoner Emebius, the future Father of Church History, and the six books 
w«M dedieated to the ouiifi>)iiior]i who were then sufTmng for Chri«t in tfae 
eo|ip8Muine» of AmtHSt at the southern extremity of (he Vtad Sea. Origco 
had bMo deatl for fifty yeara, and tfaa oantrannuni that aeeaad to have been 
sOmoed by tus death lutd rben aftnln aore eluuNraoaly than «v«r. Of tlie 
fix bwka of S. Fatnphilus, but ons has naohed our limes ; of those that ho 



252 



Notices of Boolee. 



I 



tells IIS were being written \>y others his contemporaries, not oven one ; but, 
Hinoe the dti}' lluit he and Eusobius vorked at (lie jii.tliiii.'^tiun vf llieir 
muter until our own times, the Ori^en controveniy hiis seldom stiiiubere^l 
long ; aQiJ pcrbftpa the minority of studenta of Clttirch History have como to 
the conclusion that nothing certiun niu ever he decided. 

PmfeMOT Vincenzi, haiipily for the interests of ptitri&tic literatnre, hdi 
thought diflereutly. His work, whidi hns been bi^oro the public now inot« 
than a year and a half, lit a complete re-openioi; of the whule ijufeliou, and, w« 
may add, a ro-«ettIemcnt of it in a sense that will rejoice the hearta of many 
a lover of Ongen vho )uu liail tin instinctive rcpugnanco to admit hini to 
have been a heretic. We shall best make our readers acquainted with the 
b«ok, and at the same time indicate the i^ounil traTcUed over by the 
author, by giriitg a short account of each of the four Tolomei into which 
it is divided. 

The G»t part, or volume, undertakes to prove the " complete agreement of 
8. Gregory Nyssen and of Origen with C&tholic dogma on the question of the 
eternity of future punishment." * It is well known that S. Gregory of 
NyBsa, OrigoEf and &omo uthcr early writers, speak of a certain waXty-jtviaUt 
(rtgeneraiion) or dKotcariiaractf (restoration) thut is to affect all liumaQ nature, 
whereby its ticioutnits (coWa) wiU be destroyed, and itself will he made in- 
comiptible, and even receive bltMsednas (jtaKopia). Tho bulk nf this vulumo 
ia taken up with an explanntion of this theory and those terms. The 
adveiaariea of Origen's orthodoxy hare maintained that the *^ restoration ^ 
here meant was nothing leas than the final aalratioo of all men, or what i» 
now called Universahsm. It appears, however, that neither the jUexandtiaa 
doctor nor his disciple meant unytbing of the kind. In the first place, they 
both, b a multitude of paasagea, state as dearly as words can state, their adhe- 
rence to the dogma of the etemi^ of {mnishmeut In the next {dace, the "recto* 
ration" of human nature is {irovefl, by a comijarison of texts, a critii'«l exami- 
nation of translatioDii, and citations from contemporary aathors, to mean that 
*' rvBtoratlon " which will happen to all mankind, good and bad, nt the reftur- 
rection of the dead, whereby theii- bodies, freed from the mortality caused by 
original sin, will be rendered immortal aad capable of sustaining endless joy 
or endless tormeuL All the difficulty about it has arisen from a very simple 
canse. Origen and S. Gregory had a definite object in insisting upon It 
Celsus, for instance, scoffed at the notion that a " filthy carmU body " oould 
be the subject of an eternal existence ; and other iuipngnera of the resurreo- 
tion used similar aigmncnts. Uencc we find the theory in TcrtuUisn, and 
traoes of it even in S. Jerome. But when the resurrection of the body 
ceased to bo a oontrovorted point, there also ceased to be u npcesslty for 
stating the fact of the ^ rrgcnemtion," and so the statemeuta in Origen and 
other fathers became fosstliBed and apparently unreasonable. One ailment 
employed by Profewor Vincenzi to show the reiiiounblcness of wliai 
Origen says, is worthy of notice. It la a correction of a well-known text in 
that celebrated fifteenth chapter of 1 Corinthians, in which S. Pitul aays so 



* S*t!ifti Otf/orU Njfatan tt Oriymu de attmitaU pcautntmin vitd futurti 
omnifHoda cum dogtnaU Ctttkolieo Mmeordio. 



Koiices of Booht. 

iQUeh about Uw fwamotion. The Vult^te reads, aa in the English Tersion : 
** Beholdf I l«!l ytm n myntCTy ; wo sbulJ all indcHnl mc, but shall not nil be 
dunj^ed.** Profeesur Vincenzi Tcnturea to aay that thid reading ii a luUtake ; 
luui he does so on no Inut nn authority than that of the famous Vatican 
Codex. Thia most ancient Greek MS. rctuls IhiL-j :— " Behold, I tell you 
a myiVery ; we tihull all "' not shep, and we shall tiU be ekattged ; " that ia, both 
^od and bad ; on emenditttim which not only expreiaies tha very ** rcstonb- 
Uoa" spoken of hy S. (jrcjionr and Ori^n, but Is lunch more in aocord with 
ihe whole run of the Apostle's conterit. 

The aecond volume is entitled " Origen vindicated from Impiety and Heresy 
iu bis other doctrine8.'*t As the treotise, Hipi 'Apxvv^ or Conc^niiug iVtit- 
cijtUMf ia that on which nearly all the accusational of heterodoxy rest, the 
author begina by a lumiuoua exposition of the motivea and object of this 
much- impugned tmitiM\ proviu}; that it was not an attempt to make Chria- 
tianitj aquara wiih the Platonic philosophy, but an eaaay towonU n aoientltto 
statenit'tit of Chmtiun do;;;ma, inclading a recognition <^ wluit tnith and 

I beauty there was in the philosophy of Greece, and a refutation of tho per* 

E Tcne UM both of philosophy and revelation made by such heretics as the 

f GnosticB imd Marclouitea. We cannot enter into a detailed exanunation of 
this Birt, which extends to upwards of 500 [xiges ; wc can only state that 
the objections to Origen's nrihodoxy, hero fairly stated, and for the most part 
faccessAilly met, inclade the whole range of the points usnally controverted ; 
oa M«(«iiipayctK)ais, the Angels, tho Nature of God, the Uoly Trinity, the 

, Incaruation, the Consubtttantiality of tlte Word, the Holy Spirit, the Human 
8ocd. the Eternity of Matter, the Plurality of World's *-^c Perhaps tho 

i stoat interesting chapten of this Fart are those in which the author considcn 
the question of the genuineuesa of the two rival vetsiona of the lltpt 'A^x^^i 
by 8. Jerome and Kuffinns, and dei'ides, after much acnte criticism, that " Uio 
&tS. which lUilfiiins timuihil4!d contained the real opinions of the author," X 
iKftwiUutaDding some conjccCaral emradatAona which Buffinus says he 
naile ; and that other M.S., used by S. Jerome, " were full of heretical 

^ oomiptiona.'' § 

The third volume contains "Tho Critical History of the quenUon at issue 
between Tbcoi^Uus " ;tho Alexandrian Fnlriarch), *' S, Epiphauina, and S. 
Jenmie, against Origen, and &>. John Chrjsostome, Theotimoa, RuQinus, and 

I the Nitriau Monk.<(, In his favour." |1 The hero of tliia third volume may 
ba said to be Theophiliut of AJexanftria. This turbulent and intemperate 



t Originea nh JutyUtaiu tt Ilim uiionibut 

oilus. 

I Jure arbitror iatos, quos Buffinus tnuvtulit oodioes, sinoera contlacre 
andoris senAita \p. i4\ 

f Ontrri, (|no*cnnuine via, a Hirronyino ledi, nndeqaaqne videontur oor- 
nipti ab ha:ruticia i/i.). 

I) HUtarvt i 'rttiea (^lUHtumiM intrr TheophHum, J^p^pl U nt ' swi rf Jgairwy* 
mum, Ongtuid ailrmnrioif e( inUr Joannan ('AryMstoatuin, Huoiimu* 
Jtajimiwi tt Mona^ot JVifncnaM, Origgmt fxiironoi. 



254 



Noiiees of Bool-9. 



ipnUte * is well known for tis persecution of 3. John Chiysostome. He » 
also distingnialicd as tlic prime morer of that wlurlwind of oppofiition and 
opprobrium which er^rything connected with Origen underwent about the 
jear 400, What inudo hiia so bitter against Origeu la not quite clear» bnt 
bia Buraome of 'A/if nXXii'f, or the TunMVWit; aeems t« point to expediency as 
the motive of his denunciationa. He had a solemn synod a«s«nihlcd, and the 
books of Origen read before the Biahopa, by whom, he tells ns, they were 
nnanimously condemned. The point of interest here ia to know what ia 
meant by these "books of Origcu." To hare read all the works of Origen, 
or a hundredth part of them, would have tried the codnranee of any qoiod of 
} mortalii. Wi> tuubt therefore condude that wb&t waA n-iul wan a judicious 
tloo. Our RtiLhor devotes a chapter to the elucicLition of this point, and 
decides that there must bare been a Syntagma, or 8umniAT>' of Origetust 
doctrine, ready preparwl for^ the decision of the Synod, which Sjiitaguia wm 
oAerwards aent to S. Jerome and S. Epiphanius, whereby the former of those 
^ Pathera was oonrcrted to that intense zeal against OHjiien with which his name 

so intimately connected. And so, by the *' execrable perfidy " t of Theo- 1 
'philns, S. Jerome waa rieceived, and multitudes since his time have tuique»-l 
tionably followed him in hia deception. I 

The important question, whether Pope Anostasius condemned Orij^en or i 
not, i« also fclicitouiily discussed in this Part. The Pope condemned, cer- ' 
tainly not Origen, a& he Mpratly KiiyH, bvit, tn all nppciuanco, the identical 
Syntagma compiled by the unscrupulous Thcophilua. 

The fourth Volume in *' The 'friumph of Pope Vigilins, of Origen tiio 
Adanuintine, and of the £mpcror Justiuion in the &th General CoundL''t 
If there i« an intricate question in Church history, eiich a question is oertAtnty 
'Uiat of the Three Chapters, the 5th General Council, and Pope Vigilioa. ■ 

Profeasor Vinccnzi clean the Emperor Justinian from hereciy, and, what ial 
more important. Pope Vigilius from the very undignified vacillation of which 
ho is very commonly ucciuied.§ He first of all cfirefuUy quotes and iinaljxca 
the vnri oils dociiments bearing upon the Pope and the C-onudl, especiiiUyJ 
the Jutiicatuin and the Conttitutum (names often confonndeil, and which, bil 
fact, Iwth mran a judicial decree of some kind). Tlie Pope had a difficuln 
part to play. He lutd to plcnso the Greekii, who wanted the Three ChaptenJ 
IWDdemued, and not to offeud the Latins, who were ready to see, in than 
' condemnation, a alight upon the Council of Chuloedon, which had left Ihol 
Chaptcra untouched. Thence his caution iu ilie Bnt Judiealum. All sort* J 
of miiundentandings, liowerer, followed it, and the Pope, now at ConstAiiU- ' 
noplc, ooitaented to the assembling of a general Council. He aflerwaids 
L refused t^ attend this Council, saying he would send in his sentiments in 
I writing. This is the firet point whereon he " TaciUatca.* But Professcr 
I Vinoenzi shows he had a perfect right to stop away, and several exoeUenll 
rrcaiom fordmngso ; as, for instance, that the vast majority of the awemhleJ 

• Receveur. Hist, rf/ rE^lite, iL 482. t P. 31 f>. 

•% FWiti PontifieU liomnni, Orinrnii A^amantii, JwHniani Imptraiorit 
Trivrnph^u in Synodo Uieummwt k. ■ 

§ See Dr. Puaey's Eirenicon, p. 61. I 



N6He€4 of BooJis, 



d65 



IpRktM luppcned to be Oreekx. Hie CotinoU met and diaciuaed. Tlmt iu J 

i were afterward Approred hy the Pope we know, Iwlh from the sixth 

rnl Council and from other sources. His owu Hentimetits he gives, a» ho 

, ia a secoDd CoiutiiiU-um or Judiealvm, in vrhicb ho reiterates nod do- 

I the coudeiiiuatiou which he hjid pronotiuc«d in the fonuer. Ccrtum 

ronb ia this cecoiul decree are qaoted to show Lhat, diuiog the seren yean 

Ivhich had dapeed between itond ite predecessor, the Popu had waveredf and 

y9tm now retmcting. This Professor Yinccnzl proves to be a falBe inferenoe. 

7inaUjr, be prores thai a ceitaia additional decree or CowiUtiUumj expressing 

ntnctation in stiil stronger tcrou, is undottbtcdif a forj^eiy. Tliiii last dooo- 

^meatf brou^t to lt(;ht by Pctnw de Marca in the Bcvonteenth oenttuj, has beea 

») by others before our anlhor ; thonjjh Uefele, in bis aoooiint of the 

I ftnh Cleneml Council, Eeems to accept it< gcauincncse.* Several chapters aZ9 

ilurolcd by Professor Vincenzi to ciiticnl renuirks on this and eovcral oth«r 

1 documen te. The explanation of ull tim tioubleflome imd chaotic history is not 

llbc to teek, and, uiorcover, cxplniiut tlie mwou of the CDniiet:ttoa of Origen'a 

[saouiwith the cxtajiiCra^'nieQtsof tho Acta ef the Council. The object of tlw 

iPtipe and the Kuiperor in cailiiii; the Council waa to have tbe Three Chapters 

ndamned and done witlt On the oilier hand, there arose a party who 

''ttpfaftld the Thn« Cbapten. It was to the interest of this party (and to that 

lii^ devoted their enct^es} to repreeent tbat the Council Itad been called, 

f to oondcDin Cbe Chapters, but to condemn certain heretics who had been 

I long ago ; and that the Council had not said anything about tho 

FC'haptcnh but bad only anathcniatiicd theao heretics, into the list of whom 

[they slippttl the name of Ori^jen, a name which had the double advantage of 

J « good partynr-ry and of being hitherto uneoodemiied. With these onda, 

rlhcy produced ((uite a little literature of falae epistles, forged deoretals, oad 

tmhistorical Acts (p, 908). Thus Origen's name got into bad company, and 

r has niffered in reputation ever since ; as, indeed, has Vigilios hitnscIC It 

|k tme that nioro than one writer has gneased or aigued that Origen cannot 

ATI been mentioned in the fifth General Council Hefele, in liis valuable 

* H&rtoiy of the Councibt," hiw ably sumnwd up tho argtunenta, and decided 

I the same M>mie as Professor Viitceiixi ; but our auUior has the merit of 

[■fiiakiiig a Complete and consistent Mtury, from iuilepii-udcnt |ioinla of view, of 

) whole cue, and it is aatiifactory to 6Dd that what dosn Pope Yigilios, 

^daui aiw> Origen. 

We should be gfaul If this brief notice of an important and independei^ 

work tndaoed students of Church history in England tu rend it for themselvea. 

Tlte CiriitA Cattotiea called attention to it last October, luid, in a criticism OO 

; PaK I. oonfeiaed thai the author bad oomplebely exculpalvd Origui from the 

tcharge of denying tlw atenity of pnaSihroent, In the norabor abo that 

|a]i|HarBd OO May fith of tho prescut year, the work was again noticed in 

of bjfh pnuse. We may mid that Profneor Vincenxi*i( b«xtk b«tan 

[Iha mfrimatur of the Master of the Apostolic Phlaoe and of the Bomaa 

nt. 



• ne(eb» OoneatmttKkiAt$, il 681. 



2Sd 



mM^sask. 



Ecec Homo, A Surrey of the Life and Work of Jesus ChrUl. London i] 

Mticuiiliao. 

THIS work h:ia created a most uniisiml interest in the Protestuit rcligimi* j 
world ; BO iuu?h »j, that CuthoUca arc soiucvrhal Mger to know what ikey 
Bkould think of it I'or our own part we siibstantially ogree Avith the powrrfiil 
- ftnd thoughtful article which appeared iu the June number of The ifontb ; and 
^we arc not without hope tliat in a future number we may expn%s at greater | 
' length the reasons of our opinion. Muny tit:Uement<i contained in the rulunie 
will be doubtless most abockinu to all our reailrm ; nor can we wonder if 
Ljbany Catliolics — piu-licularly thonu? lesft acr^uaintMl with the pre»i<nt direction 
Pxtf l^teatant relijpoiw thon;,'ht — rejpird the "Eooe Homo'' with almost tmmi- 
tigated avenion. But for our own part, considering the truly dcplomble and j 
meet calamitous tcndoucics of Bngli^h Protestantism at this moment, we i 
[ annot doubt that the book will cxcrciso a powerful influence in the l^e 
anti-Colhotic direction. The writci'a tone throuj;houc is mo«t loyal* and (oita . 
tni^ even say) reverential, to Uini who>e life he trenta ; and the whole spiiitl 
oS his work is profoundly earneitt imd aerioua. We obser^'e, niorooTor, that i 
Fnuei^s Magtmne assails it witJi fprent bittemesa ; and we luive j^rcnt belief ia 
the imerring instinct with which that magazine det^etd and abhois every 
ai-ijnmcnt or line of thou^t tending to what is good and holy. 



The Chur^ and tht yVorld: £uajr« on Qtudiont of tkt Dan ^mKmu 
^Friters. Londcm : Longmans. 

THIS volume has boon sent us for notice ; nndwehavch.id much p1cafiara~^ 
in findings from a genend inspection of ita contents, that the Cnt'oft lUrwffi 
ifi far from htithfuUr representing the univcrsU tone and tem]>er of Uniouiiiti.| 
The ChurfJi Hceicw, of which we have lately seen niauy mimlwre, iaanolhe 
instance in point ; and we see plainly that there ore many extreme Anglic 
who are deluded indeed by the dream of corpontte union, but who write and^ 
(no doubt) think in a truly Christian and temperate spirit 

As to the volume before tu, wo do not profess to have looked ot it vcfy 
carefully, as this tmppens to have been on unusually heavy quarter, llie 
subjects trrated ai-e of very Viuying iiuporUnoe ; the most nwment^ius of aU 
being Uiftt which the Rev. M. M'CoIl luia chosen : " Science and Prayvx" We 
nre of conrse in mml heuty agreement with the author in his oouclusions ; 
DJid he writes mo»t unatfectedly and straightfurwiirdly : Imi he twenis to na 
more successful in stating candidly the infidel objection, than in clnboniting n 
Mild and satisfactory reply. Yet he i^*ill have done a really inappreciabla 
aerrice, if he lead the way to a more profound examination than his ova of 
the theolo^^ioal ond pbiliMophical diflirultifH wliicli bin Ihenie sni^i^tB. 

We have read mreftUly tlirou;^ Uie uiuth |iupi>r, which itat)t<>)ii<H.'r»^ihtcaJ, 
without being able to jjuess ever so distantly, on whnt \>r ry of 

eecleitiMticiil authority the candid and excellently inteuticnctl > < > 
her refusal of aubmiiiaiou to Home. 



Notice* of Bookf. 257 



Tk« Holy Comimiition : t(x Philotophy, Theology^ and Practice. By Re' 
F. Daloairmb. Second £«litioD. Dublin aiid London ; Duffy, 

THIS work was reviewed, by the DrEUN at iU fiist appetimnce ; but we 
lire MnvUttDjr that its iiecoiid edition Kkuultl be |)ubUibud witiiout a 
oomineniomtion ot the fiuit 

It impnoBca onr ima^noAtJoD with F. Dftlgatms's tmiutul Toriety of study. 
W« ut really not aw&re of any author who equals hlin in thU respect : ao 
pnfotmd in MeUj^ysics ; so profound in Eocleaiastical History ; so profound 
in Ajoetic Tbeolo^. It is among the moat tmfortiinato facbi of our time — 
cottsidrrin;: liia truly orthodox principlea and moat nnrcaerved unbDuaaion to 
the Holy Sc« — that hU prolonged iilneaa haa for so considerublo a period 
prevented tliu Church in England from benefiting by hi« literary tterricea. 

Pexiinps the mutit important feature of tbid volume is the uuthor's 
ailment (Fart iti, c. S) against those vciy exaggerated noUouB which have pre- 
vailed ouuceming the rigorism of the early Church ; and hin unrivalled 
picttin.) uf Jntineoism in the siuuc chapter and in the note at p. 43(>. His 
QieUph^-sical power is strikingly exhibited in the second chapter of the firat 
pan, which has been greatly improved in this edition: and of his ascetical 
acumen, pcHiupd the chapter on worldlinen (Part iii. c fi) will give as good 
a Bpeclmtn m any. It ends with theae moat oerious wonl« :— 

** Tlicre am eases where .... the soul is perfectly engToased with and 
absoHwd in th« world, and where God is practically forgotten. In such 
caaea ] ftwiy a«luut I do not aeo on what principle Holy Commnnion can 
be [ever] allowed, except aa it is eometimaa given to sinneia of moat doubtAil 
repentance, out of sheer compassion, for fear of their being dhvca altogether 
fn*m Go<l " (£X 37H). 

If any uulavoumble critidsm is to be mode on the bo(^ such criticism 
ronut be founded on the very circumstance which illustrates ita nuthor*! variety 
of Atudy. Tbo vuhimo ia, perhaps, somewhat too heterogeneous. 

TnuuUtions of it have appeored in Italian, French, and Oennan ; so that ita 
good tiBecta have been widely extended over the Catholic wotkl. 



A Caikolie EirtnientL London : Hayea. 

WE did not notice this pamphlet in April ; because it was imponible to do 
•oaatii^Ktorily, without putsaing various inquiries, for which we had no 
Idaure, into the hihiory of Englixh OklhoUeism since the Befonuatiou. Webope 
before long to pulduh an nitkle on this »ub|eci as a whole ; and into that 
artide we shall incoriutate whatever iH to be wid on the particuLir document 
which fbmis the diief oontenta of this pamphlet But our readers will thank 
na for at onoe republafaiiig a letter on Iho subject &om the Bev. Mr. Andcr- 
dbn, which appeared la tho H^Mily RtgiiUr for March 31it The itaUea an 
our own. 

(To the Editor of the IVnkly lUffitUr.) 
''Sir.- Til -•/ Amne of the Mth iiwt. in an article headed^ 

Oath* Bill nil : unooUDM.' 'P^'^ thus : — 

^Mt is [leihiipd wdl tor BanMO Cbtholioa that Uttramontaniam had no 
vxaitenca in RDgtaod wfaaa U» last of the Bomao CslhoUo dlsabUiUea ««i« 
YOU vii. — K0» xiu, INew Sarm.} % J 

7* mr— ' ' ' m. -im 



lUesan 



258 



Notices of ; 



removed liy tie Relief Act. Anibliiahop MAoning nnd hia alllea would hiirol 

made this Mttlomeut imposaiblo. It will be worth while to contnul thai 

riftiiffuage held by tho old-uiahioned and hcrcditAry RoniAnist« in this coiutxyl 

Iwitb the M«t«iuiioii& now put forwonl by the Ultnunontanes, aod by thota I 

Lfioimuiw Eomaniont^ the recent ecoTerto. Thtre exitled a profmion of faith ] 

L^ (focirittai and poliHeal priMy^ whieh^fTom about tM y«dr 1680 to th* I 

QiKMn' centuTy, all Atigh-Jiotnanists appeau^l to, and Oh tinjaiik of whid^ 

TemancipatioH vxis slowltj xcon from O^cftan atui jtrtjuiUreA of Englanl. Thla 

is the famous declaration of ** Roman Ciitholic principles in referenoe to God 

and tUa King." It haa l«t*ty hnftn reprinted, not, we suppose, without molon- 

choly rafarennR t-n the chnn^n which hiui como over the Ultramontaiw seotion 

of the Engli&li Catholii^i. Wt! Gnd tlmt from IflnO lo 1S1& as uinny as tventy- 

^Ur editioiu of tjiiu docuineut Imve been traced. It wm adopted by such 

F|unou8 cKunpiona of orthodoxy as Homyhold, Berin^n, Waliuesley, 

IPpynter, and Waterworth ; and it has b«n uid not uigusuy of ii, and, a« It 

iMcms by a Romnn Catholic, that " by a loynl profeenon of thcfte principles 

fonr&thvra clfected a rccottoiliution between themselves And their nnd our 

[ ooontry in State." ' . . . . 

I " Further, tho John Dull of the 24th inat^ in its ' Literary Hcview' (sup- 
I plement) calU thci etiuue work, as now reprinted &om the edition of 1616, 
[ 'an exiioiiiiion of Roman Catholic doctrine in a compeutUous luid popular 
I fonn, tJie nutborship of wluch is attributed to Kcv. Jaineji Crolicr, a Bciii.*- 1 
[dietine, in lONit. and has liiice I>«'n a text-hook with Ronmn CiitholicH in 
I this and other countries. It contains also a defence of the Bodal and political 
I principU-s of Ronmn Catholics.' 

" Publio attention Imving thus been udleil to a book whicli tnifiht not] 
otherwise fall in the way of your rejulent, it ftecmit time to lay bofore them it« 
I true character, and the degree of nuUiority it can clatui. I trust you may be 
L&ble kindly to afford space for the following extracts, as ahowing the poaition 
I issiuned towards this publication by Bithop Milner, <uul tkg l^ican Affoitoiiis 
ttffSngtand in hit day. Your readers wm judge how far the des^HptLuus I 
Imbore given of this book are accurate ; hom far it tptah th« Imufwigi of \ 
t'henditarjf Ca(Wt<s, ot was appealed to by all ' An^o-RomaDixlSp^ or bu 
' liDoe been a texVbook with Roman Catholics in this amd other oountrka. 
** ProTort Husenbeth's * Lite of Bishop Miltier,' p 226. 
" ' The chief objection to it [ Kirk and Iter i niton's **Faith of CatboUos "] 
v»M, that it adopt<v1 as its text an exposition of doctrine known by the name 
*' Rouuui Cathonc Principlw in references to God and the Kii^,* firet pab- 
1 lished in the reign of Charles II. . . . He (Dr. Milnor) . . . examincdl 
some of ltd pronositiona. One declarcn that " the monla of C%riat are not] 
applied to «H otherwise than by a right faith." This, as it Ktandu, B.-uictional 
tito condemned ern)ra, that man is Justified by faith alone, and that tniiuifr] 
L baptism is of no avail , . . Dr. Milner censured another propositioa which ] 
I declnred it " no article of faith that the Church cannot err in nuttere of fiuA ' 
I or discipline ; " and the euppreuion of the Pope's title of ViEar of Jesua 
I Clirifit,' lie, &c 

I '* IhUl, p. S62. Dr. Milnor writes (against the objection that Ihts treatise 
I hod Dever been ccns\ired), that if itsfirst niipeonnoe 'wis, at aJlegiyl, at llie 
*nd of tho reign of Charles II., it i«m ho tronder if it i(vu t)0( <vn*tirrt/, since 
there was tlien no Bishop, Archbishop, or ecclmiaatiml Sirpetinr in tlie kin>>- 
I doni.' Ah regards its n>pub1ication by tho agents of the pTat€ttaut Du- 
iaeniing CoinmitUef in 171)1, *Dt. Milner, having been the agent at the 
I Vicars Apostolic at that time, afllnus that ii wns comtemtied by theott and treat 
I $tigmatMd b^their tttpportcrt as the StqJfonMire fVc^'/.' , 

I " Jfml, n. 547. *Tbe ni^)i..n flr^f .^.^n«arM Mr. C. P-tirKr f,,.- ..>t ;.;,.., 

I imd pabltsninf;. as one of . Catholic Chur 

rimown Bi**Ranuui Cbthi i i u reference to < 'j 



NoiiecM of Booh, 



259 



.... ' It ii a Ciot,' bo Mr», ' Icsonn to tho writer of tbia, ilukt the Vicon 
ApOitotic, th«a living, AifiAly Aita^frovtd of the mearare (tta uiwuUiorised 
pulilicntion nearly thurty yeftn bcoTon) and ef iht tnatitt itmf.' 

"/frui pp., 410, 411. Dr. MUnei's letter In 1618, to a 0«ii&ni1 Vicar of 
hb district, * wail written in oomequenoe of Mr. Charles Butler having, ia 
thnt wreml worlu, prooUhned the traatiM knovn m "Roman Catholic 
Prinoiplat," to be "a jnat and fair expoihioD d the Koman OathoUc cxaadf 
in direct oppuAJtion tn tk* authoritaUvt untun o/ that formvJofjf by Dr. 
MUnof." ' . . . The BLdiop gires * the objection to it on Uie part of the 
Viotn Apostolic and Ibe Scotdi Bishop akj ; bo instonoca one propcwtJou 
from il which tJie Kitgli^ Vican Apottulu: in 1792, roruinntud fwit (u 
hentieni. Re r^AiteH Mr. Bntler'ii lueerlion that Bbhop Honiyhold ftare a 
nar^ rditton of the '* Principles ; " the Cut beinf^ that Bishop U. merely 
dooied three or four mlgar chaj)tea oeain^t OathoUc», in t«nns partly r«- 
•embling the conesponding article! in Ihut formulary.' . . . Dr. Mdnex Baya 
at the cuncltulon of ihu Ivlter : ' I dt-clarL', under correction of tlie Calhofio 
Ohsnb and the Holy See, thnt tlio luiid treatiw u inoMxmtU and emturahU 
AmiflM rtnttU* 

**iWi pp. 468-7a Biihop Milner't * Lenten Paitoial ' for ISSa. speaking 
of th* mnia formolaiy, * ohai^ hia olenr; not to admit tldi into tlieir floclu 
aa njud and acimraU myotUion of C<tlk^ doctrinty and remind* them of hiB 
having preriouily spedncd hib <:rouiid« for censoring it ad di/tetivt, aiH&^rHoui* 
•uipiruHU, and rrroneotu.' Uo infonns his clergy, 'that to his jadgntent 
ftod oextnire all the Catholics of the district hare submitted, except one lay 
pntlmnsn of the law.' 

" I>r. Mihicr'a * Lftlpr to a Oaatcal Vicar of hto Dintrid,* nf which aooM 
accuuiil is i^iveit in llu.- fnitKli extract here aent to yuu, niay bi* found in csctciuo 
at the «n<l of his ' faiipptcmcntary Memoirs af English C'utholics.' aupendix A. 
It M a ndiinblo ducinitent, well worthy of reprouuctioii, but loo long to be 
iMi* luHcUd, and hardly to be nbrid^^ 

" Beliere me, Sir, 

" Yonr faithful serrant, 

" W. H. AKDEaDwr." 

** b, VorV-pla«e, Monday in Holy Week." 




Carragnmdmt4 Uiween Rev. H K Guy, O..S.B.f and Stv, Canon iPytiU, 
D.D. Liverpool: BockcUlT 

DR. M'NEILE. the well-knovn PnMaiUat oontrovetvialist, cute a reiy 
■orry Gkuto iu this ODReRpoDdeiio& He be^;ins by tuting, aa • 
r of fiict, that no OathoUo vk pcrmitied to read the TcmacuUr Bible, 
a c«rtiflcat« of fitnen; and that "such cerUficntca are not easily 
""gTftJim" Being bronght to book, he admiu that ho knova ■^^^^''wg whaleror 
cf |«w«it Catholic iirocUco, whether in England or elsewhere ; and yei he 
will Dot admit Uud h« i^ke inoomctly. Pintly, then* he citea an allefpid 
THdotioa decit* ; andr whoo it is demonstnitcd that no such deorer waa 
fffw made by the CooncU, he a^ain altan his statenunt, while agua ivfatunx 
to admit that he hea been wrong. And more than oooe he makos the 
iodlctous BonimptioO' just in older to say something;— that the Cbarvk 
oomprombtsB her infallibility by rarrlni; her dincipUne. 

F. Guy la as superior to him in ari^ianent as in attaightforwardnea ; and 
Ui npftlias ad Aomu*m arr abBoIutrly craahing. Yet wo ouioot t-nUT into 
ineiytliiflg which F. Guy aoyat Thus, at itaAiai^ ho oomplalna Cv- &\ tA\yt. 



s«o 



Notieee of Books. 



M'Keile's "odious accusation.*' We cannot see how il la an odioua aocuaa- 
tion — though no doitbl it i^ an uufoanded Htateinc&t-~to allege that Uio 
CHiurch still coutinues a. discipline, which she undoubtedly once enforced ; 
aud which evoiy Catholic ie bound — as F. Guy himself actually docs— to 
defend iit pririciplt. Then, again, we really cannot sec any difference vorUi 
mentioning^ between a Tridentine decree sanctioned by the Pope on <me 
luiud, and a Papal decree on the other ; for la cither ctuw tlic decree derives 
ItB whole authority from the Vicar of Christ Nor am we concur with the 
bte Bishop Doyle mid with F. Guy in thinking; (p. 19) tluL, "of all thin^^ 
naid agaiusl'* Catholica, " titers in not auythuig said more opposed to truth 
than that " they " aze nveree to the circulation of the [>itTitten] Word of God " 
in the vernacular. "Lectio Sacne Scriptune est pro omnibus" ia a con* 
domncd propoaition ; QuesDsl'B 80th. And couaidcrin^ that the Chiuch 
, haif in varioun times and pUoeo, taken active steps to limit the circulation 
l«f vernacular Bibles, it does eeem to as that there ore many frightful accusa- 
|iioQS, brought uguinat Catholics, which are very far more violently *' opposed 
I truth " than ia the jiarticul&r aocuaation in question. Cardinal Wtxenuui, 
*M quoted by Dr. M'Neile in p. 16, impreseea ns as having stated the true 
Qliholic doctrine very fiiirly and tomperntely. 

The question of venmculor-Bible-readiug is far too extensive and important 
to be dlBCuaaed in a notice. We are not without hu[)e that, before VC17 1 
we may have an opportunity of treating it at length. 



Someward, A TaU of HtdetnpUott. By tJto Bbv. H, Jl Bawss, M.A. 
W. Knowleis 7, Norfolk Road^ Baynrater. 

FRAWBS is singularly happy in the choice of titles for his boda. 
• "Homeward," liku "Simum," tells itti own atoiy. It is the pilgrimage 
of the Christian soid from the shadow of the great darkness, whence she haa 
been rescued by Redeeming love, through the desert qf life aad the cold 
wuters of duiith, to her home in the palace of the King. 

It is a true ptieiu, iKirtly in prose, partly in veree ; the prose being, to J 
our thinking, far mure ix>etical and vigorous than the poetry, which scarcely 
equala aome of tlie author's former pruductions ; for iustance, tluwe exquiiute , 
lines in "SuiBum," "The three Songs of the Bndo." As a^riiole^ however, 
" Homeward," we tlujik. Cir exoela that or any of F. Bawcs' former ' 
works. 

The ** Tulc of Redemption " u tuld witli a Himplitity suit4.-d to llic car of a ] 
child by a cottage fin:side, and yet with a ])uthoM and a nuijPKty befitting the ' 
aacredncss of its sublime subject, and which hanuonize without break or jar 
with the language of sacred Scripture used by F. Raves with the fubietu 
and freedom of one whoao heart and mind have been foahioncd and moulded 
in that divine treMiuv-hotue. " Homeward*" to bo appreciated, should be read 
aa a whole ; and therefore, even had we spaue to do so, we should rvlhun fhuu 
makiug eitravts. 

It ubuunda in strong oontxasts of light and shade, the effect of wlUdi 
wonli) be lost niilrss M-rn in nu'Cfmion. Witiit.t<H the drcnry, daoUt* 
■ubltiuily of Uie Prologue, with the doomed ship drifituy ouvraid to d:euvc> 



Notices of Books. 



2ev 



tiOD, anil th« glorious mituinn-Bniiset, lightin;; up the njr^t. Harvett-hoiuo, 
[vluch oloMs th« Einloguc Or, i^^, tho lonely conflict or tbo Divino 
[duonpion hreAsting the red torrent with His mnsomed Briile in HIh amu. 
[and tike calm, tniyeslic reprne in which, seated inotionlesa on Wis while war- 
rstoed, with His many diad«ma upon Hi^ brow, He watches the last taiuapb 
I of nu ffttthrnl anny orer the legions of hell afwejnhled to cnnleat h«r pMsnge 

thrwigh the river which divides her from her Honie. 
Tha dncriplion of the desperate and final conflict between the hosta of 
rgood and evil ia, perhaps, the mcwt powerfully-written paiaiiige in the book. 
'The MiuailronH of di^th are at laat swept away by the white waves of the 

army of li^ht " us the white glitt«rin(» breakers in the stomi sweep nuuiei of 

dark tangle und drift-wood recifltlmily along the beach." From " that field 

of doom, where there werv no moumere to weep over the slain," wv turn to 

Iha Bride stepping down into the dark river^ witb a loving smite on her face, 
E ■■ shr sinks lieueath the waters ** that she may go to her love, that she may 

find Him in her homo." 
**Thc dark wntcm cloctiMl over tliat sweet, beautiful muile. 
I A ctrding ripple spread itself ont on the surface of the deep, awiftlj* 

fiowing river. 

Her long, dark veil floatod away down the itroam.** 

We ace her next ** whiLe-robcd and golden-girdled " in the garden of the 

king. 
, There are «aqniiit« touchee in the picture of that heavenly garden 
Ldewdbed an the dmri tnufignrcd and made new. Wo find all the wild 
[ flowen which peo|^ our childhood's favourite haunts on heath or glen, in 
[ tanked ooppiofr^ood or forest-glade, blooming in their familiHr lovclineae 
LunUat the mystical Ulies and pomegranaten. " Drooping willows grew 1^ 
I the watcr-onnnes, but they did not seem sorruwfnl there ; and the aepeDB 

mre fafight in the light, but they did not tremble there. 
" There the golden crowns of the watcr-Hlii^ always shtne in the brighlneee 

of the day. foe there they never hide theiiiiie1ve« beneath the water. Nerw 

do they do^ ihcir alatxuter cups thenv for no shades of evening ever bU 

upon that loniL** 
Yrt it is harder for the pen of man to write of that blessed Home tltnii of 

ifae long jmirDey homewaid. After all that can be said, we fiill lack tijxm 
. U)ft " £yc fui^ not trtn nor ike Mr Aearrf," which speaks greater things to onr 
I hearts than humnn (angnage can oonrey. And thoee who have mediuted 
[ meat deeply upon thi> Itlenednees of heaven feel most deeply the inadequacy 

of their own wonhi to dewrribe It 
" I hare wratcd," says F. Bawea, " to sot the blessedness of this Homo 

before ymi, that yon might love it greatly »nd dc«ire it greatly ; that its 
[ shadow might be a 9htli*r to you in this desert, keeping off from you the 
I boning h^at ; tlut ihr ihougbl of iill its indescribahli' joy might l»e to you 
I oolue in your coiv«, wid trials, and sommv ; still more, might be a solace sm 

• CMofoit in tJiaae ttmes of fearfhl anguudi ; those tinitw, days, or ymi 

[i wl Mps, of nmitMnMe agony ; which come to itome (should I say to mnnv 

from the hands of our Father, always merriful. ahraym oomjMsUuoate. alway 
Yon mnxt bwx with mu if i have done it un^irtv 



I 



* 



foil of lore. 



lfetie$8 if StfolcM, 

vei7 diflicult in Uie vreok words of corUt even to dudow forth the bit 

of OUT Et«nul Home. And, if imyoiin tfalnki I ture done it Teryl 
'imperfectly, I thinlc so still more. This book, therefore, is not what it migfabj 
hftVB been ; that I knov. Yet, luoh as it is, I hope tbnt it may help somo on 
titmf way through th« deA«rt to their Homo.'' 



Boyal and CfUur Hittorxcal LttUrs, ilUiaraliw of the Jicujn of Htwry JTT 
From the originals in the Public Bccord Office. Selected and. edited 
by the Rev. Wautkb Waddikotok SniaLKr, D.D., Regius Profeasar 
of Ecclesiastical History, and Canon of Christ Church, Oxford. Pub- 
lished !iy the authority of the LordH ComniiMionera of Her Majesty's 
Treasury, under the direction of tlie Master of the RoUa, Vol IL IS^ 
IS7S. Londou : LoiigmaDfl. 1800. 

DK. SHIRLEY imbliahed his first vuhuno c^ LcttetB in 1802, and, as I 
we tinderttand him, thi>i, the »ocond Tolumo, Is to be his but Wb| 
have never been iiblo to a«certaia tho pnnriplo on which he selected Ibol 
tten he publiiibed. iind are tlierefura unable to aay whether he hia been 
DOoeHsful in h\a undertokiii<;. Howerer, the seoond volume is diaflgnnd by 
bwer blemishes tluui w;u< the Rntt, and tho Genon has luldcd a table of 
r«rata, modest in size, but which an unfriendly critic could aerionsly 
enlarge. 

Tho prefaces to those volumes iire written in an unfortunate manner : for] 
it is veiy difficult to conceive how any man oonld, even nft«r reodlnfr the J 
lotten of this series, pcnetrttt« so deoply into tbo secretfi of Popes and King*, 
as we are per»naded Dr. Shirky hn» done. " We *incl," nays the Pmfeesor, 
" to our surprise, the worthless Faukes de BreautA becouiing, for a moment, i 
the pivot uiKin which tlie politics of Europe are tnnnn); " (p. xxiv.). Is this j 
I tnie i Wiw (.hat tHildier bo iniportAnt ii ]>crHanage as to '>ccnpy the serious 
attention, say of tho Emperor of Qormany 1 A^^in, was ho so "^wortUew' I 
r he was tOf ho ronst have been a very cousideniblo hypocrite, for there 
^vere penoni, among bis contemporaries, who did not think so ill of liim. 

"At a later date we have the Archbishop of Bordi^iiux cndeavourinj^ bjl 
^Papal letters, secretly obtained, to embarrass the English government m 
ny " (Pref., p. xxiv.). Dr. Shirley refers his readets to jt. 101» and there 
wo learn from the King's agent in Rome that Prince Edward, sou of j 
Henry III., and the heir to the thnme, had confiscated to his own ii^ nil ^ 
the temporalities of the Church of Bordeaux when that see was vwant. The 
archbishop dLntcd the justice of wluit wiui done, and it is in hie fiivour that 
tho afrent of Henry HI. does not venture to eay that Ruch proceodingB us 
I those of the prince could be justified. As Dr. Shirley's sympathies oro not 
fith the plundered prelate, it would be interevting to know what he woiUd 
'say if the Priuco of Wales had, during tho recent vaeauey, taken his canonry 
into his own poswasion, and deprived the ecclesiastical Prafeaior of the 
revenues which were due to him. If, under thoHQ circumstanoee — improbable 
eertminlj — Dr. Sliirlfy had applied to tlie courts of law for redrrsB, nobody 
votilil hare aooused biui of '' embarTtt»iiiii; the ' 
Tho Profeemft mtfn thiit this lulter, lo v(U ^^\vttittinij 



Notices of Boohs. 



263 



Hm^t^Mhe flrai lutid the t«nth dii^r of Korembcr, 1SA4. If that be bo, it i« 
wotlier fiut wlikh goes u gnat way to show that the PiofcMoi^ qrmpethiM 
an ralipkoKl : bfcaun the King nftued ndreaa for ao muij jmn ; mid if 
that reftml caa be pcored, the letters coiiM hardly hnvr been secretly ob- 
taiiMsrf. Now there wm no vaoiney ui the see of Bordenux from the end of 
Jannarr, Wfi7, befon Januar7, 1S50, 

Tb'* compilation of an index is no doubt beneath the dignity of a ProfesAor 

of Eccleaiafilicol Elitftoiy ; but an editor, nercrthelesa, is bound to look after 

it We read in the Index, " Anne^, buihop of." Penoni not Frofeasoa of 

Eof Icnastical Hiitocy may be forgiven if ib^ arc ataitled by such an aiuioudo»* 

Lttont l>r. Shirley baa tnndated " Epijioopns Anicientda,'* Bishop of Annevyi 

rautcod of biabop of Le Puy. 

la p. xxr. of the Preface, Dr. Shirloy colhi our attention to the " report of 

m^Ut ftadactoua chaplain vho keeps tiro wivea otid chuDui a Pnjial diBpeiitiir 

BiDn.'' For this we turned bock to the Ant volunus anrl after tKone troublO} 

Ite Dr. Rhirley baa ipared himself the trouble of a Tefereoce— wo find a letter 

in which the Bot. William Dena^ vicar of Mnndham, near Chichester, is 

Ldelatcd tn the bishop of that see ns a bigamist Mr Dona produo«1 letten 

Ifrotn the Pope, apparently justifying his prooeedinfis ; but the Sussex people, 

■T"'— g whom be livf<d, mid tluit those Lettern wcie nArer knted by the Pope, 

pad that they were contrary to the decroM of a gensfal eonndL Hie bishop's 

noxnvpondeni, who deUle« the int'inities of the Rer. Witliaui Dens, is not 

^^vry CDDch scnndnlizod by tbem ; and it may be sud that ho treats thom as a 

tmy coaimon affair ; for nflor aitkin^ the bishop what he was to do In the 

Utttter, hermiindji IiIk prelate of lhonece«eity, above all things (w^9iimui)) 

mtt having ux wolfilu^ in the pork at AJdi:^{boa^le. 

I The slory is very stran)^ : n bigamist clerk, the people talkistg of gonenl 
Houncns, and the binhop^ itj;^?nt mying that six houad« are moro oe- 
noHuy than the diwupUne of the Church. Hero are the vordii: — Duos AaA«C 

Ptnarti, utdtnVur, ^unnuii unaajnidCiet^riamL Qui juitUm WilUl- 

mud liltrfu dtiiUit a mtwmo Pottt^t, ut dixit, ttd in pnrlihiu Sumexitt . , , . 
fjUt quod mm^uam littnt Ula a consdenlia domini Papffi emantntrwU^ §»A 
■MNira 9ta$via conr»7n fmunliStfturant i-mprtratir. (Vol i. p. 277.) 

Hie people of 8uaaeT were very sorptical about the alleged dispensation : 
thay rci^arded it as a ftmnd od the Pope, and contrary to the decrees of « 
Lgcnend eonaeiL Now, whit gcMml council ever forbade a priest to have 
niro vlvw at cnce 1 I>td the Soaex peoiile know of it t Oan Dr. Shirley, 
piroftaor of BoeleaijutiaU History, pvtKlaoe the docreei which it made 1 We 
■feooU like to Bee them oonelvee, and we do not know where to look for 

^ Tke truth of the matter aeeme to be thia :— Hie Bev. WllUam Dens vaa In 
thi> early put uf the tli'trteenth centniy^ like a great nuuiy of his brethren, a 
|TMp*ctablo and prospfrooi pkuilitt He had two wiveji, as tbey say, nt h 
UMhir ; that ia, be held two beae6eai. Thoae who were not bis friends would ^M 
Mat believe in tbs dixpctLintinn, and quoted the deoves of a general eounei] ; ^M 
Mms* of I^tenut in U71>, uudiT Ali'Mimt<'i HI., and again te\ieait«A^w«MBHtt^ 
Moimcn ^ Ijilenui in 121^ ; tyjLh, ihm recrut, mi>V wA, ^«\ <Y^\ft VntfMieft» 
■he Vntimar who eiiiui ihrac Ii-tten i» proWbly » gw^< mA woV«t i»»^''*^ 



n 



S64 



Noiiees of Books. 



doee not know a Jest when be sew it, and^ moreoror, vho ia not quite fiinwTJ i^r 
with the modes of speech current amon^ eccleeiastics who spoke Baion and 
Norman French. S. Francis of Sales mif[ht be convicted on better evidencc 
of being not only iiiamed, hiil iictiiully ackiiowK'dgiDg hiH wifo — fenvnu ; and 
aa his conviction would I»e unjust, «o we believe of Mr. Denii. That respect- 
able ccclMiastic Ill-id more than one benefice, perhaps with cure of aouU ; bill 
we do not think it can be Biud of him that he ever had even one wife, otbcr- 
wise than in the senae of being a pluralist. 



Ctwu de JSipaiia ; iUustrative of i^jxiin ami Iht itpaniunU (u th^jf an. By 
Mm, W«. Pitt Btrke, author of " Flemish Int«rior»," &&, &c, 
London and New York ; Alexander Strahan. 1666. 

" /^OSAS DE ESPANA " in a most readjible book on Spain. It is not 
\j written fnr a purpose, or on a foregone conclusion. Almost every 
page bears evidpnco of the freshness and impulsiveness of the writer. A 
pncUsed traveller, a keen obRcrver of thin^^'it, yielding to an excitfid cunoaity 
conccrnin;* the habit« of a newly vieitcd people, and to a thint for accnralc 
knowledge, noting facts as they arose on every side, and drawinj: rapid 
inferencea, was sure to find, in such n peculiar country as Spnin, stuff for an , 
interesting and lively book. Such a traveller is Mrs, Rtt BymCi the 
authoress of " Ooeas do EspoEa," and of several other popular books of 
travel Eschewing the oommonplnce, the authoress threw beivolf on bcr 
own ffflourcra in her journeying^ through Spain, in her dealings with tha 
Spaniards, and in her rcMenrches for information. The travelling party, for 
the writer, it appears, was accompanied by some near relati^'ee, scenu to 
have enjoyed themselves heartily. Nothing came amiss, or any misadvvQ- > 
ture but added to the zeat of the travellers. Such an enjoyable spirit, I 
rising at times into fun, secures the readers of the " Cosa* de Esponn * i 
from ill-tempered observations and croas-graincd, criticisms^ which am ' 
temptations but too likely to beset unwary or ungcntal tnvcllers in such an 
out-of-the-way oountrj- &» Spain. 

The dedgn of " Gosiis de Gspaiia " is to preaent its reailent with the inonti 
and material aspects of Spain as it is in its period of transition. Such periods , 
are always noteworthy, not only beciuisc they present a state of things about I 
to pass away from familiar observatiou, but because they arc the seed-plota I 
of (Utnre good or evil If the observer accumtcty disoems the nature of the I 
seeds which are being caRt in the soil, and faillifully deachbes Mhat he 
sees, be enables every man to fonn an estimate of thi» Imncst which tlie next 
generation is to reap. To present a picture of things na thej* are, and to 
forecast the future lot of this almost unexplured country, u the pnipose of 
this ktest work on Spain. To this end the authore», during her sojourn iu 
the PeninsuU, has collected » largo store of facts, necessarily miscellaneous 
in their nature, but all illustrating iu their degree, and by their very variety,! 
the duiracter of the people. Although stAttstica, int'CrrAling and iu>eftd, are^ 
by BO mnus wanting, "Owas de EapaAa" is nut a merely 6t.-itiKticAl book. 
It is not only back-bone. The skelefcoo outline furnished by offidal or wcll-d 
coUooled statieticB, is filled up by the lesulta obtained Cram penooil ohsenra J 



I 




tma of « nri«d cfau»ec«r. (Hir* jwdi, ud cd^ bctoric^, roiitch Mwntrjr 
m*di, nod b^iouble prcmwwdws pfwnw and Uintre«, girv cohxi uid 
Ufa to iht picture. This enterptinng puty of tiBTcUai left tbe high road 
or tb^ rul, and wvnt. so to spemk, manm ooVBtiy. The roo^ roftd, Um 
fiald. the ditch, tb« rillBge inn, gkrc ample "*■******■ of ohMmtion. The 
ODimtry Imiapkin. tbe peanut woiaui, tha motley crowd at the iiui door, the 
gnTo and aolemn stAre giriiig w«y to the nMuml conrUsy of the Spftntud, 
wc bU poortcayvd by pen and pendl in such a way a« to »how that the 
•xpvrieooe of Spuiuh life waa weD bought at the expense of the penonal 
oooiibri of the apdhted trmTcDezB. 

Bat Mn. Bynw'a observationit were not all dnvn firom one loaroe : 
dibough aba ** roagjbed " it in the country, she indtilt'ed in the luxnrioQa aighta 
of otiea ; allhoitgfa ihs was chanoed with the woodpn winf-prm uF the 
aleaping rine-dreaeer'B oot, yet ahe also had to endure the san^^iuinafy 
apM»cl/e of the Madrid bull-fipfaL PiiAare ^Horiea and niiutd fMlacm 
gave tbeir nlent testimony to the past greatiieai and &lleo grandeur of 
^ain. Oooeerta and ihefttrea exhibited modem tastes and eostonu, and 
hookahopB and pnbltihen' liata showed the extent or character of moderu 
Spaaiiih Utentore. The nuthonn podnU out, let nii remark by the wny, aa 
on* of the KTvnt impe<linicnu to the suoceas of new woriu, tbe defictoMy of 
nafly cicrcr reviews otid magaanes in Spain. 

tlad we tpao* «nn to attempt an analysis of thu insinictire and lively 
worltt oar readcci woold be sarprised at tbe Tariety of tho iuformatioa to be 
foondin theao two wAtl-fumixhetl Toliunra. The happy lot of the TJnfr^raaaen 
of YaUwlolid or of the Andoliuian olire-growen, finds its eontrsat in tho priaon 
•oeoe* of great cities which ore described with Ufe-Uke exactacM by Mrs. Byrne, 
who baa made benelf Luniliar with the prisons and the prison discipline of 
mnet oosatiiea In Europe. On this special sobjcct she hw a right to ttpeuk. 
We quote, as follnwi, one bet the mentions about the attendance at tbe chi^M'l 
attadwd to the pmou near Valladolii), in showing a want of leal and 
aha«ttee of diacipllne which ace not to the credit of the authoritio*, cocleaia»> 
lieal or civil. — "The chapel is a very plain and most unattractive pUoe : 
ttOQgb lug*i it ftU) only contutn n fmirth uf thv pniiunens »u that, at. thrro 
is only one masa a week, the bulk of them, who arc nbligrd to rviiwin in thu 
tengh^ otoridur outAJde, never bear man at all. This corridor is their 
prfisQ, or recreation room, and during the office tbey auiuae themselTfee by 
pUying at various j^nea. Notwithstanding tho veiy indiflbrent way in 
which nioml <liM-ipU]M ii pnetieaUj cairied oot, then is a feh<tw of theorvtioal 
uuimJily, and {liona ^ilkorisms an painted up tm taUcta oU n>unil for tho 
edifioation of tlit* prisonen." (P. 1Sl>, Vol I.) For the desoriptioa of 
Spanish prisims attd prison discipline, which Mnuna satisfiutoiy, we must ntir 
to the work itwlf. 

We will not attempt lo describe tbe gramlrar and the variety of Bpa&Ldi 
auhedmls. cburdiM, and mooasteriea, which our tmvrllor met with, and Iw* 
so gr^hicaUy pictured, from her flnt entrance iot^i Ibr llAjnjue provinces unld 
she took up brr «tunners at CMora. What cutilnuts are not {vcaented to (w 
is Ibeaapagca—rBUoaof fitUaognatnesajoetledottt of |djM*by thecbtnEyof 
■udam mtttpciMi, tba i^atby of cnntentcd iadiAmMf» or tbt piida vi 



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CutUiaa blood, aroiued or wonnded by Ui« preacneo of the fonit^ cspiulut I 
Then wn aiv lolil rif ilio overthrow oj' iincicnl cuKtflins, prejudices, and 
fieLf-coiuplAoent dreftmH of natioiial superiority by tho ad\-pnt:, ho eloqueiitly 
dMcrflwd hy Miv. II.iTno, of aU-oonqnering iron. lUUroodt— tboB« gnat 
lereUem— ue begiimii^ to br«ak up the Spab of ronuuioe and of 
indoldnoe. Of th«tr pro«pect«, and of the cfTcctn which they Am producing 
on tho nutionAl ckanutcr, we must rufw again to " Cotoui dc E«panK " 
il«el£. No reader can go uver Uu»e pogn withoat gaining a lively 
impreauon, not only of the ancient cities and of tiic wayiddc or moantaiD 
Boeneiy of tiiia beautiful country-, but aUoof tho cnstonii and poooltor diaiwh 
terifltics of thii, in nmny re^peetA, flin^Uar people. Such ad iinpreanon is 
oonBidenibly enhanced by lliu isptritcil woodcubi, which add wi mnch to th« 
pl«a«ure and value of tiie»e hanrlmine volninm. With quick and thoughtful 
obeerration the peculiar chanutoristica of Bpaniidi sights and Bccneiy, national 
oofttitmca and buildings, have been c»ught and reproduced vrilh happy cfToct 
The steep, hilly deaceut to 6auta Cnu, witli the inonntiuaB in tlic di^t^uioc ; 
one diligence^ with ila numerous mules, ruihing down the decline, and 
unoihor clattering on the foreground, accompaniwi by drivers with cracking 
whipa, arc executed with grout diuth and bold and accurate perspectiTe. 
ScgoTia and ila Gothic ctttliodml will be sure to Qttmct the reader's admi- 
mlion. Cftrdovji, also, wiUi Us Nrnresfiue tower n»d buttroMpd bridge oyer 
tbo Ciujulnlquirer, i» a spirite*! sketch. It vtw very tlimightlul to proride 
for the stay-atrhoine readeni of these volumes Midi pleawint glimpses of ndtial 
life in Spain. These illuirtnitioDS, which ore of grcot variety, Ijcnr the 
niimognini, "R, H. B.," and are, wc believe, the work of Mm. Pitt B}TDc> 
sister and fellow-traveller in Spain. 

In parting with thi« agreeable and inatmctive book, we have one objection, 
or mther, perhaiw, eicpliamtirin to miikc. Th<-' iuiprcesion, then, which 
"Oosaa dc Ewpjifia" conveys as a whole is that Spain is not only out at 
elbows, and uncntorprtHing in imlustrial punuiiu, but that she has also yet to 
be civilized ; that nho is not up to llie prop:reaa of the age. Kun-, if thi:> 
means tJuit Spain, owing to no matter what cansea, has lagged behind these 
nmrvellouely enterprising times ; that she haa yet to learn from Fraaoe or 
England almost the fiist elements of commercial pmsperity ; that, fhmi tndo- 
lejioe of chamoter or from national prejudice, the natural resources of wealth 
are underolopedi and her credit couscf ^uenlly low in the markela of Eun^M, 
we grant tho estimate to the ftdL But if the estimate implies anything more 
than this — if it means that in the higher branches of civilization, in moral 
culture, in tho knowledge and practice of the divine prccepta, in national 
virtue and conaeqncnt happiness, Spain w U-hind England and Fnmcc,— we 
hold such an opinion to be open to gmve objection. In a^ fiir an civilinttion — 
not meaning thereby merely tho progrew of the material arta— in Christen- 
dom is not Chrifltian, it is not progressive but retrogreasive ; it is a going 
bock to the materialism of Pagan ideoa, and the effect of sod a return to 
Pagan principles of civilinttion wootd neccwsirily be a ditnolntion of Chrirtian 
itodely. But nut to make ttK> much of this object i'ni, or mther to nhnw (bnl 
/// nttlity thr writer of "Cuana do HlffpnriK," while justly crtliriiiii;; tlir 
r.iut of iitdastry and eDt«rpriso tn ^pavn, ^v«a tnOiV ust^V V.t} \bft hi^ 



NoiuMg of Books, 



267 



tnonl worth of the BtNuiisli ehanotor, w« cit«, to conclude onr nellco of this 
TnrifHl work, one out of many poaogM Twording the hif;h anrt noblp qtuJiUea 
—the rirttin of Mlf-denial^ forbmnuioe, gencitwit^, which arc the long resultfl 
of Cbrutiitn dTilizallon on Uio Bpuouh mind : — 

^ The natioDfU code of honour/ says the nuthor«H of " Ooiu de Espafia,* 
** hu been ibtu detailed by one of thf>ir popular writen : ^ Ese codi^ hnce 
ijae el qnp «« ingmto se le Ihinie niiU nitcedo. If » man he nngraU-fid, tlic 
people SBV of hini be is as one whoflc father U nnknown. If he ho ixTJured, 
they murk hiio u tnfiuuoiu hh with iin inrn brand. If he dL'c«iTO ft woman, 
th«y pomt kt him the fhif^ of scorn and cry, *' rilLvin." If he ■baadon his 
parviitd in cAA aito, they i^ptt in hitt fiicv.' Ainonf^ the conniiy peojilo ihe 
habile of life are t»iniple, nnd thoir mormLi rcry pan*. The rirtuoi of the 
rflloge women have formed the theme of euloginm among eoclal writora. 
' Tho rillaga women of the singlo-mindod Cntholie SponiardK hnrc excep4 ionat 
hearlA ; ibeyare nunn of kn-o— pore and holy models of wives and mothvra.' 
It k tha wife who la idwaya the dapoaituy of the ftuiily ftands, from whntovor 
aoitlte. The Andalnstana are benevolent, hoipttable, and ctuiritiiMr. Aluta 
tiwy call ' Ih holm dc Dio^' — tlie pome of Ood. Thoy aUo entertain a rwpoct 
and Teneration for of^o, which i» oflen tt charming ohomctoriatio of n iilraph>, 
unflophiMticateil people. Tfaoj addieaa any oM perwm (though mluoed to 
pauperisui, and become a 'iwrduwrci,' as beggar* expressively tenu them- 
mItb) na * tio ' or ' da,' answering to our 'gaffer* and 'gammer.' corniptcd 
from ^niuidfathcr and gmndmothcr ; and if he approach their dwelling! at the 
hour nf a mtMl, they nxk him to nit at tablu with lliera and 'ochar la 
benrdioioii' — mty gnicc fur them. . . . The AnrLJiiAinmi were formerly 
nBaarkttblo for their piviy, the tra<litioua of which stiU livo among thfm. 
Up to thp end of the hut cmilury thealroa were furbidden tn Scrilla, and tbo 
nnmtfcr of little imogea and altars placed in nichcn, at the oorneia of atreota and 
on the walU of hooaea, waa ao |(reet that Iho town rcqtiired no other lifting 
than tho votive lamps that burnt before them. Vet}* few of thoae aarrtn 
tA thp present day ; Imt of the imnpecta of rvllgion in the Peninanlo, a modem 
Spaniidt aathor vTilci) thtu) : — 'The tide haa, however, now turned : at tho 
pmcnt day (here are nnmhera of men, and epecinlly young men, who con- 
stiinto among tbenMlvta what may be called an aristocmoy of religion and 
"h^xSms^ giring pmniae that the day is not iar distant when the cyniciam of 
vice will fidl under Ifao contempt aod ridicule which ii already the lot of the 
old ojnidnn of infidelity.* Of the pnctiaal Tirtoee of honesty, aobrictT, and 
cleanlhieM, we fonnd very obviotu eridcnoea In BerflU fteelf ; and In the 
oonne of woUu, ridm, nml oxcuntona into the rural noighboorhood, we 
obaerred them in a utill t^Teater degree. The oleanlinoai in lomc of the \yocnrt 
rabniban honaeit, and in the dnaietB of very hnmble eottagea forming Utile 
TfDagna of a rery primiUve cfaaimcter, b quite I>utch in ita perfection, and 
gave ua a fiiToamble IdcA of the bright, happy Andaluslon moc, amoog whom 
w« had come. Onr readers will pereeiTo that we hare aa yet onty eiitabli»hed 
oanelvra in SeriUa, whera we h<^[>e tu nojuum for aome lime. BovilU, with 
ila pPMtni tTeoMircH of utiqitiiy, and tho paat iMociationi with which ^hlirt 
are oMUieeted, daierm iibuo«t a volume to \Im\L \v \w«»m» «3^ «n^aaN 
and » ohapfcr in t&e life of him who vlaita iC tV\« tua^lbonmO. ^<>**^' 



268 



Notices of Books. 



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£«pnna" proposea to treat, in a future toIuiiic^ tin cntirelj dilTerent phAM of 
the Spanish character, as exhibited in the ikctivc populations of the southern 
and eBBt«ni produces. We shall look forward with interest for the .ippeur- 
ancs of th<? promised volume on a country no interesting and yet ao little 
known as f^pain. 



Lcduns on CaOuAie Faith and Practice, by Rev. J. N, Swkkt, O.S.B. 
London : Richardson. 

By iin iinfortiuiate accident those vnlumrs did not come to hand, till it 
waa too Inte in the iiuiirtcr to give them that carpftil notice which they 
deserre ; and we think it better, therefore^ mthcr to delay our notice, thiin to 
fail in giTing due attention to so important a work. Nothing can hv more 
ndmimble thaa F. Sweeny's plan ; and whererer we have happened to dip, 
we have found most orthodox principles enforced with great vigour and freah- 
nesB of argument and lilustmtion. We hare l}oen led by tlie circuuistjuioea 
of the moment to look cnrefaUy at the author's reply to Protestant objections 
against Marian worship (vol iii, pp^ 147<184) ; and wecameatly recommend 
it to our readers, aa one of the most suocesaful ailments on the matter which 
we have ever seen. In October wo will give a fiall view of the entire work. 



Journal 0/ EttgJnie dc OhMju Edited by 0. S. Trcbutjcn. Sinipkin 

Mnrahall, and C'a London : 1865. 

WK have read this journal with deep interest, and yet with a feeling of 
something like remorse, as if we were looking at a letter not intended 
for our eyes, or listening to a confidential cnnrenwition : in so great a dci^ree 
doea its chsnn depend on \U nncumcimimeaw, and upon the perfect convjo- 
tion of the writer, that to no eye but his for whom she writes wotdd this 
record of her deepest and most hidden feelings ever be disclooed. 

" When everylKMly is h\\sy (she sayti). and I am not wanted, I go into 
retreat, and came bore at all houre to write^ read, and pray. I note down 
bore, too, what goes on, either in my mind or in tlie house ; and in this way 
wc shall be able to find again, day by dny, the whole past For me, what 
piuwp» it of little worth, and I should not write it down, but that I my, 
•Maurice will be ven* glad to see what we were doing while he was away, 
to re-enter thus mto the family life ;' ami so I wrote tt for thee." 




10 joiinial of Eugenie de Ou^rin embraces, with occasional IniemiptlonB, 
a period of six yeans, 6pDm 18^ to 1840, It is simply the record of a 
wouuin's daily life in a remote chAtetui in Langucdoc, written for n brother 
for away in the midst of the great intoxicating world of Paris> iwtrtly, it 
would seem, to give ntterance to the affectioais of a hmri which flowed forth 
in love upon sll God's creatures, and rested witli aluuwt idolatruns fondneM 
upon him ; luiKly to give him plensuro ; and, most of all, as a means of 
speaieiog a wnrt\ to him for Goil, by keeping the thought of home alive in 
Mg heart ; for MAuricc de Ou6rin, whoae c^uldhtyod, \MA.Vn«a m \sa\y and so 



Notices of Booh. 



269 



para Uut resenble pfoUtcs of the Ohorcb had looked fomrd to the day 
wheu he KhoulU be called to raimsler at her altan, hsd fallen under ihe fatal 
iaflttence of the unhappy Lmnennaia, and followed that wandering star into 
the darknwB of acepticutnL The brightnen of fab genins, and the grace and 
beauty of hu person, wltieh might have beBOCined a troubadour of the 
chivalrous days of hiA own ninny lAngnodoc, made him the idol of the infidel 
and iut«llcctuul society or Paris. Yet the companion of Victor Hugo and 
Modaiiio 8und wa» etili bound to the holy traditions of his diildhood by the 
old UiOui of home memories, kept bright and strong by the loving and un- 
tiring h&nd of his sister ; and by the might of her patience and her pniyent 
she drew the wanderer home at last to die a Christian death — *'a death,* as 
she Bays, ^ upon a crucifix.'' 

Wc have no space for the quotations, which we would fiuu moke, from a 
book so full of beoutifid and holy thotights. Eugenie <lc Ouiriu, like bar 
brother, wms a poet ; the light of poetiy falls upon the commonest aud 
humblest features of her cveiy-day life, and homely beyond the wont of 
womeo of her dc^gree, was the life ut this gifted child uf an anuent but 
imporerished house, who leares her peu ever and anon, now to wash her 
gown in the stmim, now to assist In preparing the fauiily mud. Her intense 
lure of home and kindre<), and her keen enjnjiiient of countiy life, iirc* soch 
aa otdiniirily belong ruther to a Qermon or on EngliHli woman tlnui tu a 
Fkvocfawoman. Henoe, perhapa, the popularity which lier journal has ob* 
Uined amongst English Proleslants, who, fimUng thrtv so much of the 
natuntl goodness and beauty In which they can fully sympathixe, have been 
willing to tolerate in her that measure of the supernatural which must 
b« expected in a Catholic 

Soue, we hear, have pUiced her on a level with S. Teresa ; while otht 
hareeontXBSted twrfavourably witli tl)cs.'ituUyChirvof Am. All this Pmtisuutt 
aympathy, together with one or two queetionaMe [KiKuif-tii in tht* journal, such 
aa an expreasion of enthusiastic odmintlion for that unhappy child Lady 
Jono Grey, may possibly raise a suhpicion that the spirit of Engvnie de 
(Sueriii's jonmal is not purely Catholic : we should say mthrr, tliat it in not 
didinrfirWy Catholic, certainly not soin/Iy. We huve the picture uf n pure 
and bouitifal spirit, in which baptismal grace hiul been shielded from exterior 
Umptationa, anrl from any aerBie internal trial, save that to which in a m«i- 
sun it yielded — the temptation to suffer on innocent and most iuu4>IfiMh 
earthly affection to ilurkon Iilt h^urt with ilH &luiduw, and to iiiirm'iA the 
■hitting of the full U^ of God's countenance upon it. S. Teraa, whose love 
far her brother so atron^y attracted Eu^nie's heart, could iwvcir faava asii], 
** I want Maurice and God." We ore not presuming to censurv or to oitielie ; 
it woidd be a hanl heart that could do either : wa would Htmply worn Catholic 
nadera not to expeot what they will not find ; and assure Protostanta, who 
oampara Eugenie de Gu^rin with Jean Bapttsto Vianney, thai they spaak of 
what they du not undentond. Ue who makes even the imperfections of 
Uis faithful children wurk out their etvrnal good, osed what was oxoessive in 
the siBler's low ttf win bark tlie bnjlhet's toul, and to fnuify her own, aa ta 
a Ctfij- i-ruc-ihlf, for Kinuwlf 

'then nrv itotue fen tridin^ bltmdcra iu the ^ni\]^[W& \xiiaJka>Mf>Kt''<^ 



nced^ 
othc^^^ 



270 



Notieea of Books. 



betray an uncathoUo hand ; mich as the rcpfat«d mention of jmrioiuiign at 
Iisngiwdoc : bat it hu the merit of simplicity and vpirit ; the venet espe- 
tfaUy flow viih Uie eaw :uid >>raue of origiiuU poetry. 



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Mau of th Holy Chii/IJmii,/or Vni$on Sitting, trUK Organ Aeeontpanimmtt 
oomptmdftiT the Church of the Oratoryy and Atdieaied to ihe Very Rev. 
Falker iJalgaimtj bv Wilublh ScnrLTUBS, op. 40. London : LofflbrK 
ft Co. 

W£ hare much pleasure iu dirootmg attention to the above wodi of 
Hen- Scbulthcs. Our supply of Mass nui&ic of a simple and popolai 
character ii by no mean^ too abundant, and ve are ready to welcome the 
present addition to our etores, rspeciolly aa it comes noonunendcd by iUi con- 
nection with the Oratory of St Philip Nen at Brooiptoo. W*; midentaud 
that the pn^sent Mass, which was composed by the desire of Urn lute Rev, F. 
Oloog, is already in uac by the piipiU of the Training School nt Hammer- 
tmith and elsewhere, and that it is found both euay and effL-othre; We should 
think it, therefore, well worthy the attention of comumiiitieB and achoola 
eHpeciAlly where, a« in coiiv«ute, music fur treble voices i» required. Wc juay 
venture to add timt in Huiall choin} it would uotbeaml'u if HiiiipledevotionaS 
uassea like tlic one before m were oftener substituted for tboee diificolt oom- 
positioiiB uhich are £requentty attempted without the means (at their proper 
exeeutiou. 



MiUditt for ihc Hymn* of F, Fabevt F, CancaU, S. Alphaimu, A*- Iftmo. 
AcfomjMnimmU for ih,* tame, rt^al Svou London : liunbert & Ca 

TUEKK arc uow, it t^ pro^umed^ few timonj; uawhodo not ayinpathlaavitb 
the movement in fiivour of popiilar hymn-singing aeton foot by tho Oi»> 
toriau Fnthors some teuyenraoftOfaod of which experience hassomuniatakaably 
shown the adv.'uituf^e, eepeoially to the middle and Iowa classes of our Catb<h 
lie population. For the Bettiiif; on foot of the movement the chief uiateriala, ai 
is well known, were the Uymcs of the late huuented F. Faber. These woo 
foUuwed, or rather aooompauied, by the beautiful translations and other com- 
positions of F. Caewall ; aod loore recently our store has bean still (Urther 
enriched by tlie simple and thurminji; vetsea of 3. AJphousus, so well trans- 
bted hy tlie Futhcni of his Order. All these, with other publtoationif hnnnf{ 
a similar objecti may now he heard in our schools oud popular aervioea thnugli- 
out the Length and breadth uf tlic land, tuid are destined, wu doubt uot, to be 
the delist and cdiiiaitiuu of youoj; and old for years to comu. The highest 
pcaiae we can give to the little work tioforo ua in to say ik-il it itt a worthy 
oomponion to the |M>ctry to which it n tdlicd. Hymns without uiuio hava 
their usa, and on iu{iGrtant one, as Potliur Faber has shown in the PrefiiOB tu 
Hynms ; but tlw addition of melody, luid sgain of hanuouy, immensely 
loes their value for all public, social, or odncatiunal poiposes. In thiss 
-a^ieets wc am hardly iniaj^ne a more useful Manual than the prcwont ; and 
w hook for the preeenl day it wema to oa \n auv\i\^ ^hq dUGuult, though 




Notie&i of Ji0ok$^ 



271 



not ifflpowibl« oombiiuttOD,— of imupUcity aud attractiTfiQeaB with uiuwooi 
telle aad akilL This, indeed, uti^t hire been expected from tho nuniee of 
Uw emhieBt Catholic oomposen wo tuect iriih in glutcing'orer ile pefcos. Uerr 
S«hnlthcat of Ihe Oratury, ia, lu in meet, a rraiuent cmLribtilor, nod bu 
melodtee for some beautiful fajnniu of F. Faber never before set to suisie 
will be much esteemed. 



StiUtana of Ou Rpttek nuuU b^ Earl Ortjf in fA« JfotuiG of TjOtAm, on Ow. I8IA 
Mardt, 1866, on the SlaU nf Irclanit. Ixmdon : Murray. 

<WrA«(«(»u to an Inquiry into ttw ^ai( 0/ Irctund, )<y tlio Rl){1iI ITon. 
Lord DorrBRiv, K.P. Loodon : John Mumy. 

LORP GltEY^ Bpeech on the atate of Ireland U chamcteriitod by the 
great natural icuteneNH aiul clewr ninrerity which bi'Inng tn hi« mind and 
ohamcter; nni) no Enf^h statesman luut denounced the folly of goremiag 
Inland on the assumption that the Hamflu Catholic religion is fitlse, and most 
ttenfttttt be lyatonaticaDy diaoeaztged, in more iadl|(n&nt or in wiaer laofcuage. 
Rfa gimnd remedy Lna rvdivivinnnf the frclc«injilinil pmprrty nf Ireland among 
the Oatholic, Protestant, and PrCThj-torinu communions, in proiwrtion to their 
mpKtive numbers. We do not dinput^ the jiutice and policy of tiuch a pro- 
OMdlng ; Uit we utterly disbelieve thnt it would have the particular effect 
which IfOid Grey contirmj^tM. It woulil not touch the great discontent 
whieh prcTAtls in Ireland. That discontcul Is almost altogether caused by tho 
bad rotations which as a rule pierail btrtwern tlio Iriiih tenantry and their 
landbrds. Until the ooutest between thcac two oUsses is settled by Irgisb* 
tion, or comes to some other end, there can be no peace In the country. Doring 
the recent Fenian ptooeedingi the Roman CSatholic deiity did their utmost to 
maintain the Ooremment and to pnrent the tpnnd of tho cooipiracy— and 
pvobaUy with moro efrt<ct thou if they luul bceji In tho receipt oif a Reximn 
Donnra at the time. To offer the Ciitlwtic clcrgr a state proviaian may he 
JMt and politic ; but there i« banlly a priest in Ireliutd who vonld not dtvlare 
thnt if the object of statesmen is tho pacification and prosperity of tho 
eoontry, that can only bo soctned by limitinft the powora of the bindlord, and 
aeonring the fmftii of his indnatty to the triuuiL 

Wo oonfo«i to a (^evous sense of disappointment In regarding tho cimt«^Li 
of Lord Dulferin's volume. Lord DufTerin is one of those ran persona among 
the Irtili oligarchy —we must unfortunately [irefcr the word to aristocnuy — who 
might eerre hia claai by endeavoimng to harmonise their interosta with that 
of the country, and whoM character has a fanciniition, sure, if it were only 
wen enongh known, tn attract a wiile-sprend popular loyalty in IrrUml. 
Ireland is greatly capublu of boing scrred by and of serving nnch a man. 
Tho nasy and brilliaut gpuiua, tho {graceful wit, thr lUie dexterity of 
itfW of the Hhcildatts. como to klm with hb mothn's blood : it may 
ba feand boo, aoowwhat of the crude and ftliallow character which be- 
lozQad to the polities t^ the grsat«n of the name. There ia a pua^p in 
00* of Mr. Sheridan's speedMs, In IBOO, on OohoUo Auuioipatina^ <iC 
whttie peculiar fklMtlo character uertain MmVcncca \ii litn&'^vBM^^ •V'^i 
oT last Msrch rauiod as. " What l« ihiMiu nf «muua(vaS&ii«,<^C^>l3t>'^^^^ 



272 



Noitcea of Booh. 



I 



I 



o^kcd Mr. Sheridun. "It t8 like giving a laced hat to a mail who waatB-i 
shoes to his fe^t." "Ther« is no use," exclaims Lord Duflerin, "in 
Icgislatlag for Ireland, in consfKjuenoe of Kenianism. Tbe pre««nt 
Fenian niureiuent in Ireland is entirely disconnected from luiy uf thou 
qucfltdons which can ever become the subject of ixwrliauientaiy int«r- 
ferenoe." But why is Fenianimn formidable, and why does it endure ? 
Because of tho wide-spread discontent which the neglect and the inertness of 
^riiament in regard to those questions gencmtev. Beauiso the Iriah people 
in general despair of any redresa of any wrong, however gross, by pruoess of 
Piarliaincnt, unless they can firet pnxluce a panic on the purl of Pmlijiiucnt, 
It 18 a fiUlacy, therefore, to urge that tlie Fenians are not really solicitous for 
Te^iant Right, and do not press for tlic disondowinent of tbe Established 
Obnrch, or for Freedom of Education. What the Fenians suhrttniitiallj 
•ay to the Irish people is : *' It ie no use to ask Parliaiucnt for these 
oonoeouons. Parliament will never do justice to you, unkas under 
preasttie of force. But let ua aboliah Gorcmnient by Partiainent, and 
then all the rest will follow." If Parliaiueiit, however, would oidy do its 
duty in regard to Uiose great grievances, of which every di^ipaasionat* 
jwnon admitd that tlie Irish people have cause to complain, tlm the one great 
argument for ilisnffection would cease to have any more force with llie Irish 
than it would have witJi the English or the Scotch people. U the English or 
Scotch people were treated us the Irisli have been and are ; if the law com- 
pelled them to endure a Catholic Church E.-ttabU.shmcnt, aiul the whole popu- 
ation vna reduce^l to the Iriith sy&t«ui of tenaucy at will, adminiittrred by 
Irish laudlorda, Parliunieul might liavc to reckon nearer homo with some- 
thing won>e than Irish Fcuianisui. 

This fundamental fullacy seetmi to us to vitiate all Lord Puffcrin's argument, 
for it iavulves the cuuclusioif that the cose of Ireland is one to which legialar> 
tion can do no goml, or next to none ; and Parliament is only too willing to 
be allowed to abstiun from legislating. We deeply deplore tho fact that such 
■ man m L»n) DulFciiD. instead of applying his exoelleut intellectual powuts 
and great intluctice with hbt Paily to the twlution of the pmblcnift of govern- 
ment which preKs for settlement in his country, should cuuunit himself to 
what wuuld amuiint to an advocacy uf the cold-bootled and stupid system of 
maongiug Ireland, which pierailed during Lord Palmeraton'a administmtion ; 
but from which his sucoesson seemed to have brokeu away. It is htn 
justice to say that the Tenant Right Bill iutroducc<d by Mr. Forteocue this 
ttOtwiOQ is tlm largest and fhircdt mcoaare of tho kind introduced by any 
Govemmeut ; and, if it should full through, as is but Um pri)l)ablu now, the 
fall of Lord RusselTs miniatry will be a gravs calamity to the p«>ple of 
Iceland. 



We have received too late for notice in this number a copy of Mr. Earle's 
excellent Manual of the Htstocy of the Popes, just published by MeasfK. 
Richardson, which seems to us to answer very admirubly to a want which tiiany 
have felt in Gngliuh Outhulic literature ; and we are obliged reluctantly to 
post/MVio, n/uojjg otlu'n, a notice of Dr. McCon^-V pamphlet on the Scotch 



TUG 



DUBLIN REVIEW. 



OCTOBER. 1866. 



AxT. I.— S. PIUS v., THE FATHER OF CHRISTENDOl 

}Juio%rr^.% Pic r, Papf ,U rOrtlrttUt Prim Prtthtun : Par U CvmiS 
dt FaltoiLT, Uf»re, J. O. LA-HDINOIGL 18AS. 

Tht Pope aiul the. Turk iXwiurie the TJUnl of Dr. Nttema*'t Leeiitrt* ort 
History ../ the Turig). Dvrrr. 18&4. 



^ 



Uie I 




"rpUE blessed gorm of faitli/' writoa M. de Folloiuc in 1852, 
X " waM discovorod by u haudful of men, Bomo forty years 
&(^, beueatli the ruiua of Lho revolution. The priests had beeu 
driTOD forth, aiid the lips of Isymon began to speak the 
langnago of tUo Church. This mission was first saarod 
three men — Chateaubriand, de Qonald, and do Maistro." 

The Count do Falloux himself baa nobly followed in their 
steps, and in the nork before us has vindicated the fame, br 
simply reUting the history, of that great and much calumuiu 
pontiff, S. riuH V, 

In this picture, drawn by a statesman of the nineteen' 
ceatur)% we see in a strong and clear light tho truth of tho 
wordit ill our catechism which teach us that " the word Po[ 
stgnifies father." Wo need not, indeed, go so far to seek an 
example of this truth; for tho heart of every Catholic amongst 
us swells within him at tho name of Pins IX. No one wno 
has looked upon his living face, or even upon its commonest 
representations, but recoguizes in its mingled sweetness, sano- 
tity, and sti'tmgth the rvpreaontative of Him " from whom all 
puteruity in heaven and earth is named," and feels a sense oi 
joy, and rest, and socurity in tho right to call him Father. 

But alongtnde of tbis our living Father, and of the first 
Pftthorof our Snxim race, tho groat S. Gregory, the founder of 
oil' 'i, OS Pius IX. is its restorer, we may well 

pi:. a our land no less thau they, the last caoo- 

ni , S. i'ius v.; for nowhere in tho page of history 

is u..-^ ,....,Lrly churocter more visibly lniccd,Ui«ci cm ^^wca^wv 
stoad/a^f brow which bears thcbmnt o? VtoViaXooX wa,di.'voSw^^ 
wru. vu.—Ko. xir. [Xew Seriei.^ 



HB S. Pitts v., the Faiher of OJiristendcm, ^H 

Hostility, as that of the stem inquisitor, the furiona higot, the 
^fomentor at once of persecution and rebellion, who roasod tho 
^gentle spirit of Elizabeth Tudor to tho rGhictant retaliation of 
the gibbet and tho axo. j 

The ohiJdhood of Pias V., like that of so many other chosen I 
instmments of Divine Providence, was cradled in adversity,! 
The family of ffhislieri, one of the most ancient of Bologna, 
had been ca.st out of its native city, almost in a state of beggary, 
by the civil wars which desolated Lombardy in the fiiteenth^ 
century, " 

The parents of the Saint, both of them devout and fervent 

Christiana, lived in poverty and obscurity in the little town of 

Bosco, near Alessandria. His childhood was marked by the 

pearly development of a fervent spirit of piety towards God, 

W and a most tender devotion to His Blessed Mother. He showed 

such aptitude and diligence in his studies, that, by the time 

he had reached the age of twelve years, his parents began to 

sock for some employment for him, by which ho might repair 

their fallen fortunes. But another call had ah-eady sonuded m 

his ear, and his daily prayer was for strength and opportunity 

to follow it. At tho very moment when ho was most nrgently 

_ pressed to enter some worldly calling, two reli^ous of tho, 

■ Order of S. Dominic happened to pass through Boeco. Thoi 
' child timidly accosted them, and in the premature wisdom of 

his questions and replica, tho experienced religious discerned 
ft the tokens of a vocation hithort-o disclosed to no mortal ear. . 
P They at once proposed to him to accompany them to their ^ 
convent, and to study under their direction, promising, should 
he prove himself worthy, to receive him in duo time into tho 
Order. The boy wondering in himself at this nnlookod for 
fulfilment of his secret heart's desire, ran to ask the blessing 
of his father and mother, and then, taking hold of the border 
of one of the Dominican's cloaks, followed them with a light 
step and a lighter heart from the home, which, as his after Ufo 

f)roved, he loved so well, to the convent of Voghere at seven 
ea^es distance from Bosco. 

He soon gained the affection of all his teachers, and carried 

with him the approbation and hearty recommendation of the 

Prior when ho left tho convent of Vochorc to begin his 

ft noviciate in that of Vigevune. There ho fulfilled to tho utmost 

■ the expectation of his superiors, by devoting himself with in- 
creasing fervour to every religfious exercise, and growing daily 
in the practice of prayer, and mortification. Ho made liid relt- 
gTona profession in theyearl519. It was at that time tho practice j 

oftbe Ord&r for the religious on making their vows to oxchantft' 
tJietr fkmily vame for that of iheW V\n\\^\w:6. \H\i«i\vlh- 



i 



S. Ptrm v., the Faihtr nf ChrUtpn^J^ym. 



275 



Provincial aaVod the yoang novice what lie was to be railed^ 
GhisUcin rt-pliod : *' MioKolo del Bosco." " No one knows that 
placG/' replied the Provincial, " yon must be called henceforth 
/?, Mifhf^J'' AlcBsamlmw as you camo from the neighbourhood 
of Alessandria." 

So faithAil was the yonng religions in the fnlfjlment of his 
saorod engagements, that iho fathera who had been his teachers 
be^n to look upon him as their model. Ho now gave all the 
powers of hi-s intellect to the atndy of philosophy, never failing 
to unite study with prayer, which he was accustomed to jwy, 
is the first and readiest means of acquiring science, inasmuch 
as the more closely the mind is uaitt-d to God, the more 
capable does it become of every kind of illumination. He had 
hardly finished his conrse of philosophy when he was judged 
capable of teaching what he had so diligently learned. At the 
end of another year he was made Professor of Theology. " Ho 
treated diviiioly/' says one of his biographers, " of that divine 
science, and entwined the thorns of Calvary amidst those of 
PCholnsticism." 

Students crowded from all parts to receive the lessons of a 
teacher who had hnrdly completed his twentieth year. At 
the end of hia t wo irty- fourth, ho was sent to Qenoa to receive 
the priesthood. The Father Provincial was obliged to use his 
aothority to overcome the terror with which his humility shrank 
from that sacred office. After a long retreat B. Miohcle received 
the priestly character, and with it that interior disposition 
whicn rendered him throaghout his after life its typo and 
model. 

By the commsnd of his sHperior he made a short visit to 
I0SH10, t<i oonsolo his pious parents, whom ho had not seen 

CO ho had loft them twelve years before to enter religioa. 
he found nothing but desolatinn and ruin in the home of 
his childhood, which had been Uid waste bv the troops of 
Francis I. on their way to Psvia. The oharoh m which he had 
prayed at his motlicr's side, and whore ho had longed to cele- 
brate the holy Sacrifice of the Mass, was a heap of ruins, and 
he bad Ut seek his parents at Ses.adui, a place far distant from 
his native village. 

On his return to the convent, B. Michelo was sent to Iha 
provincial cluipter at Parma in 15i3, where he refuted in 
!' itions the rising Lutheran heresy. Fearing lest^ 

li re of controversy ehoiihl dry up the springs of 

the 1! ■'-•, ho steadily rulused to avivil himself of auy of 

the tJ.^,-i.. = ..ions usuallv granted to p ro feasors, 'as*\A«A ■\«iSMi- 
tvally at cveiy community exerctws, ptutlVwA Vtve. wic.ftVTX^^w^soa 
tDCfUSmiionB and iotlghb thii moet nunuWtkXiak^ qRoca^, v«^^ ^^ 

1 ^ 



376 



S. Pius V,f the Faihw of Ckriitendom, 



sweeping the corridors and serviug in the kitclieu ; ho moro- 
orer made it a rnle to read daily some passage in the life of | 
S. Dominic, or of some other baint of the Order, that bo he 
might form and perfect himself in the spirit of his holy 
institute. , 

His perfection in all the virtues of the religions life lod to 
his election to be Prior successively of the convents of Vige- 
Y&uc, Soncino, and Alba, but he was not safiered to devote 
himself to the exclusive care of his own soul, or that of Ids 
subjects. Maj:y a long and toilsome journey was imposed 
upon him by the calls which continually obligeu him to lubour 
H|fur the world without, by preaching aud heaving confessions, 
vBometimes at a great distance from the convent. In tlicsu , 
long aud solitary journeys, which ho invariably made on foot I 
with his bag on his shoulders, he nourished that spirit of I 
silence which is the mother of holy thoughts aud the nurse of 1 
KB}iirituul strength. Who shall say how much the calm inflexi- 
Bbiiity, which was one day to enable Micheic Ghisheri to fight 
single-handed ngainst tho enemies of God, was fostered, under i 
divine grace, by his long communing with Him under tho free 
sky and over the wide breezy plains of Lombardy, in a silence, J 
broken only by the low murmured recitation of the rosary 
with some humble and devout wayfarer, who might chance to 
^Lcross his path. | 

V Nor were occasions wanted in those evil times for the cxer- I 
ciso even of the natural courage which underlay the super- 
natural heroism of tho victor of Lopanto. A band of three 
himdred stra^'glers from tho French army threatened to lay 
their sacrilegious hands upon a convent of Dominicanesses nt 
Alba when F. Micholo met them on the threshold, and by tho 
majesty of his presence and the might of the Word of God 
on hh lips, drove them back ia shame and confusion from their 
impious entorpriae. 

But other evils than those of military licence then threatened 
iliQ fair plains of Lombardy. Under cover of the active com- 
mercial relations of that country with every part of Europe, 
the heresies of Geneva and Germany were preparing to cross 
tho Alps, to make their way through the Milanese to the 
^hitherto unperverted regions of tho South. Prompt measures 
Kof defence became necessary, and tho Cardinals of the Holy 
OfBce at Rome, relying upon tho character of F. Alessandrino 
for calmness, firmness, and even-handed equity, sent him to 
^Como in the quality of Inquisitor, an office in which perhaps 
"-j»o/7> i^ban in any other in tho Church o, combination of all 
t/ia'ie gifts was needed. Next aClcr, ot v^^^hupe before, the | 
hatred bomo by lYotestants and \\bera\ft lo VVo -ttMoft q^ ^o^q. 



S. Piutt V,, the Father of ChrUla^xdoM. 27« 

ranks Uie odium which cloavoti to thut of luquisitor; aud yefSk 
uliall wc say it ? that charge was accepted, uay welcomed, !»■ 
him who had shrunk in his humihty from every other; weCq 
corned us a call to stand between the dead and tho living, if 
perchancej by his own toil aud jeopardy, the plague might bo, 
stayed from spreading amongst the people of God. * I 

Pius V, (mya M. de Falloiu) waa not only n great Pope—hc wnx k9M 
Imtutntor. Now amongst thoae who give him tbe tribute of their adiuir»«4 
Uon for the nohl« exerciM of hu pontificiJ power, there ore uot n few whal 
will accuse him of Intolerance and Cuiaticism in his lue of the finictlons ofl 
tbe Holy Office. Thu is a point in his hist^wy, as in that of the Church, IbH 
which it h impO(u<ible to render a reaiion in the t«rnifl, and taking the poiofl 
of view, of our pp-sent century. Thone who cannot look beyond it had bottcn 
ckw (he VhmL at thb page : but to IhoBc readers who will be pteaaed t«l 
tnrd with u& three cenluricn htck, we would oildresa a few obMrrationa. H 

Toleration was a thing unknown in tbe ages of faith, uud the idea which 
that new wonl repn»ent>s could only have found a pUco among tbe nrtuca 
la a oentor)' of donbt. When the notions of truth and falsehood have become 
tsmfuacd, and the most opposite opinions Sod nlinfMt equal uph»ldera in a 
nation, then assuredly tolen^on becomes a part of Christiiiii prudence. It 
then becomes right and pmisewoiihj to tUM no other meanif of proeelytism 
tbaa that afforded by the excellence of the doctrine which we would 
uphold. 

Bui it was not thus in former dayi. In our time, fsach] IntolnaDoe [u 
Ihnt existed] would be aeDselen and fruitless ; in tbe timo-i of which wc 
vril«» it had a le^timateend — an end, moreover, which it cximuouly nttahiefl. 

Formerly them was every probability in the puutshineut of a hardeutnl 
berelic that Uifl hrresy would pemh with hiro, aud that hin fellow citwtiM 
wwld he left in the potseaaion of pence and truth. Tbe history of tniiny 
baUons is a proof of thi^ aaaertioo. Such panlahments in our d^ would 1 
•eta of inexcuMible seventy, because tbejr would be of no benefit to i 
Who in our days could hope to extinguish au error by the death of lU ] 
feasor 1 M'bo dooa not see that in onr days this would bo the reugoaiice < 
the ttrongesi and not tlie preeaution of the wisest ? Who does not see also 
that the def^e (4 cvXyaHWiy is no lunger the same i In our days, the man 
who em is, in u simply human point of view, ho wbo is unable in the midst 
of many apparent truths, to grasp that which alouo is true. In former daya, 
ffTcry deviation fmm the tnith waa marked, cvi^i socially, as an rrmr aod 
a <Tiair, Tlic lirsl m-p over tlie line uf unity involved a manifest reb 
Formerly the wtiolt- fsliric uf six-iety wnx religious, and foutidcJ on I 
It belirvc.1 that by unatching a man from hereby, it dclimred him fhmtl 
e'.«raal puuishmimt ; and all the seal of charity was employed to fill up th«' 
abyss into which nations and races were in danger nf lolling headlong. If 
blood waa ahad, it was with tbe most -rigilant solicitude for tbe soul uf the 
criminal, niilefa tho Church endeavoured to the end to rnli^ten ami reclaim. 
In our days, society is [ in most parts of Europe! ^vlBw-ipd ixuva ^xxkA* wbcfte«s 
basis ; it reserves to itself now only tW d'^tccvwu, miA. vtolwSAoft. A ^■yaa^. ^ 



278 



8. Piua V,, the FMer of Christendom. 



and oktUriol life ; its tolentiou m'0ii1<1 be better u&iuvd indiiTercncc. Bat 

In iU own dotnaui it acto precisely upon the some principle aa tfocictj of old ; 

the proAcnt justiAcs the piut For instance, the gorcrnmcntB of our day still 

L rc^cognize th(! duty of prpAorring their Bubjcct<i from phyucal evils, such tui 

ifaifoctiouH dihciuisi ; uiid the odniLaion of tliu priiici|]l(:: thut the conununity 

ifl not at liberty vohmtarily to incur certain dangers, is hold to be a 8n£S- 

cient justitication of the use of the soverMt mc«mir» of precaution. The 

■■ppUoition of these measures is different, but the prtucijile ia thi.* same. If 

'ibereafU'r this syitem shoold be abandoned and future lej(isbitora should 

iniKribe on their code, " All peatilencei ore to be Hdmttted to circulate 

freely among the people," every one would then be free to live or die al fats 

own peril ; but who would have a right to find fiiult with Qiok who in past 

, times had carried out Lhose measuree of severity which the commmuty itnlf 

■ bad Mulcted for Iho general good 1 



To return to P. Aleseandrino. He set oflf at onco upon tbo 
visitation of tlie district committed to him, travelling ns usual 
ou footj crossing alone and at nigbt the lonely paths ov&r 
plains and mouutaius which led from one village to another. 
Ht) uovor trusted to an agent any work which he could do 
bimseltj and feurleshly entered the houses of the heretics at 
his own personal risk, rather than encourage the base trado 
of tho iuforraor. One of the moat mischievous works of the 
aectaries had been sent to a merchant of the party at Como 
for distribution. tihislieri sciiced the hooks. The seo of 
Como was vacant, and the merchant, who had friends in the 
Chapter, appealed to tho Vicar-Capitnlar for redress; his appeal 
was successful, and tho Inquisitor, to prove that ha was in- 
vested with no mere empty show of authority, at once excom- 
municated all the parties concerned. He was assailed ))y the 
mob with stones, and threatened by one of the proud nobles 
of the neighbourhood, who swore that he would cast him into 
a well. "That will be," answered the friar calmly, "a« God 
wills." 

The governor of Milan snmmonod him to answer for his 
conduct, and threatened him with imprisonment. The servant 
of God would have desired no better requital for his labourft, 
but ho had to maintain tho dignity of the oHice entrusted to 
him ; and before the governor had found means to put his 
menace into execution, P. Aleseandrino was far ou his solitary 
way to Komo, to give an account of himself to the cardinaU 
of the Holy Office. Wearj' and truvcl-staiiied, he at las 
knocked at the door of the convent of S. Subiua, the uhiei 
house of his order, which had been given to S. Uominic,] 
tog'ether with a portion of the Aventme palace, hy lion 
n'tts JII.J vrhou ho confirmed hi& rul& va. VllQ. Tncro tl 



■ 



S, Pius 7., the Father of 



m 



ftret fathoTB of tho ordor bad aaaiuned tho habit, and amongst 
its guests in times past bad been uuinbered S. Francis of 
AjBSim and S. Catherine of Sienna. Tho cell occupiod by 
F. AJessandrino during bis visit to Bomoj like that of the 
holy foandcr which adjoins it, now forme a sanctuuryi where 
be receives the devout homage of the faithfdl. Little did the 
Prior of S. Sabina dream of these coming glories, when the 
wayworn traveller stood before him at nigbtfoUi to ask hospi- 
tality of the l)retbren uf his onlorl ''What brings yon to 
Rome, brother?" was his sarcastic reply; "is it perchaiK^ 
to ask their Eminences the Cardinals to elect you Pope ? " 
" I have come to Rome," quietly answered Ghislieri, " on the 
bosiness of the Church. When that is finished, I shall leave 
it again. Meanwhile, I crave of yoor reverence a brief 
kospitoKty and some hay for this mnle/' 
Ghislieri entered Rome in 1650. 

Just a century beforo^ on the fall of Constantinople, tho arta 
and sciences had fled before the sword of Mahomet to seek 
protection from tho Vicar of Christ. A passion for classic4d 
literature and Grecian art took possession of the fervid Italian 
spirit, which acted uufuvourably even upon tho ecclesiastical 
order. Tho re»i<(t*wn7i«'.', as it is called — the now birth of 
classical art and learning — fascinated the gaze of Cathobcs, 
whoa tho discordant chaUenge of Luther broke upon their ear. 
It ronied Leo X. to the assertion of his sublime prerogattves. 
"Arise, Lord," are the woi-ds of the Bull then puLliBhed, 
"judge thine own cause. Arise, Potor, and undertake tho 
cause of the holy Ronuin Church, tho mother of all Churches, 
which was entrusted to thee by Ood, and which by Hia com- 
mand thon hast consecrated with thino own blood." As 
he was preparing to act in aooordanoe with this pontifical 
language, bo was carried off by a sadden death. 

Adrian VL, his successor, tbo beloved and revered preceptor 

of the Emperor Charles V., brought to the Chair of S. Peter 

the heart of a true binhop, and tho character and training of 

a plaiu straightforward German. When he was apphecl to 

for payment of a pension assigned by bis predecessor to the 

discoverer of tho famous Ijaoconn, he replied sadly, '* These 

■re idoLn, I know gods whom I love for better, my brutbere 

in Jesus Christ, the beggars." Adrian lived but a year and 

a half after his election to canr on tho reforms which he 

I moditotod, but his spirit lived etiU in his successors. Pool HI. 

■ Micmbled tho ^^at Cooncil of Trent, which was to aooom* 

> pUih the gigantic wurk of practical roformation, the need <^ 

j whioh b ' tl the pretext for tbo alUwVao^ \\\(5\wTi«R^auc(Ta 

[on lii« < ^ and to promulgate al t^ imii\& ^AS&b^J^Kff^ 



I 



280 



8. PiiM v., tho Fatfusi' of Chrutiendtmi. 



doctrinal decrees which confronted their falsehoods by the 
calm uttenmccs of her infiiltibla truth. 

Paul III. died in 1549, and had just been replaced by 
Julius III., when F. Michclo presented himself before the 
Cardinals of the Holy Office. Amongst them was one bett 
skilled in physiognomy than the Prior of S. Sabiaa. 

Cardinal Carana, the founder of the Theatins, had recei 
the purple at the same time with the English martyr, Fisherj 
Bishop of Rochester, and the last Catholic Archbishop 
Canterbury, Cardinal Polo. Age had neither bent the form 
nor weakened the intellectual powers of the anstore and 
venerable old man, whoso whole life and strength had been 
devoted to the work of religions restoration. His keen and 
practised eye at once recognized a kindred spirit in the 
obscure Dominican^ who was henceforth to be associated with 
him in the enterprise, and hereafter to succeed him on 
S. Peter's chair. 

F. Michole was sent back witli the full confidence and 
approbation of his superiors to his diflicult and perilous 
charge. He was advised on one occasion, when ho had to 
pasa through the heretical country of the Grisons, to travel 
in a secular disguise. " I accepted death,'' said he, " with 
my commission. I can nc\er die in a boUor cause." So in 
the Dominican habit, in the full light of day, he fearlessly and 
safely pursued his way. But Caraffa was watching his oppor- 
tunity to 6x his new colleague in Rome, and, on the first 
vacancyj F. Michcle was appointed Commissary Cicneral of the 
Holy Office, and lodged by the Cardinal in his own palace. 
Day by day did he visit the prisons, seeking by every moans 
of argument and persnasion to win the accused from their 
crrurs tu the obedience of Christ. His charitable endeavours 
were not unfrequently rewarded with snocess, and all the 
i-evenues of his office, which his austere and mortifiwl hfe left 
wholly at his disposal for such purposes, were devoted to the 
support and relief of those whose necessities would otherwise 
have exposed thum to the danger of a relapse. 

In 1555, at the age of 80, Cardinal Carafia ascended tho 
Papal Chair under the name of Paul IV, The aim of his life 
had been the restoration of the Church's discipline, and the 
vindication of her doctrine; and beside this holy purpose 
lurked a passionate desire for the dehverance of Italy from 
the Spanish yoke. " Italy," he was wont to say, " is afl 
instrument of four strings — Home, Naples, Milan, and Vemcd 
which wore framed to be in unison ;" adding, ** if in thm 
SAcred cause 1 should bo neither helpE'd nnr hooded, postenfcfl 
Mh&U know that tiiore was at \eaal one a^vsi \)ua!a\ua.^ho» whefl 



the 
veH 



8. Piv* r., tU FnlUrr of Oftnutcndom. 



281 



ttl tho very eatea of the gravo, instead of resting and preparing 
|liis sohI for death, conceived a design for the reHtomtion of his 
?ligion and hJK conn try to their ancient glory." 
To aid him in this work, tho new Pontiff invested F. Michele 
with additional powers and responsibilities, by couferrinj? upon 
him the united bishoprics of Nopi and Sntri^ in. the imme- 
itat« ueigh>>ourhood uf Rome. His diocese soon felt tho 
Tects of tho vigilant pastor's care; every place under his 
arisdiction was visited — even the rcmot<.'st hamlets, which had 
never seen a bishop's face before. But the Dominican could 
not forget the convent cell, which was never more to be his 
home, and on hia knees besoup-ht the Holy Father to release 
him from his charge. To cut off all hope of dchverance, Pool 
at last made aniiwcr : " I will bind you with ao strong a chain, 
that even after my death you shall think no more of the 
cloister." Ghislieri learned but too soon the meaning of 
these words, when he was created Cardinal in 1557. 

The members of the Sacred College, with one consent, 
returned their thauks to the Holy Father for nn appointment 
fur which the new cardinal could not find it in his heart to 
prws a gratitude which he did not feel- He showed his 
nchanging love for his order by retaining the name of 
Alesi^andrino instead of resuming, as is usual, that of his family, 
and by choosing for his title tho Dominican church of o. 
Sahina, which was then admitted by the Vopo to rai»k among 
no tituhir churches of Rome. 'ITie Holy Father soon showed 
that the cju'diniiiato wos, in his person, to prove no empty 
lignity by investing him with the office of .Supremo Inquisitor, 
^Vith powers which had been hitherto ahiLred by tne foar 
Cardinals of the Holy Office. 

Cardinal Alessandrino laid ^ide none of the habits of his 
former life on the assumption of his high dignities. He still 
fore the Dominican habit^ observed the fusts and other 
isterities of the rule, and live<l in all the simjilicity of tho 
ioister. The unworldlinesa which ho preached himself he 
Sesin'd to impress upon all belonging to him, as appears from 
tho following letter to his niece, who had ^vritten to aak some 
(avour :— 



My flow Niircc-T hare IrAmI widi joy jfeom yoor iMtor of tlic 26th 
Pubniat;, the happy tmion which itub«ut« Wtwwn ytm and your htuboiiil* 
who iH H v«iy hoDfnt iiiui, and that you Uvr (<>}^i<th«r in the fear and lova 
of Ood like trw ClirUiisni Bewan? of taking civdit to yoiirwlf that yon 
HI* the nipcw ofii caHiiul. Tho nuik which 1 hold in the ('hardi ooKbt to 
lir ui TiMi a /ml.jiy:! of tluitilugiviaf{ to (tod, ftuA a oew iwAV«« V« tiw^Bian^ 
la TinD<\ Auk far me iht gmce to lead a \if« «in<ay«»&n%'m <i atf»'A^ '*''^ 



2fi2 



H. Pius v., the F^ik^ if ChrUUmaom, 



tJw poMiioa to which I Inn ben nncd by the Yiim of Jm Ckriab Toa 
ooght not to wkh l^ God ■boold aim bw htgber is tU* nU. Tm mb 
oaly th» ■pUndoflTof wy onr^ffitj, tad taww ac* tfce agesp tfir iniiKM i , 
imd th* tonowm whicb it brii^ apm me, and bam lAicfc ia (be doirtv 
I VHhkppilyAM. . . . Am touching d» dbir at jma hnthtr-bkAamtlatm, 
njr d««r t^mc*, that beoefiow an not giren to fieib and faloodf bat to nrtoa 
ud merit. God hai hitherto giren me gnoe to keep nqraetf free from then 
In&uuoia and criniinal intrigoei ; aod think Dot Uwt m ray old age I ihall 
oousDt to lay vucb a burden on ray concdtnoe. 
Borne, ifOtli Marchf 15&8. 



'4 



Hill household was Hnutcd to the smallest number ooBsisteut 
with thu dignity of his position. He took care to iostruct all 
it4t int'uibors himself in their dutiee, having warned them 
befori) they entered bis service that they were to enter a 
convuitt and not a paJaco. There was no limit to his kindness 
to tlioHO who discharged their duty faithfully. He never dis- 
turbed tliem at their meals or during the time of their repose. 
]{ather than do so, he would open the door of his antochambcr 
hiinseli*. Tlio most spacious hall in his palace was turned 
into an inlirmary for the sick. Nor was his charity confined 
tu those of his household ; he received all who came to him, 
with or witliout a reason, with the same gracious and un- 
wearied courtoHy, and eont them away with the conviction 
that God h(ul raisetl him to so high a dignity only to afford 
him a larger field in which to sorvo, instruct, and edify his 
bretluiMi. 

The Pnpe coiilinuod to use his counsels for the govermnent 
of the Cbuivh, but unfortunately he had other helpers and 
counsellors in his darling scheme for the liberation uf Italy. 
Uifl nephews keenly porticipated his feelings on this subject, 
and unhappily ho looked for no other qualifications on their 
part to entrust the principal administration of temporal afiatrs 
tu hands certjuu to wield it against the ascendency of tipain. 
Hii« rvyos wiu-u sooQ opened by the indignant murmurs pro- 
voked by their misgoverumeut. One day when he ottered 
bis hnbituid ujcclamation, " lleformatton, reformation I " the 
Canliniil whom he nddresaed replied : " Yes, most UoW FaibeTf 
rafonnatiun ; but wo mnst begin with ourselves." The fpirit 
of 1*101 1V'« WM one which knew not weakness, nor brooked 
doby-; with ut inflexible will, but a broken hearty he rested 
not till he had redressed tho evils committed ouder hia nama. 
Ho impruouod the most guilty moobers of bis &uu^, repealed 
the iAxe« imposed by his nephews, aad '^TirW'H vnry efioal 
trho had baen appointed by then. 



S» 



an axtnor^aarj CiQBafli^rst ta vUek hs 



8. Pius r., Ww Faih^r of OhHsiendom, 



283 



HMvlf proaoanced the decree of baniBhrnoot against his 
HaaiDon, and unfolded without disguise the history of their 
misdeeds, whilst ahazne And indignation strove for the maatery 
in his broken voice and venerable countenance- 

The aged Puniiff did not long* Bin*vive this last heroic effort. 
In a parting interview with Cardinal Alessandrino, ho com- 
znended to him the dofcncu of tho faith which he watt ho glo- 
noaaly to maintain, and went to receive hia reward from the 
hand of that Good Master who discerns the purity of His 
servants' intention under tho dross which, through thoir own 
imperfections or tho aius of othora, conceals it from the eyes 
of men. • 

Not so the fierce and fickie cwpnlaco of Home. The 
Pontiff's statue was defaced and aragged in the mire, and 
bis nephews perished in piison or on tho scafibld. 

T'aui IV. died in August, 1559. John Angelo de Medici 

eluctud to succeed him in the following December, and 

took tho name of Pius IV. His pontiticatc was signaUzed 
by tho oomplution of tho kboiu-s of the great Council of Trent, 
the last general Council of the Church, and illustrated by the 
sanctity of his nephew, 8. Charles Borromeo, ono of the prin- 
cipal in^trumeuts, under (jod, of tarrying out its decrees for 
t) ;ition of disciphno and the promotion of ccclcsiastioal 

P* 

it was expected by many that the accession of the new Pope 
would bo followed by the disgrace of Cardinal Alessandrino; 
but, though tho temporal policy of Pius IV. was entirely 
opposed to that of his predecessor, he was uu less devoted 
tun ho to the work of ecclesiastical restoration ; and he soon 
abowed his conlideuce in the trufited associate of Paul IV., 
by confirming him in his office of Supreme Inquisitor, and 
Appointing him to the important see of Mondovi in Piedmont. 

Chistieri set forth at once to undertake the charge of hia 
new tirxtk, visiting tho Iiaths of Lucca on his way, to obt«in 
T' ' i.'i a ]>ainful disease under which ho had long been 

111. /. (>u hia arrival at Mondovi, his first care was the 

restoration of the offices of tho cathedral church to their 
fitting aolertinity ; he then proceeded to tho visitation of hia 
diooeiK>, aduiinisU3riDg tho sacrumont of confirmation to wbolo 
districts, remedying existing abuse?!, and making provision 
a^inst thoir reourrenoe. Bosco, his old home, lay almost 
t^ - jurisdiction ; and though his parents wero no morOf 

li J to extend to his native place thu benefits which 

hia more uxtemdod |>ower of doing good enabled him now to 
OQiifer, As the best gift he could bestoWi he foundiftdw *> «a«h^ 
TfiDt of his ordor in the phuw wbi^rQ h^ riVAAVAi itoY^\ia^%xi^» 



284 



S. Piu» v., ilte Father of ChrUtendom. 



followed the habit of S. Dominic. This house still remeans to 
hallow the neighbourhood by the prayers of its inmates and 
the memory of its founder. He next visited tho convent of 
Vigovaiie, where many^ who had loved him iw a father and 
n brother, now received his blessing with joy and thankfulness 
as from a Bishop and Prince of the Church. 

Cardinal Alcssandrino, like all other faithfnl sons oF holy 
Church, had welcomed with deep thankfulness the decrees 
which, by the inspiration of the Holy Ghost, had been enacted 
by the Council of Trent for the healing of all the evils of 
Cfhrintendom utfecting faith, momU, or diHcipIiDe. It was to 

* bo tho work of his future life to carry them into efiect. The 
character of Pius IV. was free from the fervid vehemence of 
Paul, but it lacked its invincible constancy. He restored 
peace to Italy, but at the cost of many a concession to hia 
powerful neighbours. On such occasions Ghislieri hesitated 
not to use a tone of firm though respectful remonstnmce. The 
Grand Dukes of Tuscany and Parma eagerly sought the car- 
dinalate for two young princes of their respective famili^^J 
Ferdiuand de Medici, and Frederic Gouzaga — a boy of thirtoQ^H 
and a youth of twenty-one. The Pojie feai-ed to refuse them^ 
and certain politic or timid members of the Sacred College 
advised him to grant the request. When Cardinal Alessan- 
dinno was consulted in his turn, " Your Holiness," ho replied, 
'* will permit mo to observe that the Council of Trent, having 
laboured with great diligence in the reformation of mortds and 
the re-esfcabliKhment of discipline, miserably relaxed by the 
evils of these times^ all tho Bishops will be greatly scandalized 
at tho infringement of one of their most holy decrees. The 
Church wants not children, but grown men capable of main* 
tainiug the dignity and the sanctity of such a sacred office." 

The evil was delayed, but onhj delayed by his faithful re- 
monstrance; the Pope yielded at last. Wlien the ambassa- 
dors came, according to custom, to thank the members of the 
Sacred College for the appointment, "You owe me no thanks," 
said Cardinal Aleasandrino, " for I have done all in my power 
to oppose this promotion." The Cardinal's unflinching oppo- 
sition to over}' measure which ho conceived likely to compro* 
miso the indopendoncc, or weaken the discipline of the Church, 
was represented to the Pope as stiffness and bigotry. His 
powers OS Supreme Inquisitor were therefore restricted, and 
ne was deprived of the apartments which he occupied in tho 
Quirinal. h 

In tho undisturbed ])eace of a quiet conscience Gbisliflfl 

prepared to return to his diocese, and devote the remaindpr fl 
Ju'a d&ys to the care of hia flock, wUeu \ie 'nafc attacked in 150 



8, Pius v., the FaUier of Chrialcndom. 



285 



bj a violont iltaosSf wliicli gave him a hope that his work waa 
aooomplishod. In pi>rfcct resignation to the will of God, ho 
prepared with equal indiffercQce for his death or for hia reco- 
veiy, giviugall necessary direotious forhis jouruey toMondovi_ 
and for his burial ftmon>f hia iJuniinican brothriMi, and writing 
the following words tu be iuscnbtxi on a eimplo tomb in ths 
Church of the Minerra : — 




To Uwt prais* of the Odb good mid (?reat God— Michael Ghiilieri of 
in tbo district of Alntsandri*. of the Ordor of Friftra Preachers, and by 
Divine ranvy, Cardinal Pricsl of Ui» title of S. Sabina, knowing that, Imjui); 
duiU he muit return to dost, in tbo certain hope of the resurrection, and 
dnirinj; to be a^aist^d by tlio pmyen of the Blomcd Virf^a Mnrr, of the 
Samtd in heftren, and the faithful on earth, hae ehoaen, wbDat still living, 
I thb t4<niple of ihr Mother of God, that iifter bis deUh hut body mny be Uid 
there in the LX*^ year of his age and the MDLXIVth ycur of onr 
Wilvatioii, 

But there was more work to do on earth for that great heart 
, ftnd BUDlly aoul. He rose from tho gates of death, and when 
' lie would have returned to bin diocese, the Pope, who had felt 
thft imminent danger of his loss, forbade him to leave Uorao. 
A few months afterwards, Pius lY., whose health had long 
been failing, died with the words of tho Nunc Dhnittis on his 
lipa, in the arms of S. Charles Borromeo and S. Philip Ncri, 
lea\'iug the tiara which liud been adorned by liia mild and 
gentle spirit, and by thu austere virtues of hia prodeceasor, to 
be next encircled by tho aureola of a Saiut. 

Never was the choice of a sovereign Pontiff of more critical 
importance than that of the successor of Pius IV. Ko ordinary 
xnoaaure of wiitdom and sanctity was needed for the work which 
would fall to hiui — that of cairyiug out with firmness and discre- 
tion tho disciplinary regiilations of theCouncil of Trent. Happily 
tho most intliiontial voice in the Conclave was that of tho great 
Archbishop of Milan, S. Charles Borromeo, who had been raised 
to the purple by his late uncle at tho ago of twenty-three, and 
*ho now, at twenty -eif,'ht, by tho power of his persotiol sanctity, 
'■©Ten more than by the influence of his position as tho loader 
of the Cardinals of the creation of Piua IV., waa held tu have 
tho first chiim to occupy the vacant chair of S. Peter himself, 
or to direct the choice of another worthy to fill it. Afler long 

Srsyer and anxious consideration, tho illuminated eye of the 
oly man fell upon Cardinal Alessandrino. In vain waa he 
Lmrned of the imprudence of placing tho supreme power in 
itiu hoods of a devott'd friend of Paul IV., who might bo d\*- 
to reljJiatrt the hard meaaurtt dwiM >m^w >iBa Tsi\^ECL 
' hi0 uaclo to tho honso of Cara&u SucV co^svisswh^ivjQ* '^^t^ 



^ 



286 



S. Pitt* V.y the Father of Ohrisimdtm. 






thrown away upon ouo whoso only fiira was tlio glory of God 
and the good of the Church, and who knew by the experience 
acquired by working together in the Hamo holy cause, that 
such waH also the sole aim of Cardinal Alossandrino. 

Having gained the 8uffi«gefl of hia colleagues, Boirom 
with two other Cardinals, went to inform Ghislieri of the choi 
of the Conclave. They were prepared for a vehement opp 
tion on hia part; and they actually dragged him by force fTO_ 
his cell, and bore him iu their arms to the cliapcl where he 
was to receive the first homage of the Cardinals. As soon as 
he appeared, all the nicmbors of the Sacred College knelt 
before him, and revered, as the Bucoessor of S. Peter, the poorest 
and the humblest of their Order. The expression of his owii 
free consent was, however, necessary to the validity of the 
election. It was at last given, with many tears and protesta- 
tions of his own unworthinops. 

AVhou the acclamations had subsided, which greeted his ac- 
ceptance of the supreme dignity, he took the name of l*ins, 
as a token of affection for Cardinal Borromeo and of respect 
for the memory of his uncle. 

Heralds were despatched at once by the Sacred College, 
according to custom, to make known tho olovntion of Cardinal 
Alessandrino to all the princes of Christendom ; but it was 
annoQQced, in several instances, in a miraculous manner which 
stamped it in visible characters with tho approbation of 
Heaven. (Cardinal Gonzaga, who had been seized with a severe 
attack of illness, which prevented his taking port in tho elec- 
tion, on tho night which preceded it, and a few hours before he 
breathed his Inst, suddenly awoke, and reproached his artcuH- 
anta for not having informed hini of tho elevation of Carclitiii! 
Alessandrino to the Papal Chair. 

A courier sent by the French Ambassador, as ho was passing 
near Bosco, was carried away by his horse towards that villaefe, 
where it suddenly stopped. On being asked by the inhabi- 
tants whither he was going, he replied that he had been sent 
to inform the King of France of tho election of Cardinal 
Alessandrino. He had hanlly time to notice the joy with 
which his words were received, when hia horse dashed off 
again at full gallop towards the high road. When an express 
arrived on the following day from the Popo to his dear fellow 
villagers, he was told that they had been miraculously infer: '~ 
of his election on tho procediug day. 

But "a more astouishing miracle was wrought/' says M. 
F&JJonx, "in the heart of Pius V. No sooner were the oe: 
moaios of bis exaltation over, t\um Vo tecOTorod a 
trAaquiJUty of mind, and slepl w\t\io^\. Vci\Brri\ftA(m ^ 



ir^ 



P 8. Pw$ r., ikf Faiher cf Okridatdoin, 287 

Ihe whola of the following nigUt. The austere roli^ous, wboM 
nrbole delight hjid been in silence and retriMt, who had shnnned 
MTBry favoar, and shrank from every diffuit^r, soddeiUy resigned 
piinigelf to bear the snprome command of the Christian world. 

He bad probed hii own heart, and found it freo from Ambition 

or ftTarioe; and as he retraced all the paths which had led to 
k^ elevation bo saw and recognized the hand of Divine Pro* 
»Tideoce which had guided him to his appointed place npon the 

throne of Christendom. The first time that he looked down 
rfrom that height upon tbo Christian world kneeling snbmis- 
nirelj at his feet, he trembled and wept ; but soon reasanred 
ny that ineRable oonsciousness of his own nothiiignecs, which 
H>ehetd in his whole history tho work of God alone, he caat 
npon Him with adoring confidence the responsibility of His 
"own decrees, and having Tanqnished hnmility or tho arms which 

aro ordinarily used against pride, he Uimed his eyea from 
lUnmaelf to fix them upon the world now entnisted to his 
nue" 

The gifls and graces of the new Pontiff were so well known 
.that tho only fear entertained upon his accession, was that the 
Bbflexibility of his sanctity might denl over rigoronsly with the 
Mvils of the time. Tliis apprehension was expressed to the 
iHoly Fathor himself, who contented himself with the reply : 
PLet OS ao act that they may grievo more at my death, than 
rlliey do at my elevation." 

" I do not deny," says Dr. Newman, in his Lectures on tho 
.^tory of the Turks, " that 8. Hus was stern and severe, as 
Kbr as a heart burning within and melted with tbo fnlnoss of 

Dfvino love coold be so; bat surh energy was necessary for 

his times. He was raipbatictiUy cjdlod to bo a soldier of Chnst 
Lin a time of insurrection and rebellion, when, in a apiritoal 
■•ense, martial law was proclaimed." 

It was, indeed, a wild and woefnl scene on which the Chief 
iBhepherd'a eye looked down from his watch-tower on the 
H&ven hills. The holy city lay desolate under the curse of her 
Icbildrrn's sins. Usury, assassination, and immorality of every 
(Itind disgraced the Papal dominions and desecrated the very 

streets of Rome. The sceptre of what still bore the nnme of 
-Iho holy Roman Empire was feebly grasped by Maxmitiati II., 
prhofo natural irresolution had been rendered still mora vacil- 
uUiog u> matters of fuitli by his semi-Lutfacron training. In 
Vimnoe, the wilv and unprincipled CaUiariue do Medici was 
Maying fast ana loose with Catholics and Huguenuts, to the 
neril of tho conseieuoa of her son and thu faith q(K\« ^wVk^viOa. 
R*ho throne of Spain, indeed, wa» ftUed V>^ owss Afi%RTx\\ia\\*^ 
piUtf of tbo Oaihoiic Jkiiu^. Philip U . im<\uto«t\Q>xtfiX>V} >&&»- ^^ 



I 




%B8 



S. FiM v., tfie Father of Chnslendom. 



welfare of religion deeply at heart, but he had iuberitetl a 
selfish system of secular policy, and was swayed by an ambitioa 
of poraonol uud uational aggraudisemenb, which too ofta^ 
injured its sacred interests. ^| 

Sebastian, tho heroic King of Portugal, had not yet com* 
ploted his fourboenth year. Knglaad, Bevered from the unity 
of Clirisfcendom, was purchasing worldly power and prosperity 
by the apostacy or mai-tyrdoiu of her cbiidrou. At tho other 
extremity of Europe, the Mussulman hordes were preaaing 
upon tho confines of Christendom, and held at bay by the 
good swords of the Knights of >S. John, who had found a last 
resting place on the rock of Malta for the banner of Christian 
Chivalry. 

Such was tlie state of the wide family of which Pius V. had 
now become the father. Let us look forth on it once more, 
and see with what fellow workers Divine Providence had pro- 
vided him. Never was century richer in saints than that 
which gave birth to the great. Vrotcatant apostacy. In the 
centre of Chriatondom, S. Philip Nori was recalling the faith- 
ful to the life of the primitive Christians, by the same means 
which had sanctified thorn— frequent communion and continual 
prayer. S. Charles Borromoo, the model of Christian pastors, 
co-operated in the most intimate and direct xuauuer with the 
Pontiff in whoso elevation he had boon tho principal instru- 
ment. ITie princely penitent, S. Francis Borgiii, wus the 
leader of tho great company of Jesus, for which ho had aban- 
doned the ducal coronet of Gandia. S. Stanislaus Kotska, 
now on tho threshold of his early beatitude, was soon to be 
uncceeded by S. Aloysius. In Spain, S. John of God and 
S. John of the Cross still hallowed the soil which had been con- 
socrated by the footsteps of S. Ignatius Loyola and S. Prancis 
Xavier, and where S. Teresa hud just laid tho foundation of 
that marvellous reform in which she had been helped and 
guided by the dying hand of S. Peter of Alcantara. 

The fi^t public measure of the new Pope manifested what 
was to bo the spirit of his reign. The money which on these 
occasions it had been the cnstom to scatter lavishly, and to the 
peril of life and limb, amid the populace in the public streets, 
was carefully distributed amongpit those in greatest need, 
whoso weakness, or whose modesty, would have had no chance 
of gaining anytJiing in a general scramble. Tho thousand 
crowns nanally spent on a banquet to the foreign ambassadors 
present at tho coronation, was sent as an alms to tho p< ' 
conven{Ji in the city. To some who remonstrated with h 
this innov&iion^ Pius made tho following reply: " God wili 
not pnui&h me for having doprwcd t\io ovwo^% o^ YfAsxcsA <iC % 



8. Piva v., i/u) Father of Christendom, 



289 



feaafcj bnt He will call me to accoiuit for the necessities of Bub 
Ifmn members." 

~ The cow Pontiff hastened to pay due respect to the 
memory of both his predecessors. The body of Paul TV. was 
interred with more than usual pomp in a chapel of the Mmervii. 
The family of Caraffa was freed from tho dcgradatiou under 
wHioh it had laboured duriu^ the past reign ; whilst cqua] 
kindness and favour ivere shown to the kindred of Pius l\ . 

It was soon manifest that tho general reform contemplated 
by Pius V. was to begin by the rt'formation of his own court 
and capital. He began his reign by extraordinary fasts and 
kATftyers^ by commending himself to the suffrages of the various 
Religious communities, and by publishing a jubilee to draw 
down Qp>n himself and tho Church all tho graces so urgently 
Deeded at that critical time. 

Ho then aaaemhled all the members of hia household, made 
Uenown to them what ho expected of each in his degree, and 
bud down rules for their conduct which ho warned them he 
uhoold expect to see punctually observed. A spiritual lecture 
^u made aloud three times a week iu the palace, and books 
of devotion were provided for hoars of leisure. A fixed time 
ivna appointed fur evening prayers, at which tho Pope never 
Bkilod to be present, and when he retired to rest the gates of 
rthe pulnce were closed. In his own nile of lifo ho relaxrxl 
rnothiiig of the severity of his Order. He wore his woollen 
tunic under his pontifical vestments, and alopt upon tho same 
hard pallet which he had used in his cell. From that miser- 
able couch he arose nightly to visit the seven altars in S. Peter's 
church; and often, at »iome important crisis, ho would pass wholo 
nights in prayer, pleading with God mther by tears than words. 
Not only wero the ordinary fasts of the Church strictly, 
-obsorredin his household, but such was the frugality of bistable 
pbot its daily cost did not exceed a lest&ne^ or S^d. of onr 
niaaey. Instead of armorial bearings, the follovring verse was 
ppgr&ved on his seal : " O that uiy ways were directed to keep 
^Hiy statutOB." A Crucifix stnod iilways before him on his tahlo, 
^t the foot of which wore inscribed these words of S. Paul : 
" God forbid that I should glory save in the Cross of our Lord 
Jesus Christ." 

In a Consistory held expressly for that purpose, he addressed 
u fiitV ' hortjilioii to tho Cardinals and Prelates, in which 
HbAri ; dto thenj thatthc Burcst wny to apponse the wmth 

bTGimJ, and lu stay thf prngroii of heretics nnd infidels, wns that 
faftch should set in order his own conscience i«\d\\\s*.>'w\vVcft\»fc. 
P'Uistoyou/'criedhe/'thatJeanBCbriataddTOBMfcSNxcsfe'WQjA**^ 
■Toff mre tbo tight of the world, You»r6tbeMiX.ol >2twb*fi.VCti- " 
^Jg/r. r/r.->Jfo, Jiv. [Sew ^^rJM.I ^ 



■■ S, PvM v., thi FiUhrr of ChriMvndom. ^M 

A. froitfal soarce of evil in the days of Pins Y. wu the inter* 

course of Cbristiaii foxnilios with the Jews, who prutitised upon 

■ their credulity by the pretended Bcience of astrology, under 
m cover of which they introduced ©very kind of immomlity to 

■ the deatruution of their souls^ whilst they ruined thoir fortunes 
W by usury. The new Pope banished all Jews from every part 

of ihc territories uf the Church, except Rome and Aueonaj 
where their presence was necessary for keeping up the com. 
mcrco of the Levant ; but here> as a security against their evil 
influence, they were confined to a separate quarter of the citr, 
and compelled to wear a distinctive di*cs8, by which, should 
they leave it, they would be immodialoly recognized. Whilst 
thus vigilant for tho safety of his dock, the heart of Pius was 
however full of charity for those misguided men, many of 
whom, in the exercise of his functions as Inquisitor, he had 
been tho means of bringing into the Cfaurcn. A Habbi, 
K named Elias Carcossi, distinguished among his brethren for 
W his learning sud ability, to put a stop to hi» urgent soUcitations» 
one day answered him lightly : " Tou shall make mo a Chris- 
tian when you are made Pope." The jest had wholly escaped 
his memory when ho was sent for by the Sovereign Pontiif 
who claimed the fulfilment of his promise. Elias could not 
deny that he had made it, and returned home sad and irreso- 
B lute. The Pope spent the night in recommuiiding him to Uie 
m Blessed Virgin, and in the morning tho Huhbi and his three 
children came to him to implore the grace of Baptism, which 
Pius joyfully conferred upou them himself in the presence of 
a groat multitude of spectators, giving to Elias his own name 
of Michele. This conversion wua followed by so many others 
that the Holy Father shortly aAcrwards founded a house for 
the receptioa and instruction of cutochumens. 
_ Being fully convinced that the want of instruction was the , 

■ principal cause of tho disorders which afflicted the Church, hoj 

■ instituted the Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, whose mam* ' 
P-bers bind themselves to explain tho catechism to children on 

Sundays uud festivals in certain appointed churches. Tho great 
benefit dcnved from these ioutructions, both by teaohDrs and 
scholars, induced him to issuo a bull exhorting all Pntriarcbs, 
Archbishops, and Bisliops to ostabhsh the Confriitemity of 
Chriation Doctrine in all churches enbjoct to their authority. 

The assassinations and robberies flaily committed in his 

dominions did not escape the vigilance of the new sovereign* 

By a oonventiou concluded with the viceroys of Naples anc^ 

TuBomr, it was enacted that bandits should he seixed 

ex0tmt(*d whor&ver they should be found, without distinct 

of tmritory, and by those protupV mttunuraft, N^'^CAK^ttvu 



8. Piv9 V,, the Father of CJa 



291 



StfttoA wore fwcm freed from tiiis soonrge. Mariano D'Ascoli, 
the most formidiiblc of tho robber ohiofs, bad long kept all 
piipsuors ftt bay, when a countryraan oame ono day to ask an 
midioncc of tho Holy Father, and promised, for a atipalAted 
rtward, to deliver tho fugitive into hU handa. " How will 
you do it?" asked tho iVpo. " He is accustomed to trust to 
mo/' replied the uountaioeor; "and I shall have no difficulty 
in drawing him to my house." " Never/' exclaimed Piua V., 
"willwu sanctum such troacherv. God will afford ua aomo 
tOpportnnity of punishing this robber, without such an abuse 
Pof friendship and jjood faith.'* Mariano D'AstoIi, having beeu 
iufurmc'd of the Pope's reply, withdrew from his dominions, 
and never appeared there again. 

Pius v., as Supreme Pontiff, religiously kept the resolution 

nhe had made when Cardinal, never to make his own exaltation 

pil means of advancing his family. He refused to give his 

nieces in marriage to any of the great nobles who eagerly 

sought hiH alliance ; and when ono of his nephews married the 

Maughtor of hia socrutary, bo sent her a mule laden with a 

RMck-saddle and two pauniera, telling her to take hoed out to 

nrrivo at Homo with any other equipage. Another of his 

nophows, after having distinguished himself in a campaign 

Dgainst the Turks, was taken prisoner ond reduced to slavery. 

p^us y. lost no time in ransoming him, fumishuid him with 

Ffrosb anus and a horse, and gave him the rank of captain in 

his troops. But the young man, liaving lost his favour by 

Honiti fault, he stut for him, and pointing to a lighted taper 

on his table, commanded him to leave Homo before it should 

y^va ceued to bum. 

n Tho representations of the Bncrod College at last prevailed 
Tipnn the Holy Father to entrust the chief administration of 
.temporal afioini to his great nephew Micholo Bonnelli, who was 
iliiosvn for the office not on account of his relationship, but 
n>r his admirnliln fitness to fulfil it. He "w&a made steward of 
piio eoclosiastieal domains, and at the same time Piun V. made a 
■olemn decree, forliiddinc^ all alienation of those domaiDs. The 
iCardinals were b(.>uud liy au uath, of which they never worn 
to seek absolution nor accept a dispensation, to roaist with all 
■their power all infringomonts of this decree by any future 
■Pope. Bonnelli, who. like his holy uncle, hmd been trained in 
Ml ' r of S. P I'ltithfiilly foHowt>d his footsteps, and 

ill I takrn i of Brother Michele ftt his profoesion, 

MO, wbiMi he w/ut adntittod to tho CardintUato, he rooeiTed bj 
•pubhc iicclnmutiuii the title of Cardinal AlQ^&udrvBA. 

Tho .Marquis of Mainv, tho feut\a\ AotA ol ^Vowco^ oaw» y* 
wfoagraiaiiUe Pm$ on hia exaltation "m. tke luwaio ^ ^^^*^«^■«* 



8. Pms V.J the Father of Ohru/tend&tn, 



place, and tbopght to please h.im by offering him the lordship 
of Bosco. "What would you have me do with it, my lord 
Marquis ?" inquired the Tope. " Your Holiness," replied he» 
*' has rolfttions on whom you may bestow it." " It is true," 
replied Pius V., " that I have a great number of nieces and 
nephews ; but never as long as 1 live shall they bear titles 
more exalted than those they have i-eceived from their fathers. 
Moreover, if 1 were to accept this favour from you. I should 
be obliged to roturu it by one still greater, and this is no 
longer iu my power, since, by a recent decree, I have tied my 
own hands as well as those of my successors." 

Another oflfering from Bosco was more graciously received. 

In the days of his childhood, Michele GhJslieri had helped one 

of his friends to plant a vine. " Our labour is tlirown away/' 

he said, as they finished their work, " for nobody will ever 

drink of the fniit of this vine." The memory of the young 

Miebele had been faithfully cherished by his fellow villagers, 

who received from time to time proofs of the affection which 

he bore to them at every stage of his career. His special 

message on his exaltation to the Pontificate showe<l them that 

they were still remembered. On the strength of it, his old 

H^ companion set out to visit him, and appearetlab the Pontifictd 

^tPaluce in his peasant's costume, with a little barrel on his 

^ueod. "Ah! most Holy Father,'* ho said, as Pius cordially 

^Welcomed him; "acknowledge, that in those days, at least, 

you were not infallible, and be pleased to accept this wine from 

your old playfellow." 

A poor lad, in the service of a Milanese gentleman, once 

met F. Michclo on one of his long journeys toiling along in 

the excessive heat with a bag on his shoulders. The youth 

court^'ously offered him a seat on his horse. The friar would 

only allow him to carry his bag ; but touched by the kindness 

of the poor to the poor, so precious in the sight of God, GhisUeri 

H^ftsked his name. No sooner was he seated on the Pontifical 

^B^rone than he sent for the poor serving-man to fill a place in 

his household. Nor was he less punctual in returning good 

for evil. The Count della Trinita, the choleric nobleman who 

had threatened to throw the troublesome Inquisitor into a well, 

Arrived at Home as Envoy from the Duke of Savoy at the 

^jCourt of Rome. " See, my Lord Ambassador/' said the Pope, 

^P'how God protects the weak;" and then, seeing the poor 

^f'lSMa'a confiision, ho cordially embraced him, and, from that day 

forward, showed him particular kindness and favour. 

The change effected in the whole aspect of Itoman society 

sooa g-ave evidence of the v^gUont e^e of the sovereign, but 

iito ffaze was bounded by no \iomon aVott cS 'i\i^\im\\A qR| 



* 



8. PiM v., ike Fathw of Chf 



293 



Cbrifltendom. The next care of Pius was to procure the recogni- 
tion of thcTridentino disciplinary decrees by all Catholic States. 
A few of them, amongst which Portugal, the Repubhc of 
Venice, and the Cantons of Switzerland, were honourably 
distingnishod, yielded instant obedience; but Franco and 
Germany temporized and hesitated; and even Philip II. 
imposed certain restrictions upon the publication or the 
decrees in Spain, Flanderit, ana the Italian States. '^It is 
one of the most remarkable proofs," says M. de Falloux, 
"of the wisdom of that divinoly gnided assembly, tlmt its 
decrees, even where not authentically published vr received, 
were universally obeyed, being enforced by Uieir own manifest 
sanctity and utility alone." 

The Catechism of the Council of Trent had been finished 
before the accession of Pius V., one of whose first measures 
was to give it his approbation, and to cause it to be tmnslated 
into the lanjruages of France, Germany, and Poland. 

The residence of Bishops, and the establishment of diocesan 
seminaries, were two of the points most strictly enjoined by 
the Council, and most urgently enforced by tho now Pontiff. 

" Is it too much," says he, in one of his letters to the 
Bishops, "to ask you to guide with your own bands tho 
Church which Jesus Christ purchased with Hia own blood?" 
kAnd, again, ** Tho decree by which tho holy Council of Trent 
Pbas directed the foundation of a Seminarj- in each Chui-ch, is 
of such manifest importance and utility, that, if tho Bishops 
bad tlieraselvos effected of their own accord what the Council 
has now decreed, they would have deserved great commenda- 
tion on tlie part of men, and, un the part of God, an eternal 
reward; but now that this decree has been enacted, and hns 
boon received with such unanimous approbation, the Bishops 
ftre bound to carry it out with so much the greater diligence; 
OS the diffci-cnco is great between neglecting a fonnol command 
and omitting a thing (however excellent m itself) which has 
not yet been prescribed." 

Amongst the manifold labours of Pius V. for the Church, 
are ttt be nuiubcrfil the revision uf the Missal and the Breviary, 
Land tho refonnution of ccclwiastical music. At tho begin- 
rniug of the sixtet'uth century, a florid stylo of music wos 
widely prevalent, of so secnior a character that Pope Mar- 
cellus 11. bad been on the point of prohibiting altogether ^ 
the use of music, except plain chant, in the offices of tho H 
KCharch. Tho execution of this rigorous decree was finally S 
Hvortod by tho patient forboamnco of S. Charlca viA>a»| 
J genius of Palcstrina. This ffreat mMaWvon, lycit^t ^ \^'** 
Mi^oiiBter-Iniy. hy nnmo Pierbiigi, \n wx o\>ftcvrt<5 ^3o?a.twtv *». 



I 



294 



S. Fiue v., iius Father of Ohinsiendom, 



P&leatrinai his native place, had risen to be the msater of 
the choir of S. John Lateran. S. Charles, acting^ aa ono of 
a coraraiaaton appointed by Pius IV. to decide the question 
of eccleeiaatical niasic, sent for l*alestrina, and jfivingr him 
plainly to understand that its fate was in hit) hands, Ixide 
nim write a Mass according to the rigorous rules laid down by 
the Council. In three months' time, Palestrina presented 
three Masses to Cardinal Botromeo. On the manuscript of 
ono of them, which commonly bears the nnmo of the Mogs of 
Pope MitrcnUuK, the words: "0 Lord, help inel" traced by 
the trembling hand of the composer, arc still legible. It waa 
a ooinplcte success for the (.rauso of -sacred music; and Pins V., 
whose accession almost immediately followed it, appointed 
L Palestrina master of his own choir, thus sanctioning tho use 
Pof his music in all the churches iu Christendum. 

From the internal wounds of Christendom the watchfal ©ye 

of its good Father was next turned upon ita external foes. 

The May of 1505, tho year preceding the accession of Pius V,, 

I had boon flignalized by the glorious defence of Malta, under 

■ its heroic Grand Master, Lavalette, against an overwhelming 

■ armament directed against it by SohTuan tho Magniticcnt. 
r The politic Snltan, who carefully watched every movement 

amongst his Christian neighbours, had hailed with exceeding 
I satisfaction tho appearance of Luther, whom he took to bo 
I & new prophet, sent at the 
I Htoppiiig-stono for the 
f MusHuluiau armies. He made many ini|uirios concerning him, 

and being informed of the great divisions which ho bad intro- 
_ duced amongst the Christian nations, *' This is a great man," 
l:8aid Solyman, " who will soon be the ruin of Christianity. I 
"believe that God has sent him for this purpose. I am only 

sorry that hu is net younger; if he should evct' have need of 

me, he will iind me a g»X)d and liberal lord." 

fiappUy the rock of Malta stood between the two intended 
I confederate!). The Sultan equipped 160 galleys, bearing the 
^ flower of his troops, under the command ofMustaBa, his most 

distiuguished captaiu. The doet was led by a pirate and a 
I renegade. At its approach Uio Knights, preceded by the 
f Gmnd Master, asKombled in their church, where tho bfeascd 

Sacrament was exposed j and having received Holy Comma- 

nion, they embraced each other, and listened each to bis 
• post of duty, A prolonged and desperate defence waa 

■ followed at last by the flight of tho panic-stricken barbarians. 
But of all the inhabitants of tho island, whether kmgbts, 

inon-Ht-arms, or citizens, there remained scarcely one un- 
nouiided^ and not more than oix ixxxadr^^ u).^q.\i\)6 oC bcuriiifs 



4 



the prayer of Mahomet, to serve aa a 
Kubjugntion of Christendom by the 



8. Fiu^ v., ths Faihot of OtrinUndoM. 



205 



ftimtf. WoAriod out by the uoequol struggle, and disj^sted 
by tbc coldness and slackuess of his CbristiaQ allies, Lavalette 
began to cuufider whether it. would nut be necessary to foraske 
a post which bo bad uo lunger foi*oes to defend. 

Ho rosolvod tirst, however, to make one more appeal bo the 
different courta of Europe and to the Holy See. Two mouths 
afl^r his accession, Pins V. replied to the Grand Master by a 
briefj oxprostiiug audi deep sympathy, and conveying suoh 
&thejrly eocouxagement, as fixed the hero Lmmovably at his 
post. " Romain, dear sou,'' Haid Pius, *' at your potit ; de- 
cline not from that renown which has made you glurioua before 
all natious. The Catholic king, the dignity and safotv of^ 
whose kingdoms depends upon the issue of this war, will n _ 
fail you ; ueither will we fs^ you, who are roody to shed our 
blood for the honour of God, tlie Ucdeomcr and the Saviour 
of the Christian commonwealth. Above all, and before all, 
ray dear son^ God will come to your aid, who has but lately 
so manifestly assisted you. He will not refuse to send His 
help from on high to His own soldiers." 

Pius V. kept his word. Never to the last hour of his life 
did he neglect t^) further the great cause of the defence 
CbriKtcndum a^inst the Turks, until his efibrts wcreorowni 
at lujil by the decLsive victory of Lepauto. 

To coDsole and encourage the sinking heart of the noble 
Grand Master was a work more congenial with that of I'ins V. 
than the weary endeavour to straighten the crooked policy of 
Catherine di Medici. By his earnest appeals to the other 
Catholic powers of Kuropo, the Holy Father hod succeeded 
in forming a league to defend thu King of Fi-unce against the 
Hugueoot rebels, who were defeated in tho decisive battles 
of Jaruao and Moncoutour ; but the fruit to bo guthered from 
these triumplis was very diOurcntty estimated by Catherine 
and S. Pius. Her aim was to patch uji a hollow semblance 
of reconciliation between parties whose principles were irre- 
concilable ; his to make Charles IX., not in name only, bat 
in deedi thu most Christian king of a Catholic and united 
people, and then to call upon him, as the heir of S. X«onis and 
Ih' ' '■-' '',n of fhi- Churcn, once more to lead tho chivalry of 
Oil lu against its common enemy the Turk. He aimed 

at uuihiug more, ho would bo content with nothing less. 

Cttihoriue's |K>licy, tho policy of the world, triumphed for 
tho time, and issued, after 8. I*ins bad entered into his rest, 
in the massacre of S. Bartholomew. 

A more faithful leader was found to confront the bosta of 
Isbuni and the wounds of Franco blttd ctu V^ N^uo) "««»« 
■Uoched by tho hand of God hiDiMU>^\uA.>W^>ai3aA'^^^» 



life 
.ble ' 



296 



S. Plus V.f the Vatlicr of ChrUi^ndom. 



of Heniy of Navarre passed from the Tlnguenot ranks txj sur- 

jnouut the helmet of her Catholic King. 

Meanwhile the crimes and treachery of Catherine and her 
associates have been freely imputed by Protestant historians to 
the only intiuence that was exerted to prevent them, to tlio only 
voice in Christendom which was invariably raised to proclaim 
the truth of tiod, to point out the will of God as the only end of 
man, and sanctity and integrity as the only means of fulfilling it. 
Amouj^ other accusations made against the Holy See is 
that of having forwarded tho marriage of Margaret of Franco 
with the youug Kitig of Navarre, in order to attract the 
Huguenot chiefs to tho Court and thus to place them in tho 

Jpower of their enemies. In our number for last October wo 
exposed the utter falsehood of this allegation. In fact, it 
appears by letters from the various parties concerned, given 
at length by M. de Falloux, that Pius V. sent an embassy to 
Don Sebastian, the young Kiug of Portugal, to exhort him to 
join the Christian league against the Turks, and to advise him 
to ask the hand of this verj- Margaret of Valois, as a moans 

[ of inducing her brother to join it. It appears also that> finding 

• Charles IX. obstinately bent upon giving his sister to the 
Huguenot prince, Pius V. was great!}- afflicted, and said that 
no more sorrowful news could have been brought to him than 
this; and that the man-iage was not only displeasing to him, but 
even unlawful. It is said that raising his left hand, which 
he used habitually instead of the right, to his headj ho solemnly 
declared that he would rather die than grant the dispensation 
asked by the Queen-mother for this marriage. The Pope's 
firmness was proof against all importunities, and notwith- 
stimding the magnificent preparations made for the ceremony, 
it did not take place until after his death. 

The following letter was written by Pius V. to Mary Queen 
of Scotfl, in answer to her congratulations on Us accession. 
The unbending firmness of tho attitude which wo have seen 
him assume towards Catherine di Medici contrasts strongly 
with tho fatherly tenderness, mingled with a kind of com- 
passionate respect, which marks his correspondence with this 
persecuted and calumniated woman. At the date of thta 
letter, Mary was enjoying the brief period of reconciliation 
with her wayivai*d and tmfortunare husband, which intervened 
between the murder of Uiz7.io and the birth of her sou. 



n 



Erer since we haTc heard (writ** the Holy Falhtt) of the Iroahlea ezc!t«r 

against yoD hy your rcbeUinu« »ubject«, who are at tbo aane time cnomltt 

of the Inie and OsthoUc &ich, vc hare oorer FmImI to have rpcotinio to the 

Lord our Ood with thfl heartfelt and lalbetV^ alilwWQU itVwiV -wfc v^Vj bear 

loj-ou ; Mad /earing ]e»t our sins chouliV rwAxx u» xjav«otOwj wXitViiwa^,*** 



8. PiUH v., the Father of OhrUt^ndorn. 



297 



\ 



f 



h»Te commcndwl yoa to the inberoeMion orfd proven of a number of holy 
pricflts and n>Uj;pniiii. Gladly would we have expowd oar own life for youJj 
unil wc luvp nut. failed to intfic-pi]^ for joii with our dear F<o[)ft in Jam 
Chrtai, die Catholic piinccs, that they would afford yon ndJtiHttuice. Thaiiks 
to the Dirine mercy and clemency, oar sorrow haa in some meaaure been 
■ ■ ■Tiffr ' by the tidings that yoa have been lately dellTered from a pressing 
dtDger. For this mercy we hare returned thanka to G(»d, not irach as we 
ahnolfl offer, btit aiicti a* the wenkneaa of onr piety |)eniiitted. And now 
that the weight of yean and the prwsing occupation? imposed opon n« by 
the interest of Christendom, hinder tis from travelling to Scotland, we have 
thought well to send to you, aa our nnncio, our dear and Tonerable brother 
the Biihop of Montreal, a man of rare virtue, wisdom, probiiy,and prudence, 
in whom you may reiwae full confidence, and who will render you evcty 
aernce in hit power. Be well assured that in notbtog within the timita of 
onr power is it our will to be wanting to you in any reepcct ; and we beseech 
HIro, W\in of His own good Providence alone, and for no merit of oun, has 
made us His Vicar, to add to nil your royal qualitiot the gift of tDvincible 
ooorage and pcrwrerance. 
Given at Rome, Gth June, 1660. 

In her answer to this letter, ^far7 thanks hitn for it in the 
IbUieas of her heart, and iraplorns his blessing forheruew- 
bom child, whose baptism in the Catholic Church she joyfnllv 
annonnceR; expressing a hope (alas, not destiuod to he realized) 
that Gwl U'ouhl nivc Iiiin ijruce to ^uritcvfre in the Catholic and 
otihmiox uKc of the Sacromenfs, ami to hrtnij both all her snhjcft» 
to the snuw. A few months afterwards followed the murder 
of Damley, and then the long scries of misfortunea which 
clonded her remaining years ; her captivity and forced mar- 
riage with Bothwell ; her imprisonment at Locliloven, and 
oompalaoiy abdication ; bcr deliverance by the chivalrous 
daring of her loyal adlierents ; the lost 6c1d of Langside ; and 
the fatal act of ranli conHdence which delivered her into the 
hands of a rival, destitute nliko of pity and of honour. Then 
came the long, weary captivity, by which the royal victim, 
forsakeo of all bat God, was gradually prepared and ripened 
for the martyr's crown. 

'I^c Uoly Father failed not to address lottera of consolation 
to the forlorn cn]>tive, while ho vainly endDavotired to induce 
the kings of France and Spain to nnito their efforts for her 
deliverance. The failure of the Catholic rising in the north 
against the intolerable tyranny of Elizabeth, served but to 
nvet her chains. The best bloud of Knglund (lowed on the 
field and on the soatfold, until the measure of the nsnrncr'a 
crimes was full, and the judicial sentence of the VicarofCwn:^ 
fonaally cut bor off from the commanion ot CWv-sX't'&^wi'w, «cA. 
nAragcti bcr subjects from their oatli of ftWftV^'twi^. ^ ^V««<^ 
ofconne, aorulj mention tho fact ; ani\ do uot\»xol<s«a V/^ e«Wst 



898 



i/. Fiw V.t ^^ Father of Ohnstciidotii, 



on the theolofipcal qootttioos suggested by it. The Boll 
of excommuDicatiou againat £lizabeili waa signed February 
2otfaf lo70, and ou the loth of tlio following May, a copy of 
it was iixQd ou the duor of tbe Bishop of London's palaoo 
by the daring hand of John Felton, a gallant Catholic gentlo* 
man and student of Lincoln's Iim, who expiated hifl act 
by a traitor's death. With the chivalrous conrtosy which 
marked the bearing of so many of KlizabetVa victims towards 
her^ as a woman and a queeU; he sent her from the scaffold 
a ring of considorablo vidue. 

When S. Pius went to his reward, Man' was atiU lanjjnltshing 
in her prisou^houBOj KUssabcth still basking in the fhll glare of 
worldly dominion and prosperity. Was Elizabeth^ then, whom 
ho had excommunicated, really happier than Mary, whum lie had 
blessed ? The last moments of the two queens will answer the 
question. The meek and majestic martyrdom atFotheringay, 
and the ghastly death-chamber at Richmond, where the heiress 
of the reformation, the ofl'snring of the mock marriage for 
which llenry had bartered hia own and his people's heritage 
of faith, lay crouched upon the floor, g&xing m sullen despair 
at the spectre -haunted bed, to which her servants vaiuly bo- 
sought her to return, and muttering mournfully : " I am bound 
with an iron collar round my neck." Alas ! the priestly bauds 
which should havo loosed it, were fettered in bor dungeons or 
withering ou her city g»teH, and the blood-stuinud aoul^ de»- 
pairing and unshriven, passed to its account. 

Our spftco has only pennittcd us to take a few examples 
here and there from M. do Falloux'a narrative of the ceoseleea 
vigilance of S. I'ius over all the nations of Ms fold. We come 
now to his last glorious conflict with the false prophet of Mi 
It is difficult in these d&ye, when the Mussulman Empire 
an inert mass at tho threshold of Christendom^ to realize what 
was the terror of its name in the days of Pius V. Dr. New 
man has drawn with a master's hand, in his Lectures on 
Turhs, the rise of the Miihoraetan power and the five hundred 
years of its ascendancy. 

Even tiie Uddng of Comtutinoplc {uji be) was not the limit of the 
Ottonun TOocesKi. M»bomct Uie Conqueror, as hr i» caUod, ww bat the 
MTcnth of the groat SultatM who carried on th« fortuoeH of th« bubanu 
empire. An eijjlith, n ninlli followed .... 

Then came a tenth, tlie ^I'eatmC perhaps of all. Bolynun tho Mig^ifloanV 
the cont«inporu^' of the Emperor Charles V'.. Knucia iho First of FnioMi 
and Heoij the Eighth of ^ighmd. And (in elevcuth might have beeo 
oxpeded, and a twelfth, nod the power of the «netuy woutd have become 
greater luid ^rmter, and would hnve atf]ict«d the Church more and mof^ 
fSieaiilf, and wlut ww to h« the uud ot Choae \iba&^l WVaL wu to h»uj 




f 



I 



P^ 8. PiuM v., the JUAifr cf CAmlflMbm. 

•od I whir, not A CJimtiaa 4lan«, bat uj fibtliMOiihpt of Uiii world, would 
hftn kiio«a wbit ww to be Um end in Bpu« of existing ftppmukOM. 

^H authly power hv aa end : it Hms to fail, it gnnn to dio, tad Um 
dapUi of ita bmniliAtioB inues oat of the pride of iu lifting opw Thi> i* whM 
«?ca • philnwpher would ny, he would not kaow whether SoljmAa the 
Mnlh conqueror, wm sImi to be the Ust ; but if aut the tenth, he vould be 
bold in mjing it would be the twelfth, who would does their rjctoim, or 
the fifteenth, or the twentieth. Bat what a philosopher ooold Dot Kkj, what 
ft fairirtian know* uid e^joyB, is thii, that one Mrthly power then fit which 
ie eoBiaihing mure than earthly, and which, while it dies in tlw inditidual, 
far be U hnpwn, b immortal in its auccenion* for it in dirin«^ It ww e 
mnufcBble qneation of the sarage Tuten of Zlngia, to the miuionarica wbuoi 
th0 Pope nnt them ia the UurlMBtb caOiaij : Vfha wm the Pope I they 
■eked ; wh he not now an old uftD, 500 jean of age i It was thnr one 
inetinectve notion of the tt>lipoti of the Weet ; and the Turiu in their own 
liHtoiy hare often had causp to Umect over its fenilh .... 

Tbeu followed SnlUo after Sultan, each greater than hia pridawcr, while 
the line of I'opee had indeed many bright namu to «how. ronttfii of 
Ibarning, and of piety, and of Kcnha, and of xaol and energy ; but still what* 
waa tiie destined ehampion of Chriitendoia, the holy, the iofiexjble, Uw lioih 
hearted, the ittooaaor of S. Gregory, who in a hunuioos and a Ntf-wiUed ago* 
■DHmg hia high dotiei and achieTemeola, had the mjasion, by hia pnyaia aad 
bb dforla, of stopping the enemy in his full career, aikd of naooing 
Qstholicism from the pollution of the blasphemer t The &00 yuan wm noi 
y«l coQipleiod. But the 500 jflon u IcugUi were rua ; Um lont^cpacted 
ehampion was at hand. 

Itt (be middle of the axteeoth oentury, Seliu the Sol came to the ihrooe 
of Othman, and S. Pins V. to the throne of the Apoatle. Oh what a strange 
caatait did Kome and ConaUntinople preaent at that em I Noitlwr was 
wlntll had been, bat they had changed in upptiaito directiona. Both bad 
hoH. tba scat of Imperial Povar ; Bonw, whan bartsy never throv*, had 
danged iu Eniperon for the aocceision of &, P«(er i CooatantiBOple bad 
psand frotn temporal pown into schism, and thence into hUsphenious 
apoataoy. The unhappy oity and ita subject prorinosa, which liad bean 
ivaly the seat of Arianinn, of Neatoriaiiiiun, of i'hulianiou, now had 
the metiopolia of the fiilee Prophet ; and, while in the Weefc the 
ediflct of Iha VaUcan Basilica was rising anew in iU wond«rf\iI [ho* 
pofftionB and its coady iaat<riab> the Temple of S. Sophia in th« East was 
Jsgiadad into a Moeqae. Oh 1 Uw slAUge oonlmvt in the state of the 
tohahitaala of each place I Uere in tho city of Couitantino a 0od4iuiyinj{ 
niAalief waa aoeompanied by on impurv. uum-deunidinK rule of life, \ty the 
aUrery of woman, and the corroptiou of youth. But thciv, in tho city which 
the ApoeUea hod oousecial'^d with thoir blood, tlio g^<at and tioe refunua- 
tioo of iha agv woe iu toll progrcoa. Thtre the deU-nuinaiions in dot-'ttine | 
au<! ' , ' .ii iif the great C'<ouncil of Trent hod juit been complelod. TImt* 
lor iin post had Ud>Qui«d uar buautiful and dsar S. Philip, till be 

aarsMi tUv t^Llr nf Apostle <>) 1 "1 >cl Uiul tWn^f ')«a»htMmiA.X\^» vi&. 

vndt in Juiu. Tiien, too, thi ^ ru^-ui t&uus\9ukAMft^'W$«^^>*^ 



300 



S. Pius v., the Father of Ohristfindom. 



bat Uiely died. And there, vhcn the Holy See fcH vacant, and a Pope kad^ 
to be appointed in the great need of the Church, a Saint was present in tho 
crunclavo to liiiil in it a brother Saint, and to lecommpDil him for the Chair 
of S. Peter, to the anffrages of the Fathers and Princes of the Charch .... 
tt IB not to be supposed that a Saint on whom h.y the solicitude of all the 
Churches, should neglect the tradition, which hb predecesaors of bo inanj 
oenturiea had bequeathed to him, of zeal and hostility against the Turkish 
power. He was only six yeani on Ihe PontiilrtU throne ; and the achicr*- 
int^nt of which wc arc j^ioing to speak was among his last ; ho diod the follow- 
ing year. At this titim the Ottoman armies were continuing their course of 
victory ; they hud jiut taken Cyprus, with the nctiTe co-optnition of th» 
Greek population of the island, and were massacring the Latin nobility and 
clergy, and mutUatitig and flaying alive the Venetian governor. Yet tliA 
Saint found it iuipossible to movu Chrintendom to iU own dcfencci How 
indeed was that to be done, when half ChriDtendom had become Protestant ; 
and secretly perhaps felt as the Greeks felt, that the Turk was its friend and 
ally t In such a quarrel England, France, and Germany were out of tho 
question. At length, however, with great effort he succeeded in fonning a 
holy league between liinuelf, King Philip of Spain, and the Venotians. 
Don John of Austria, King Philip's hidf-brother, wait appointed Commander- 
in-chief of the forces, and Colonna Admiml. The treaty waa signed on the 
£4th of JLiy, but »uch was the cowardice of the parties concerned, that the 
outumn had arrived, and nothing of importance was accomplished. With 
difficulty were the arnties united ; with difficulty were the diaaeiuioiu of Um 
couiniauders brought to a settlement. Meanwhile the Ottomans wen 
scouring the gulf of Venice, blockading the ports, and terrifj'ing the 
city itscll But the holy Pope waa Becnring the aucoestt of his cause by 
orma of his own, which the Turks understood not He had been appointii^ 
a Tridno of sapplicatioa at Rome, and had taken part in the procession him- 
self. He hod proclaimed a jubilee to the whole Christian world, for the 
happy issue of the war. He had been interesting the Holy Virgin in his 
cause. He presented to his adniinl, after High Moss in his chapcL, 
standard of red damaak, embroidered with n crucifix, and with tho figures 
S. Peter and Paul, and the l^end,/n hoenQnovineef^ NextfSendingtoMeasii 
where the allied fleet lay, he assured tlie General-in-chief and the armami 
that, " if relying on Dirine grace, lather than on human help, they at' 
the enemy, God would not be wonting to His own canse." Heaugnmla 
prosperous and happy issue ; not on any light or random hope, but on a 1 ^ 
guidance, and by the anticipation of many holy men. Moreover he enjoiti' : i 
officentolook to thegoodconductof their troops ; to repress swearing, gaming, 
riot, and plunder, and thereby to render them more deaerring o^ Tictoi^ 
Accordingly a fast of three da^ was proclaimed for the fleet, beginning wifl 
the Nativity of our Lady ; all the men went to confeaslon and communioH 
and appropriated to thenuelvea the plentiful indnlgvncea which the Pop! 
attached to the expedition. Then they moved across the foot of Italy to' 
f^orfa, with the int«ntion of presenting themselves at once to the enem;^. 
Bein^ disappointed in their cxpcctatiou, they turned bock to the Gulf fl 
Voriatb, itnd tbero at length on the 7th Oc^W^ Vta^ lu>im^ Oaa Tij^d^fl 




8, Piu3 V.f the Father of Christendom. 



801 



I 



fle«t, bftlf-wBy between Lep*nto ud th« Zchinadoi on the north, and Ffttru, 
in tfao More*, on Uw south ; und, though it vu towards CTcniiij;, itrong in 
fiuth uid zeal, they nL oucc commenced the cugngemenL The night before 
the battle, and the day it«i>lf, aged as he was, and broken with di«ease, the 
S&int had jwn«d in tlie Vatican in fastbg and prayer. All throi^fa the 
Holy City the iitouadterios and tho colleges were in prayer too. Ab the 
evcnin},' advanced, tho Pontifical trcoiiuror asked an audience of the 
SoTcrci^ Voutiif un an Important matter. Pius was in hia bedroom, and 
h*^u to court>n« with him, when suddenly he slopped the conrenation, 
left htm, threw upcn the window, ami f^K<>d up to heaven. Ilien closisfc It 
again, he looked gravely ut his officiiU und aaid, *' Thid is no time for biisiDeos ; 
ffjo, return thonka to the Lord Ood. In this ver)* hour our fleet has engaged 
the Turkiah, und i^ victorioua." Xm the treasurer went out, he uw him fall 
oa hje knees before the altar in Umukfutneaa nml joy. And a nio«t rc-murk- 
able victory it wax ; upwards of 30,i)00 Turks arc aatd to have tost their liven 
in the engagement, and 3,500 were made prisoners. Ahnost their whole fleet 
was taken. Vie quote from Frotoalant auUioritios, when wo say that the . 
Sultui, on the news of the calamity^ neither ate, nor drank, nor ahowc^I him- 
aelf, nor saw any one for three days ; thnt it was the ^^atcit l)luw which the 
Ottoman had had since Timour'a Tictory over Bi^azet, a century and a half 
befiin ; nay, that it was the turning point In the Tuikiali history, uid that, 
thoogh the Sultans hare had isolated snooeeBee oinoe, yet from that day they 
nndeiuably and constantly decline<l, that they hare hut their prestige ud 
Ihalr aelf-ooafidenoe, and thai tho victories gained over them since ut ba( 
the complement and rererU-ratioosuf the overthrow of I^puito. 

8uch was thu cataxtroiihe of this long and anxious drama. The boat of 
Tiirklslan and Tartai>' hod poured down from their wildenessea through ages, 
Iv bo withstood and foiled and revened by an old man. 

Zn the oontrast between the combatanti we see the coninst of the histories 
of good and evU. The enemy, as the Turks in this battle, rushing forward 
with the terrible fury of wild beasts, and the Churchmen comboting with the 
energetic penevcnince and the heroic obstinacy of S. Pius. 

In memory of the victory of Lepanto^ and in gratitude to 
oar Ulessed Lady for hor powerful intcrcesaion in behalf of 
the Christian forces, S. Pius imwjrtcd tho words, " Auxilium 
CliriBtianorulu," in her Litanica. 

Six montha ofior the battle of Lopanto Pius Y. lay on his 
dying bed. The anguish of hia cruel malady increased from day 
to day, yet no word pasaed hia tipa bat tho often repented prayer, 
oa bo nxed his eyes on tlte cmcifix, "0 Lord, increase luy 
pain, but withal iucreaae my patience." When his phyaicianA^ 
ttrgrd him to dopart in some degree from the rules of the 
Lenltm nbjitinence, he answered ropronchfully : — " My friend 
would ymi hnvt* mv, then, in tho lew days I hava to Vvv«, ^f 
greitH the rule which God has given, ta© ^rocc ^ss ^J^aftftTse 
utrio}tU4i for iifJy.ti»reo ywir*?" Oa Uo\^ Ttt«wAa?S ^"^^ 



302 



jSf. P*iw K, ih« Father of OHristmtdom, 



wialied his nephew, who hiid boon colled in haste from hia 
legnfcion, to give him Holy Communion, Bod when it came to 
the words, the Body of our Lord Jcmta Christ jn-f»prvc thtj mml 
to ett-rnal life, "I pray you," said Piua, "to apply to me 
the words which tho Church nses for the dying — tfw Boihj uf 
our Lord Jesus Christ conduct thy soul to eternal life." On 
the following day (Good Friday) be caused a large cross to be 
brought into his oratory, and arose to adore with many tears 
tho five wounds of his Sairiour. 

The public audiences having been suspended, tho report of 
his death was spread throughout Rome. And now was seen 
the fuliilmeut of hia desire, tnat meu " should grieve more for 
his death than they had done for his accession." Now, too, 

' was seen the depth and the reality of the work which he had 
done for Home. Instead of tho scandals which too oflen 
«markcd the period of a Pontiff's approaching decease, there 
was but one wide sorrow as at the death of a father whoso six 
years' sway had worked such a wonderful renovation on tho 
state of Koman society. 

The Pope was so deeply moved by the attachment of his 
children, that ho dosired onoo more to give them his blessing ; 
and the strength of his soul overcoming his bodily weakness, 
on Easter Day he assumed his pontifical vestments, and having 
beeu carried to tho loggia above the portico of S. Peter's, ho 
gave his solemn benediction to the people, who had assembled 
from all parts of the city and surrounding country to receive 
it for the last time. For one moment his pale face was Hushed 
and his dim eyes brightened with tho charity that burnt 
within his heart, and the accents of his dying voice wen? dis- 
tiuctly heard by the most distant of the kneeling multitude. 
A vain hope arose of his recovery, and deputations from the 
clergy and nobihty came to congratulate him and to consult 
him upon the various matters regai'ding their several offices. 
" My children/* he replied, " I have no liusineaft now to 
transact but with God, and the account which I have to ronder 
to Hiiu uf all the words and actions of my life requires the ftill 

^OTplicatiou of my mind." 

Hflme had jnst entered the seventh year of his pontifioato, and 

^Blherefore wished to bless the Agnna /)(n« which wore brought 
to him for that ptu^oso \ he also wished to bid farewell to the 
relies of the saints, whom he hopiMl srwm to c ' - 
heaven; and, notwithstanding the nnxious rem< 
hispliysiciansnnJ friends, he determined to make the tSiatioi: 
of the Seven Churches. As ho slowly moved alongf, leaning 
on the arm of an attendant, his deuth-Uke paleness led thu 
who met him to eipeet that lie woisVA ^ft \tt Ooo effiui\,. Va, 



8. PivB V.t the Faihor of Christendom, 



808 



I 



Antony Colonna, 'ibo Admiral of his riotorions fleet at 
Lepanto, fell on his kncos bcforo him, and besought him to 
return to his palace. Tlie Holy Father gently poshed him 
andOj and went on his way to S. John Latoran. Thoro hia 
atrength nearly gave way ; but, after a moment's hesitation, 
he said, "Ho who has dono all thinfzs bv His grooc will 
fintflh His own work ; " and then, as it endued with sudden 
strengthi he mounted tlie iiicata Suntn on his knees, and thrice 
kiased tho last step, as if ho could scarcely tear himself from 
the holy place. He came back to the Vatican to die. 

No subject of this world was suffered to disturb his inter- 
course with God. One only cotception was made in favour of 
England. The dying shepherd could not forget those few 
sbeop l«r off in the wilderness, over whom his heart had ever 
yearned with a father's love. He was told that a number of 
EDgliab Catholics bad come to seek shelter at Homo from 
the persecution of Elizabeth. Pius V. desired that they 
should be at once brought into his presence, made anxious 
und affeutionatc inquiries eoucerning tno statu of Catholics in 
Sloglaud^ and charged Cardinal Alessaudrino to see all their 
wants supplied ; for theso confessors for the faith had arrived 
m ft state of absolute destitution. As they left tho room he 
was heard to exclaim, raising his clasped hands to heaven : 
** My God, Thou knowest thnt 1 Imvo been even ready to shed 
my blood fur the tialvatiun of that nation." 

The Saint had been too long familiar with sickness, and too 
much accustomed to the thought of death to be troublod at 
its approach. Uis day's work was done, and he lay calmly 
waiting for his summons home. The prayers in which ho best 
loved to join with tho weeping attcndajits around his bed were 
tho seven penitential psalms ; and ho would have tho reader 
pAusu after every verse to give him timo for the acts of fervent 
contrition, which he intermingled with the supplications of 
the royal penitent. Tho Passion of our LorJ was friTiuently 
read to him, and at each mention of the Holy Nome he un- 
covered his head tillliw fingers grew rigid with the chill of death, 
when he signed to his attendants to remove hi.i cnii for him. 

Early in the? morning of the 30th of April he cfoclared that 
Itis end was appmnobing, and sent for the prefect of his 
ohapel to give liim extreme unction. Once more on his 
bended kneen hv poured forth bi« supplications t<> God for the 

L welfare of the Chnrch, bis one care in life, his one thought in 
dwth. For her sake he desired to give bis lost instructions 
to CSardfual AJeasandriuo and to those other members uf iKo 
Sacrod College who moat fiilly poasea&ed ViVa coxv^^evicft, 
you fcaiv /ored ay mortal life," sMidkb, ifi\Oi wl «ti«t^ 



SOi 5. PiMS V.t the Father of Chnsi^siidem, ^M 

of his old invincible courage ;—** if you havo lovod my mortal 
hfo, so full of misery and imperfection, for more deeply ouglit 
you to love tliat unchangeable and moat blessed life which by 
the mercy of my God I hope Roon to enjoy in heaven. You 
know woU that the most inleuso desire of my heart was to 
Bee the empire of the infidel overthrown, but since my aina 
have rendered mo unworthy of so great a blessiug, I adore 
the inscrutable judgments of God. May Hia will bo done ! 
Nothing now remains for mo but to commend to you with all 
my soul tho Church which Gud ha^ committed to my care. Do j 
all in your power to elect a successor full of zeal for tho glory-l 
of God, who shall bo attached to no other interest in tho 
world, and shall seek the good of Christendom alone." 

As he uttered these words witli such vehcmcnco as his fail- 
ing strength permitted, he raised his arm, which the sleeve o£ 
his woollen tunic falling back left uncovered. With hia 
habitual instinctive mo<lo8ty ho hastily pulled down his long 
sleeve ; this movement was hia last. 

From that moment, with his eyes fixed on a cross, ho 
breathed forth, in scarcely articulate accents, short pas&i^es 
from Holy Scripture ; and his freed eonl at last dopartea to 
Gnd as be finished the lost lino from the Paschal vesper 
hymn as it then stood : 

■ QurcsaoiuH, Auctor omiuum 

^^^- In hoc puBoliali gAudio, 

^^^k Ab omni mortU impctu 

^^^ Tuum defeado populma, 

Pius y. died on 1st May, 1572, at the ago of sixty-eight, after 
a reign of little moro than six years. 

Tho examination of his body after death proved by the testi- 
mony of his physicians how heroic and supernatural had 
been the patience which had lived and laboured without a 
murmur under tho pressure of such excruciating bodily patn. 
He was mourned not only in Rome, but throughout the whole 
extent of Christondom, as in very deed a father. Ue ap' 

E eared at the moment of hia death to S. Teresa, promising 
er hia continued assistance iu the work of her reform. 
When her sisters asked tho reason of her tears, she replied : 
" Wonder not, but rather weep with mc, for the Church is 
widowed of her holy pastor." 

S. Pius V. was numbered among tho blessed in 16712; hiq 

L feast is celebrated on the fifth of May. Let every reader of thosq 

P pages suy one Gloria in his honour and one aspiratiou for ou 

dear country to him who would futu havo shed his blood fo 

her on earth — for charity waxcB not, co\»i mVao^ctt. 



305 



I 



I 



Axt: n.— PE0TESTA2n* PR0SELYTI8M IN KASTEMTH 

LAJSDS. I 

I. Tfu Gotpd in Turttey, bein(c " the Tenth and Elonnlh Aomut lUpaiti 
•ftht! Turkish Ml<sious-.lid Sooietj." Pablisbed at Uic Sodoty's CHBof* 
7, A<Um Stn<t, W.C. ; ut NisLei'tf ; and HnU'Wd'H, Loiiiloiu ISAM. 

I £«6anon ; a Jlutory aitd a i>»ary. By Vavid UitqtniAiiT. Louduo : I 

N«wb.?. 1800. 1 

3. Jonrnai of a Tour in iS^yU PaltUitie, fiyrto, wwt Onaoi, By Jamu ] 

Lairu Fattbrson, M.A. London : I}oIiu«d. Ib5& j 

4. ProijHctM of "the Syrian ProtaUmt Collogt:* Issued l>y " The TurkiJi I 

Miuions-Aid Sooietj." Londoo. 186B. i 

rpHGRK nra fow impartml nnd well-informed ProtostonU 1 

J- who will not conlcss thul tbuir iniBsiunii thruu|rliout Uie J 

worM have invariably proved to bo uttor lailuros. No nutttar I 

to what 8oct or donomination thoy bolong, or From whiit I 

country or association tbcir funds are dorivod, Prutoatant I 

missionaries, as preachers of that Qospet about whidi tliuy I 

Bptmk so much, never huvo couvortotl, ami we believe uover wilfi I 
oonvurt the heathen save by iinitH and driblets, hardly worthy 
of mention. In India, in Turkey, iu Africa, amung'sl thu 
South-Sea Islanders, and the Ked Indians of Ameriea, the 
reanlt of IVotestant missionary labour is tho same wherever 

it has been tried. The people to whom their missionaries are j 

sent may, and often do, becomo more or less civilized from | 

intoreourso with educated men, and oflen learn from thot4e who I 

wi»1i to teach ihein hij^her nmtters, some of tho art* nud np- I 

pUaiicofl of Kiu-opoan hfe. Some fow certainly ombrooe what I 

their preachurs deem to be CUriationity ; and occasionally, I 

but Tory seldom, small communities of nominal Christians aro J 

fonnod by thorn. But to bring whole regions of j-ho iubobit- I 
onto to the foot of the Cross, — to convert whole nations to 
Christianity, — to prove that thotr converts have embraced n 

system in which a man uiuni do what is riffht u woU M boUuvo < 
what is true, — ore triiunpha which have hitherto beob fMorvod 
for the Catholic Church, and fur hiT alone. 

Hut, even humanly speaking, — and quite apart from all con* j 

sideratiomt of the truth as ejusting only in the Ark which our I 

Lord HimHi.'Jf buUt, — con we wonder atthoao resalts? Are | 

there anv who have sojoumod iu, or orun poMod throiiich, I 

lands where missionaries of both ndigions work, and lia.^^ j 
not compared the Catholic priest willi lh« Vtu^aiAa^&VxqIvca^A^r 
wlio hu come oat to pmcb the Uo»pu\ m xXiaiib Qfi»n.Vn»i^X 
rot. nh^xo. XIV. (New SeneM.'\ ^ 



30G 



Proiesia-nl Pronelytism Vn Eastern Lands, 



Take, for iastauce, au up-couutry elation in Britisli India. la 
tWc a Protestant missionary in the place? If so, he is a 
man with considerably moro thun the mere scrip and staff of 
apostolic days in his possession. As wealth goes amongst 
Englishmen in tho East, he is perhaps not rich ; but he ia 
nevertheless quite at his case, and certainly wanting for 
nothing. Uo has his comfortable bungalow; his wife and 
children are with him ; the modest one-horse carriage ia not 
wanting for tho evening drive of himaelf and family ; nor is 
the furniture uf bis hou.se such as any man of moderate means 
need despise. He has a regular income from tho society he 
represents; and his allo%vances are generally snuh lis, with 
little «are, will aUow of his living in great comfort. An 
finally, if he falls sick, too sick to remain in tho conntiy, 
meuns of taking him homo again to England or America 
forthcoming at a moment's notice. He is generally a good 
linguist; fur having nothing else to do during six days of tin 
week, he devotes much of his time to the study of the n 
naoular. He is respected by the European officers of tl 
station ; for he is oflen the only person they ever sco in tU 
shape of a clergyman. Ho is almost always an honest nprigf 
man, with liltlo or no knowledge of the world, and, if posaible^ 
less of the natives to whom he is sent to preach. This, how- 
ever, docs not matter; for, except amongst his own personal 
servants, ho makes no converts, and has but few hearers. 
There is no positive harm in him, but as little active good. 
Ho is a fair sample of a pion»-minded CaU-iniat, but is cer- 
tainly no ilissionary, as Catholics understand the word. So 
far from having given up anything to come out to India, both 
he, his wife, and his — generally very nomcroua — oB'spring are 
much better off than if he had remained in his native Lauark* 
ehire or Pennsylvania; If lie belongs to the Church of Eng- ^ 
land, he is very often a Gorman by birth, antl appears to hav^^l 
'* taken orders " in the Establishment without having for ^^| 
moment abandoned his own peculiar theological views. Some 
few Englishmen — literates, nardly-evcr University men — are 
to bo found here and there, us English Church Missionaries j 
bat these are few and far between, nor do tht'ir labours often 
show greater results than those of their Presbyterian felluw- 
labourers. Even I)r. Littledale=*= speaks of " the jutiful hisf-'ni 
of Aiifflkan mUnions to Ma heaiJicn ;" and he might \vith grcyt 
tmth have extended his verdict to the missions of ereiy othcpj 
denomination of IVotestantism. 



•.Sw "The hi: 

ffory. iZoudoa : 



\s\nxi uf Bituultau," in The Chvrek and du 



Proteslajit PrOifvlyi'umi in EasUni Landa, 



307 



tu contrast to tbo Protestant^tuko tho European Catholic Mis-^l 
fiioiuiry tu the Ku:st, as apai-t Jrum tliu uative-boru priest. He is 
invariably a volnntocr for the work, cither a monk or n secular 
priest, who, aspiiing to more sevard labour in hia Master's 
vineyard, has chosen the hard and rugged path of a proachor 
of the Guapel in Pagan lands. As a general rule, you will 
prob;ibIy liiul him living iu a bumble room iu the unlive bazaar, 
and depending for his daily broad upon the charity of hia 
flook, or the contributions of any English Catholic officer or 
civilian who may happen to bo in the neighbourhood. He is Ca- 
tholic in hia nutiun as in bis creed ; for you may iiud him French, 
Belgian, Italian, ^^pani3h, Irish, or English. The present writer 
kas met a French uoblcmun and the sun of a wealthy Yorkuliiro 
«qaire kbouring and preaching as Jesuit Miaaionaries to the 
natives of India and the poor Irish soldiers who form so large 
a portion of every garrison in that country. Is it, tiien, to 
bo wondered at if, notwithstanding their Bu|)crior means and 
far greatLT worldly " rcspectabibty," the Protestant Mission- 
aries do not succeed us ours do ; or nithor, that whereas our 
Misi^ious are never without fruit, theirs seldom show forth even 
a few sickly leaves ? But the simple tact is, the missionary 
spirit — or ratiier the spirit which loads a man, if he bobevos 
tnat duty to God calls him to abandon family, wealthy comfort, 
health, nuy, life itself — never has, and never can be, understood 
by Pnitcstauts, whether climbing the heights of ritualism, or 

sk in the depths of Sociniauism. Cathobcs are oflen angry 
" 1 Prote.Htttuts, bL*causo the latter are unchai'itablo respecting 
monks, priests, and nuns. Catholics are wnmg in being angry. 
Ily any person who is not a CathoUc can understand tho 
it which moves men and women to make such sacrifices 
the love of God, and counts tho loss as ho nmch gain. 
Tbo very idea of thcsu acts is to him as colour to one who has 
Ixjon Mind from his birth : he not only cannot understand it, but 
yow caniMit explain it to him. This is a truth to which every con- 
TerC will bear testimony, after his eyes have boon opened to tho 
troths of Uod'sOnoandonIyChurch,and whichovonfewofthoao 
who have been Cotholic from their youth upwards can realize. 

Bat notmthHtnnding "the pitiful history" of XVotoslant 
missions to the hcntben, the work of those gentlemen in that 
dtn?ction is not deserving of other sentiment than that of 
pit}'. If mon wilt 1al>our in fields where they can bring forth. 
no harvest, and if others will pay them for doing no goodf J 
the Hflkir in thcirB, not ours. They never can no harm to 
the C'hureh in thijse rvgiona, for th(*y m-liinvo neither s^».iw\ 
nor evil to any one, further than \i^ g^v^^Vs ^** tqaJCvsw* v^ 
pUoc« where thero are no Catholic MiaWvovaxw** ^ ^*=^ 

1,^ 



308 



Protestant Proselyti'^m in Eastern Lands. 



erroneous idea oa to what the duties of a Christian teacher 
ought to bo. Not 80, however, in those countries whore 
Protestantism has sent its emissaries to undermine the faith 
which flourished amongst the inhabitants centuries before 
the very name of Protestant was known or hoard of. To 
help such undertakings, " The Turkitth Mixswm-Aul Sof^ty" 
was established and is kept up, and it is to the two reports 
of that society at the head of tho list of works uudor notice, 
that we would call the especial attention of Protestants, 
even more than Catholics, throughout England. 

The " Laws and HeguJations '* of " Tho TnrkUh Mijt9ionji-Aid 
Sociriil " are divided into nine clauses, and in the second of 
those we arc told that — 

The cybjt<ct of this society ix nnt tn originftte n new miftaton, hut tu aid 
exifiting cvaBgolical iiiiaaioiia in tlie Turttiiih empire, ettpccially the American. 

What these " evangelical " missions ai-e, and to whom tho 
" American " missionaries are sent, wo shall see presently. 
As a matter of course, the society is supported by the very 
cream of "Kvao^hcal" Protestantism, having Lord Shaftes- 
bury for its President, Lord Ebury as Vice-President, and Mr. 
Kiunaird as Treasurer. Tho subscriptions are very largo 
indeed, and from the "statement" furnished by tho Report 
for 1804-05, wo find that no less a gum than £24,072. 5*. has 
been sent out t-o the East for "Native Agencies" alone, since 
the commencement of tho society, now about eleven years 
ago J this, of course, being all in addition to the very heavy 
Bums and comfortable salaries fuimished by the American 
Society, called the Board of Foreign Missions, by which these 
missions and missionaries are mtuntained. 

It would appear that the " fields " occupied by these 
American Missions arc five in number, and the present 
condition of them is thus summarized in tho Eleventh, tho 
latest, Annual Report, now before us : — 



ViMt- 



S 



li 



?3 



i 



1^ 
^1 



8 

i 




WcsUm Turiiey 
Contra] Turkey 
liMtem Turkey 
Syiian . . , 
-Nestoriiui . . 

Total . 



4fl 
19 
SI 
S4 
16 



73 
54 
74 
37 

B3 



45 
27 
60 
S2 
36 



10 

14 

U 

6 



fil2 
99S 
403 
200 
&S9 



37 

S6 
61 
25 



12d 



32l> 



\m 



^ 6E> yi.^% 



\\i& 



y>,w.^ 



Profestani Pro/ieliftiitm {u EasUnii Land$, 



300 



I 



and 



These " missions " faavo been at work, somo morOj somo 
loss time ; but u fair average for the whole would bo about 
twcnty-fivo yenrs. It will bo obsen'od that in tho five ''fields" 
there are bub 2,&t2 " Chnrch Members/' or whatj amongst 
£atholic!i, woald be t«rmod communicants. Tho individuals 
ffiio come under tho head of " Avorage Sabbath Attendance,** 
ean no more bo termed Protcst-unt, thou His Grace tho Duko 
of Sutherland can be called a Catholic, because he was present 
at tho funeral of Cardinal Wiseman. But we will grant, for 
the sake of argument, that the 2,6t2 " Church Members" are 
earnest consistent Protcstanta. If so, and taking into cal- 
culation only the funds furnished by the Turkish Missions-Aid 
Society, aa quoted alx»vo, these converts are not very valuable, 
for thoy have only cost something less than ton pounds each. 
But if to the £24,672. Sa., wo a<ld all that tho American 
Board of Missions has paid in the same period, as salaries for 
missionnries, for "Native Assistants," for schoolmasters, 
retits, building of churches, printing, books, and the possago- 
money of missionaries aud their families to and from the Kast, 
wo shall find that there is not one of theso individuals whone 
couversion baa not ouo way and another cost a round threo 
tfaouHand pounds. At this price they ought to bo stanch 
anti-papistS| for their religion h^ been a T017 high-priced 
article. 

Let as ttira for a moment to the socood book on tho list 
at the head of this article. No one who has read a line of 
tho well-known Mr. Un:|uhart's many writings on poUticul 
qnestion.s, will ever accuse him of Catholic tendencies on any 
Kubjcct. Ha is not a bigot, indeed ; nor, again, does he ever 
defend the past history of Protestantism, for ho is too well 
read to uphold what every honest man, with the knowledge 
of an ordinary school-boy, must condemn. In Oriental matters, 
moreover, Mr. Urquhnrt has bis peculiar viows ; but as those 
hare nothing whatever to do with the questions of Protestant 
and Catholic, Missionaiy or non-missionary, we may fairly 
accept what he says on tho subject as tho testimony of an 
impurtiid witness. Hero, then, ia what he writes respecting 
the Cuthulic clerury and tho sectarian Missionaries in Syria 
and Mount Lebunon. 

Tbtf Boninn r«thu1ic n^Ur an<I aecuUr clergy u« eiUbliahMl hrn m in 
other itouuui CiftthoUo ouuntry ; that u to avf, Uicy ore jMuton of flookk, 
Bot miadon»riG0. Tbt ProtMtiuiU kav« no flocb, and t/try an ml wUfc 

«j«w lo cTotiin^ ikem. TwE3(TT-rtVK TiiocftAKD poinnM arc yeuly 
■abMribod in Uin Ifnited StntM for Uua obji^rt. And tho mimoBHUi oqm% 
hen httTiuj; to jiutUy Ibo aakriai Iboy nodvtt,* — ^-^k L^boMm^ *<^ v^ 
^7a) 



310 ProtcsUini Proseltftitm m Eattem Landt, 

Tho italics in tho above qnotnfcion nroottr own, and wo have 
thus marked tho words in order to dniw attoutiuu to what 
every traveller \a the Gast, not bitten with tho *' puro gxispol " 
mania, has bomo testimony. Bnt let us rctnm onco moro to 
the " statement " of tbe five missionary " fields " occupied by 
the Americans in tho East. Mr. Urqiihart wonid never make 
an asseHion like the above without chapter and rerso for what 
ho saya; and wlion he writes that twestt-five thocbakb 
P0D5fi>3 are yearly subscribed in the United Statos to support 
their missionaries in tho East, we may very safely consider the 
stfttemont to be true. Wo cannot, however, suppose that for 
this enormous sum the missions in Syria only are meant, for 
then each one of tho two hundred '* Church mombora " with 
which that land is blessed would coat a small fortune in him- 
self. But ut tho same time it is impossible not to allow that 
he must mean the American missionary establishments in the 
East generally, — the five *' fields," of which a " statement" 
h&s been copied above, and the total of whose "Churdh 
members" amounts to 2,ti42. And oven with this calctilatiun 
it %rill be seen that every Protestant communicant costs the 
pretty little annual sum of about £9. lO.f. for his couversnon 
and Kubs*?rjuent religious instruction. We are j:;iven to finding 
fault, and not unnaturally so, with the cost of the Est-ablished 
Church in Irolaud; but what is this when compared with tho 
price of tho " Gospel in Turkey " ? It is doubtful whether — 
apnr*., perhaps, from some other Protestant Missionary " field" 
of \Yhich we are yet iynoi-ant — the relig-iuus Instmction of any 
pcoplo in tho known world costs as mnch. It is as if each ten 
individuals hod a curate entirely to themselves, and cncl^ 
hundred *' Church members " a very well paid private Anglicafl 
rector of their own. No won dor that wo ore told the S^oiuH 
Protestant converts think highly of their new creed, "thfl 
Gospel of Christ," as it is modestly called. In a conntrjrt 
where orerything' ia more or less measured by a monetniyl 
Rt-andard, a convert for whose spiritual well-being £0, 10«, per 
annum is paid must believe biniself U) be in a stnte of exalta- 
tion, considering that had he remained in his own church, bis 
Maronite, Greek, Greek Catholic, or Armenian priest — havincH 
to say mass overy day, to attend to some one or two thousand 
pariKhioners probably scattered over a large district — wooldj 
consider himself very fortunate indeed if ho had a stipend oM 
two thousand piasters a }^oar, or abont .^20, of which mors 
than half would bo paid in com, oil, or fruits. The fathori 
of tho Jesuit Mission in Syria are allowed a thousand francM 
£40, for the travelling expenses, clothing, table, he,, of OficW 
priest when engaged ou inissiona-v^ \iotV. wsa.'j ^t(i\a.^i\«i ho^fl 



Protestant ProtelyiUm in Bantrrn Lnnflt, 311 



I 



I 



kia oommtmity ; how, then, is it tbnt tho Ameriran misirion- 
Wios cost 8o very mnch more f We will take up our qnota- 
tion from Air. Urqulmrt agaiD, at tho point whore we left oH" : — 

They (tho American miasionariiw) htvo to«-a houao and eountrj kotue, 
hono* to riilf^, am] an BHtikblittlmiHtit ontl a Uihle vhidi xpralu well for 
Ihd Uwtc of the citizens of tW UniM Sutt*. Tbce« are rwalts obUuned 
bj exorlion snd combination, and which, alTorJiog enjoyment in their p09- 
MMsion, pmtnpt to efforts for their retention. Tho penoos thna misod to 
oHhitiiiee and cnmidBnition in a dim and loxurlouit cliraato would lure to 
■ink bock to hard condittmui of life, if not to wiint and dratitution. Thia 
rrikpfW i>rcarnt» itoolf as the coiueqiifnce of failing in the creatlnj* of oonfire' 
gBttcnu, or at least of stippljing to thow who auhscribe Ibe funds {ilauAihl* 
pmndi tot expecting thai the ecnwammation wiu near. Looking at tho 
oonnlry, nothing can be mora patniVd and more bopolu» than the coulott : 
nowhere in an ear oprn. A* to convertinf; tho THiHca, thoy might just at 
well try to contert Uw- Archbitihop of Oanterbniy. 

"Ai to eonrerting the Jewi, it wonld be much better fot- the Untl«d 
Btmim to avnd minsionarint to Monmoiith-Ktrort. There remiiin, then, but tha 
Mwimite, the (ireek, the Greek Catholic. Anat^niun, and Nestoriaa chnrchei^ 
tluit b to toy Cbriatiant, to oonTert h'rom tho pre-existing animoeitMS 
amonipt the Chnttiant, Ute mianonariei coidd not to mnch m open their 
MDillba to any of the roemben of these conimiinitiM on the Bubjecl of »U- 
I^OD, and therefore it ia a totaUy different i-oiu«o that they have adopted. 
Thoy haTe offered themaelrcB aa tchoolmnttare ; not as penona depending for 
rannnemlion on their claimi to tho conlidenoo of parenta, and on their pro* 
ficienojr ; but supplying instruction gratuitou&lT, and a<Ldin^ thi'rvto reiniiDofir^ 
tton to the ochrjlara in rarloiis fthApf>fli. Their admifinou in thit form hna 
been forcad upon the people by thu Torkbh gorennncnt. The condition, 
bimcrrr, btu been npppnHed to it, thai ther ahould not att4*nipt to interfere 
■aith the rcliifioQii belief of the pupilfl. This has been (coinii on for yean ; 
the muripv iMntinuine In hi* xuppliid on Um groundii that Pnvtntaiit oongf^ 
gotioiu nrv lK'ini< crratrd, iind the proooada eiyoyeil by the nMonariM on 
their nndiirtakinK that they shitll not craale them. 

The xtatiatiGal ondeMnrrent is, howerer, reiled or diigatovd frrnn the 
nira ('the miaiksnariet) theonvtrea. The one ncnenition has. so to ny, ino- 
i) th<> nth*-r. Thr fmw men eotno ont ocenpicfl with their own sAnI, not 
in: critirallr tn rxnmme the poailifm in which tliry ntaod. and entering 
Mt anca on a cimtntt nlRNufy onpigiid. lluy are fiUod with ootttanipt for 
«r«Tyrhtti:^ iimuiid iKvin ; and (o ndi^ous seal, ita^ a mfltoieally actira 
ii iipt>mdd«l tho neoesntyof (ttniiahintc reporta fur public meaUsfi 

at> ; h .Ua in Auierica,— reports which. USfins; to conuin it a twnen tB of 
proaelytet necutvd, have at last to supply uarmtLvea of eontoita vmlertalcen 
and miulyrdom ondnrcd.— T&< Lttnnam, toL iL pp. 79, 60. 

Our author has, jn tho forcgobiff pam^^rti^H, cvA&vi^ 
toacbod most of tho vroak pomLt o? Vroie^^^xX ttaaflM»a«^ 




813 TroUsiofKit Proitchftism in Eastern Lands* ^^M 

worlcin;^. Even a caraory analysis of tho Rcporta before ua 
confirms every word of this quotation from his book. Like 
every IVotestant account of misaionory work, the Torkish 

I Missions-Aid Society's Reports are iiit^jrlarded with scriptural 
quotations, having always tho same siguiticancc — that tho time 
(or seeing tho result of the labour has not yet como, but soon 
will bo J or, aa Mr. Urquhart puts it, thoy supply to thoBO 
who suhscribo tho funds, plausible grounds for expecting that 
the cousummatiou is near. 

Some years ago, a grand case of quan martyrdom was 
reported at Exetor Hall, and must have beou worth much 
money to tho societies who furnish missionary funds for the 
East, both in England and America. It was the cause of 
many questions being ifcsked, and much correspondenco being 

> furnished, in both Houses of Parliament. Despatches were 
written, tho Turkish Government threatened, and the life of 
Lord Sti*atford do Rodciiffe, who was then our representative 
at tho I'orte, mode a bnrdeu to him for a time with cxtm 
work. The story was that some American Protestant mis- 
sionaries, when " preaching the Gos]>el " on Mount liebanon, 
were stoned and otherwise illtreatod, being finally turned 
out of the village in wliich they resided ; some of thom 
being badly woimdod. Tho talo was well told, but, like other 
histories of the kind, was allowed to be forgotten as soon as it 
had served its purpose. Hero is Mr. Urqohart's version of 
the affair, and, gathered as it was in the country itself, U 
not unlikely to prove the true version of the story : — 

Ho misaiouanos arrinnj; at Eden (a rilliigc not fiu from Uu oelebnted 
Cmlars tif Lplwnon, tlie inhabitant« w>nwsUiiR entirely of Marontte CaUiolica), 
eatewHl u hoiise, and (liBposcil tlieiriKelrps to occupy it, Tlie ninstor of 
hoiute told Iheni Ihut he would nut and could nol rfcnve thpm. They per- 
Biated, thrcAtcning him in tbe name of tho Turkish anthoritios. A gnat 
I commotion ensued, nnd thp {)oopli>, with the fear nf tlio Turkish anthonties 
beforo thnr eyes, deviated a plan for didlcxlging the nii^ionanCA by unroofing 
the home. A roof in the Lebanon is not conipoecd iif tiles and nflen ; to 
touch a roof is a very soriou^ ofTiur, not to bo nmlprtakpn in wantonnesa. 
The peoplo bad the Batisfaction of seeing the missionaries mount and de{itrt| 
wilboat any act on their part which wonid expose Ihom to ufter-retribnlion. — 
The LAtmm, vol. ii. p. 82. 

As we said before, Mr. tTrqnhortis one of the very last men j 

1 who could bo accused of any leanings towards Catholicism J 

Btill loss of any affuction towards tho native Christian pnpida--J 

tion of Syria and Lebanon. Of this his volumes boar witncsu 

in every chapter. But in a dozen instances he proves what W(W 

^are no often heard asacrtcd \>y tTuv(AV*iT?i T*it\irued from thosql 



^^^H|p ProUsfant ProBchjium in Easicm Land9, 31S 

■ regions, that tho people do not «rant, and do not wisli for, the 
H Auurriouii niisHlonnrie-s, nnd would far rather be wittioDl thorn. 

■ Alflo that wherever thrse Protestant apostles are located, ihcir 
H prcBcnco is a continual sonrco of trouble and annoyance^ bj 
V causing qaarrels amongst tho people, and that their sojourn 

in tho land is most certainly not conducive either to the Glorv 
^ of Ood on highj or of Peace ou earth to men of good will. 
H That their so-called mission has been a most complete religious 
H Jingro, is prrtty well proved by the returns whien at piigo 308 
^L we copy from these Reports. If the reader will but turn back 
^bdjp it, he will find that with twonty-four missionaries and thirty- 
^■•even native assistants, the number of " Church members " in 

the Syrian '' field *' amounts to no more than two hundred, and 

I this af\er tho Americans havo worked as missionaiHea in this 
*' field," for the last quarter of a century or more. Surely no 
clearer proof than this is wanting for endorsing what Mr. 
Urquhart has said above respecting the way ana tho reason 
why these religions undertakings are puffed up, and "phiusible 
grounds " given for expecting that the consummation of 
"gospel " b'iumph is at hand. 

Il'hero is, perhaps, no Christian population in the world inoro 
united as a body, inoro attached to their clergy, more faithful 
in their holding to the See of Peter, or more orthodox in 
every particle of their faith, than tho Maronites of Mount 
Lebanon. To illostrato, even in the most superficial manoorj 
the history and ritual of this singular people would extend this 
paper far beyond our limits. Suffice it to say that upwards 

I of ONE rnousANn years before the discovery of America, the 
ndy Sacrifice of the Mass was offered up in their cburclieSj 
and matins^lauds,V08pers and complins, Bimgevery morning and 
evening in their sanctuaries, just as at the present day. Their 
lumie is derived from that of S. Maroun, a holy hermit, who, 
in tho fourth century, when the heresies of Kutyches iind tho 
errors of MouothL'^lisni were ho common throughout tho Eiistj 
preserved the inhabitants of Lebanon and the adjacent part* 
I &om those infiuences. " Tho Maronites,*' says Mgr. PatcrsoUj 

■ in hia work, which is the third on our list at tlie head of this 

■ p«pav- 

H The MuonitM nuuntAm that th^y havo nem swervod from the Cnlliulio 

H Mifat and love tn WMrt th»l ih(»ir Ptitriarch U tho only nn(> v-bos« Rpirittud 

H UUMtRiB from 8l P#trr, in ttic tec of Antioch, boa be«n luibruken by tho itint 

H of hvrta^ or schiim (p. 38U). 

■ TTieir secular clergy nmnber about 1,200, »ti.4 VVc Tii7^^s«%^ 
H inhabiting siity'sovon monutorict, com\>ruw cxsmt^ \,V^ 



monks, priests, and lay brothers. They havo besides fifteeoa 
cooTentSj in tvhich tfaoro are abont 300 nans. 

Tlie bleauDgs of education (continues Uie eame aathor) are wiilclj diffiiecd 
uiiion^t tbe MaronittA. Almost all ak able to reml and write ; and lIuiQ^ 
few eTen of the clergy caa be called learned, they are all aufficicntly inst nictod 
io the mofit ncccsitary things, and especuUly is Uie practical knowledge of 
their faith. Offences arc rare ainoDgat thimt, crimes almost onknonii. 13tt 
number of the MftTOmtca of Lebanon appears to be about 250,OtH1. In 1180, 
William of Tyre etrt.iiitat«d them at more than 40,0{>(>j in 1784 Volnai 
placed them at 115,000 ; and Perrier, in 1840, at 220.000. Elsewheiv they 
arc hardly to be found ; the largest niiuibcr I know of i« at t'ypnu, where 
then are about 1,500. A few also are found at Aleppo and Damascus, and 

soino At Cypros. 

There are (ainonj,,'st the Maronitcs of Lfbanon) four principal ct'Hccca for 

the oduraition of the clcffty. The tnoBt ancient is that of Ain Warka, in 

I which between thirty and forty pupils are educated. Thoy are tao^t 

■ Arabic (their Ternoculor), Syriuc, which is the liturgical language of this 

ril« ; logic, uionil ihoology, Italian, and Latin. Six exhibitions for tha 

L XQAint«nanca of as msny scholars at the eollejie of Propaganda were attached 

B io thU college. At tha time of the find French uocupotion of Kome, Um 

fnnd» which proTidcd for them wero seized, and hare nerer been restond ; 

but the pupils still go to Komc, and many of them aio to bo met wiUi in 

the higher lanks of tho Jklaronitc clex;gy (p. 383). 

It is then to turn this people, and these prirats, from tho 
faith which they have so lon;^ and eo honestly held, and from 
tho spiritual paths in which thoy havo walked for at least 
L liileen hundred yoai-s, that reapoctablo black-coated American 
f ffentlcmen, whoso experionco of life has been eonfined to 
Uoston or New York, are sent over, and maintained by the 
funds furniahed by the zealous KvangebcaU of England and 
tho United States. No wonder if those to whom thoy com' 
I would rather be without them. With tho people whom tbc^ 
f are soot to " convert " thoy liave not a single idea ia 
common. The very vernacular of tliu country has to be 
fitudiod and learnt by them (an nndert>aking of at least two or 
I tbree years, as Arahic is perhaps the most diflicult langange 
' in the world for an adult to acquire a pi*oficioncy in) before 
they can preach or even converse with those whom they wish 
to teach, what they themselves deem, the truths of eternal 
life. Without the most remote approach t^ anything like » 
ritual, and without even the barest litiirg)- to rcKwrnmentJ 
them, they come amongst a people who fi-om their very in- 
fancy arc perhaps more familiar with the meaning and teachinfl 
cf earnest ritualism than any nation on earth. Mr. Urqohnrtj 
in the quotation wo bave given at \>^^ ^^^ t ^7^ of tho Ame-I 






ProUtiant ProtoUjtism in EnHcm Landt. 



315 



I 



rican miBsionoriea, that " as to converting tho Turks, tbeiy 
miVht just, ait well try to oonvert the Archbishop of Cantor- 
b:u y /' mig'ht he not hare said the some as to the convert- 
ing of tho Maronitos? Krofn the 200 "Church members," 
which tlte rotuma of tho Turkish MiHsions-Aid Society atato aa 
tho result of the " missionary " labour on the Syrian "field" 
during tho quarter of a century and more which the work hna 
been going on, if wo deduct tho personal aorvants of the 
Brenty*fonr missionaries, and of tho thirty-seven native asaat- 
^nta, how many will then be left as real, true, and eamost 
converts from their own faitii to that which the American 
missionaries would teach them ? " It has to bo observed," 
says Mr. Urquhnrt, " that the proselytism carried on is not,, as 
is .sed in Kuropo, against unbelievers, hut between 

1- s;"* and surely here is proselytism of the very worst 

kind torctid npon a people agaioat theirwill^ by theiuhabitauta 
of another far-oft' country, who would do very much better if 
thoy spent their yearly £2o,000 amongst themselves, in " eon* 
verting " tho thousimds of worse than pagans to bo seen daily 
in tho streets of every great town of Eugland and America, 
and whose " faith *' is from time to timo shown in their 
" works." 

We have no desiro to hold up to the ridicule they deserve 
tho absurd canting scntonccs nnd so-called Scriptural ejacula- 
tions with which tho Beport of tho Turkish Missions-Aid 
Society is interlarded. All who have perused similar docu- 
menta must bo well acquainted with the way in which verses 
from Holy Writ Jire ruade to serve £. *. */. by tho writer. Nor 
do we wish to make our readers laugh byroproducing some of 
the " pious " anecdotes which are to be met with in tliese pages. 
'llios it may, or may not, bo true that at Nicomedia " a few 
years ago all was darkness and bigotr}* ; " but it can hardly be 
taken what tho French would call "aw Ht'rietix'* that two 
Armenian priests in this UjcnJity wore " awakened " by ^L^ad- 
ing an Armeno -Turkish trauHlation of ^* 'ITie Dairyman's 
Danght'Cr," and tWt, since the conversion of these gentlemen, 
A flourishing church, with a large congregation, has been 
gathered together, and a Homo Mission formed to carry tho 
Gospel to the towus and villageo aroand.t Also, from a per- 
sonal knowledge of the facts» we permit ourselves to doubt 
whether the so-calliM " Missionary " work in Con^tjtntJnoplo 
has Iwen, to wiy tho least of it, judicio««ly carried on ; and 
whether, about two years ago, the z«al without knowledge 



die 



Protentani Proschjttsm in Easf^rn TmiuU. 



on tbo part of the missionaries did not very nearly catiso a 
.rising of the whole Mahometan population, and a general 
'massacre of all the Christian population in that city. Nur — 
on the testimony of Anglicans, Presbyterians, and other Pro- 
testants — can we subscribe to the eulogium sung in praiso 
of " tho excellent Bishop Gobat.'' Wo have far more* sorioos 
matter to deal with as rej^rds the American Missions in Syria 
and the Eastj and of which, if they are in tho least degree con- 
sistent, Protestants more than Catholics, whom it really doea 
not concern, would do well to take heed. 

In the Appendix to his ** Tour," Mgr. Patterson has, with 
a faii'nesa and impartiality of judgment which canuot be too 
highly praised, investigated the question as to what it ia 
that the native Protestants in the East really believe when 
tho process of their so-called " conversion " is complete^ 
And it may not be out of place hen; to mention that the 
present writer, who has lately returned from a residence of 
nearly ten years in those conntries, entirely and to the letter 
agrees with what this author has stated. Were it allow, 
ablo to mention names, he could also adduce the authority 
of many Englishmen who have resided in Smyrna, Con- 
Btantinoplo, Ueyrout, Damascus, the iiebauon, and other 
parts of the East, all of them Protestants, most of them 
attending every Sunday the English ministrations of tho 
American Missionaries, and some of them even communicants 
in their churches. Tlie evidence of these is varied in difi'erent 
points, but, as a whole, certain pages of Dr. Patt^THon's 
Appendix might seiTO as a previa of tho various opinions 
which these gentlemen have spoken, and which the writer 
himself has formed during his prolonged residence in the East. 
Be it however noted, that tho objections hero raised aro not i 
against the American Missionaries themselves, but against tho^l 
renuH ofihrir Iniiuurs, as well as against those of other Protnstnnfc [ 
Missionaries — wherever throughout these lands their luboura 
have produced any frnit whatever in the shapo of " converts," 

Most true it is (sajB M^. Pnltcison) thnt though targe sunLt arc cxpcn<lM 
yearly by ProtestoDta for their inisHions, lliu rceutt is nevertheless witHll 
indM^i : but rtt a great vork is belu}; doii« (I sincerely thbik utitDt«iitionaUy) 
hy tlioae cstiiblishmcnts. The faith h/ hundnds and thonmndM in tAor (wni 
rdigioH is bting tA'tim, wiihoMi antj other faith bftnQ mf/Mitnttd for il.* 
Hie nilviioiuirint' reports ore full of expressdons to the eScoi that many 



* The iulii.'n nre mtr owu, ami we give thmn to niork Uil> pith n( the whole j 

ipiestioii, wiUi whtvii ntutrty all Prot«6taaU aa well lu cvcrv I'atfaulie we hfi.t« i 

met, tiuit bitve Itihitbiled tiyria, PalestiDe, or the Uuly Luud for oiiy tiino, I 

Oioai fully cuncur. 



ProUtiant Prosclytirm in Eastern Zanda. 317 

persons come to tlu>iii, diwlHring their ntadiness to hrar whnl tliey hwl tossy, 
and tliHr disbelief of tbelt own D&tiooiU or common liiiUi ; and yet the 
"coDvertd" rcgutered b; themielvea may be told in unitB. or nt mott by 
leu. Accordingly^ 1 uevur catiic in contAct with " Ubcrobt" in politics or 
rdigion, whetber Jew, CbriBtian, or GealUe, who did not comtDeuco tlie 
conv^nuitjon (on the auppositian that I was a Protestant) by decUring their 
diMbelicf of this or that current dogmft of their faith ; and in all such casM 
I found I VM cxpcctf^, (M a rtoUtUatl, to applaud and admire their lunent^ 

L«ble condition of mind. I repeat, most ompbotically, that I never saw a 

latnglo pcnon of this description who hod one doctrine to affittn. The work 
' tho Proieatont miBsions in idmply deatmctive. In Turkey it in drtncbing 
lohomuieilan subjects from thuir allegiance to their spiritiud and lemparnl 
hioil i in Greece it la introducing the mind of youth to the conceit of private 
jtulgnicnt ; in Ef^t it does tho uuue for the Copts ; and in McMpotamla 
for the Kostorians. The miasionnries report that, among the Jews, they prefer 
to have to do with the rationalists rather than with the Tolmudltts : and 
acting on that principle eveiywhere, thcty fint inokc a Uihula rrua of mimbt, 

Lim which they never afterwords succetMl in inscribing the laws of aiuoero 

}fiuth or conxiislont practice (p. 4&0). 

Here, theu, we have, in a few words, an account of what 

tho toiiehingi* of the Protestant Missionaries in tho I'litst result 

Sn. They take away the faith that U in these pcuple, tuid givu 

them nothing in return.* In other and pbiiner words, the 

©nd of all this touching and proachinff and denouncing of 

"popish" doctrinea, ia simple nnbelief or infidelity, cmbel- 

LBsnod with Scriptural verses nnd the current cant of the Kvnu- 

K^dicnl schuol. Do tho suhscribrra to the Turkish Miai*iou8- 

[Aid Society contotnplato this aa one of the results of their 

■Hbenil donations? Is thijf what the Society put furth so 

boldly lis tho " Gospel in Turkey " ? Is it for such a chnngo 

Lthat tho traditions mounting to within less than four hundred 

lyears of our Lord's sojourn on earth, preserved a3 they are 

|l)y a people living in tho land which he inhabited, aro to bo 

rOoHt off? Surely, even from tho nioi«t enthusiastic of the 

Erangolidil school, these questions can have but one answer.t 



4 



* An English official who had roaided upwards of twcnty-ftvc yean iu 
"—'- , kad who is a re^ eamasi Proleitant^ told thd prasent writer exaetljr 

• rame, '* The American nuBsktuuiea," be sud« " OdtroT the faith thm 
IX liod, bat give them no other in nitum. The conseqiwiioe 

i .luriaMy become mere rationslieta.** 

t .Vt>:juL four yean affo, a party of Kngliith tmTcIlets were jonmeying <ma 

Mount LelMinon. Whilvt halting at a rondxido " khan." tb«7 were scvooted 

^by > natirp whu «pul(L> English very wi>lL Thry asknl liim «ho h* was. and 

Vner« he had ti-Jtnit Uifir buwuagQ. He said he wiu, or had bMlkBervaat to 

'' ' lig ihr p;uUenian^anAUaA,V»'w»a. 

'■«nl wil attrv 4wv<-*Vv.tTw.\iiV\*\xWoA. 
Hxvif^i^ fwvi^ »<u»Lij (juu wiuii in; now tK^ievoiot ChftVw^gux a***! » T*«a. 




BBK Proittitlant Prosvli/tutm in Ea«iem Ijantl/r. I 

And let not the subject be either inisniidei*stood or blinked. 
Take any dozen EngUslimen really conver&iint with the way^ 
of the country and the ideas of the inlmbitants; let them IM 
be FrotestuntB, and even be of those who> finding no othefl 
IVotestant ministration, attend the chapels of the Ajnericaifl 
MUsionaries. Of the twelve, certainly nine will te!I yon that,! 
although well-meaning and honest men in their way, thM 
preachmg of the Pfotestanfc Missionaries in the East piiIUl 
down, but never builda up belief, uud that in sober truth tho 
native Protestant "converts'' are but so many fi'cethinkers 
— theoretical Christians, but practical infidels. There is, with 
respect to this part of oar subject, one more extract from Mgr. 
Patterson's book,* which, although somewhat lengthy, we 
find BO much to the purpose, with respect to some of the 
qaestions of tho day, that we copy it entire : — 

The Prntestant (lects of the West (bajw our author) are roprcHcntcd in 
the Eiist by tuiBStonj} of screral dt'Dominatiuna ; but since they all re[)TCfient 
but one principU", munely the dencgalioii of spiritual authority as the hfins 
of belief, it it rnintxcss&ry to diatluguifih them here. At finti sg^l'' 
appear that the Episcopttli&as, or repreaenUilives of tho AogUcan - 
ment, eihonld comuinnil a dttitinirt notice, ^i^cc they hiivc one pninl (that of 
opijicopnl Kuperiiitentlence) in coinnioti with the Ea&tem aecto ; but wbvti it ii 
cntuidored, not merely that the fact of their having real biehops is drnied by 
uU the Koots of the E(i«t,t as well as by tJie Catholic Clinrc)^ Irat tluit thojr 

for the Virpn Mai^," naid the niiAcretint. spitti»<j: ut the siunetime. ' 
an Arubic gofturo indicating the utiuo&t couteiupt. The lady— aii - 
nul a Catholic — of couree dropped the t'uuver^ntiuii, feeliiuf too diff^<LM4.-'i lo 
continne iL Some dayx afterwards f)ho K'lnted the anecdote to th« wife of 
. nn Amerimn missionary ; but the lat-ter wns not ;it ail fihocVed, merely makii 
I the rDHiark, " / iptet* the man knd got rid of fti> old s*ijMTstiium$.'* It 1 

■ what Uiey would call evangelizing the native Christians ? 

* No one intenttted In the predenl cpiriduJ »tat4! uf the JBa«t ahoold lie 
without thiit vuluuii', and evi-ry tniVeUer tu I^Ucstiuu — Ciitholic or Prot4Mtant 
— should take it with liini. 
t ThU, be it remembered, was written in I6&2, ten yean before Um 
k rrttrnt attempt at miinn ca the part of certaia Anglicans with the Ciii>ok 
I Thua-h. What Micr. PntteKon wys U the simple truth, and m continue<i by 
I numermis cunvcrwitJoiis which the jirewnt wriii'r bad. diiriiij^' q ltn\ ymn? j 
f ruiiidence in the East, ^ith eereral putrlarclis and numerous bishops. prit*atD, ' 
and dcftcomi of the Greek, Armenian, Ncstorian, Copt, and Jao<.<Vi 
All these clergy faat« the very name of Rome, but tliey ncknovled.. 
real biithopa and a nsd priesthood ; whilat one :uid all deny tlui' i(flU| 

('hiisxh luui either. Thb Kuj^lish Uotik of I'ommou Pmrer, t - |H 

■ Arabic, is TUty often mot vrith tiiroa^hout the Knst, but It' I '1^1 

■ lobavi.' impressed the Urit-ntAl Churches*, whether in cuniH' 'H 

I Vee of VvU'r or not, very tavinimbty nvqicotin;; tlie Kdlablu^L.. ^ '^^I 

BUiia uuuutry. The Thirty-nine jVrLicl&i they ri-^ird with t.*nprL-iid hun^^| 

■ ^nwiiii^ the Cburcli t*') U.* hcretivul tkt core, fiur liavo the samples af^H 
Ani,'Iiciui i 'Inmli nnil An^^licju bi^liup uf Jurujfldun dune much to xuuuvq 

Uus iuipnxiiou, but julbcr the conLrur;}. 



Proiettlani Protehjligm in Eastern Lands. 



319 



BbciUHlvca entirely Mpudiuta any duinis whicb lo'ight be founded on Iheir lup- 
noMdpMeeuion of an apostolic couimitoiioii aorl uuthuntj thraagh the rpisco- 
n^te ; and vhen, murcov«r, it is rvmemWred tfaiit the few pcraoiu who think 
difTerpntlj on these points ure whoQy unicprcseDted in the Vast, it socms evi- 
dent thai the dutinction wonld be anreaL Further, the Protestant mi^ins m 
the But are mainly nuppUcd by niinisten in the comDuinion of the Esta- 
bliihrocnt in £u}{Und, bnt often nut epi^cttjiaUy npp«>iiited or ordained, and 
in all cABHi a perfect equality t5 udniitl^Hl bvtwcctt euch u ore so appointiM) 
and tboOT vho are not. Henoo the Anglo-Lutfaonm " KinwopaUiuu,' Ui« 
Indepeadenta, the Amrrictin Ooagr^^tionatista, &«.* act m tuuuUf and on 
one principle. Thoy tcucb that tho b<.>licr they adrocate in certnin doctrinn 
i« to bo acquired by each individual thruii^jh a poruaal of wrUtiri writingti, 
bfHui uoit be held by him as tho raeuit of convictionn proceeding from liM 
Rhrn inveatipktiou of thoee wriltnifs, wbich they aascit to b« tbe Inspirtd 
irurd uf Ood. This procedure they call ** tho right of private jutlgment" 
. But tlie very toims of the ProteatAut principle, thua represented^ involvo, 
not merely a diarogaid of existing aatboriliea, bat alao of that which pnxenli 
Bfcat ajBteui for the acccpUincc of Kuttom Christiiuui. Tho»«, hovercr, vho 
ndTQcnte iUi claiuut arc out UMially Ui bo bound by the lawa of ccuaiitew-'y 
fm logia Though liiey will huva oveiy man to road tho lacred Scrip- 
uirai (that is, tkar version of them) and to judge for.hintKlf, they havo 
nlw> ft few doctrioed, built- on thc-ni as they utppose, to which they atUuih 
lAn luiporttutce L-qiial to that ahcribctl by Catholics to the dot;:nuui uf fiulh. 
Of theac, the chii'f is what they term " juAtificalion by faith only"—* 
diH^riuo which t4«L-hes that man is aocounlcd (but not nuido) fit for elciml 
life in the Divine Praaence, by ft m&JMtivt act or aentiment of tlw mind, 
•culled l»y thorn •* fiUth." Thb "fiuth"i§ not the •'fiuth'* of theo!.>giad 
nrritin^ but a pcrsuiuion, or cnthnsiastio feding, on tho part nf the imtividnn), 
nhat ho m mvM fnrrn eternal death by the iiarriDi.% of the Cross. Laying nnch 
Utmu as this view does on a penmasion, or feolinj^ of the mind, it niluht be 
MxpeeteJ that other acu of th^ mind wmild be Retarded by thoee teachen u 
lof cognate iniiMtriJuice. With lungubir iuconsistcncy, howevor. Ihey rcjpud 
ull soch acts, whether of Ii>vc, hope, or fear, or tho Hkts as nut only unim- 
portant or indiffuront, but even tduful in (act or tcudouoy. The one n]MnBtion 
uf the sold to which they attach salvation ic that of peisnosiuu that itself b 
^ftved. To opcount for »o arbitrary a dijitiMtiaii> tbqr allego that this pei^ 
liOftsiun b not a i:uilur;U pit but u •livluu Knos—cr, nihw, the divine gnuM \ 
nor in it are oontftincd, and from it flow, oil thoic good resolta which Catholic 
fcrriUM> call **ij;rftO0S ;" such as humility, charity, hope, &o. *nui cxtmutdi- 
bory and ahnoot Iiiexplitable dtxrtrinc, they consider not only coovey<Hl in 
lipoly Scriptnre, but the whole kiuu utd snbctftDce of its teaching ; and they 
[•IlrtCe t>urtlohs of tho einittlen of Bt. Tntd, in which he dedans thftt roaa b 
uot justiJIiMl by works, done irri'spcctively of the divine sBcrlflo* «f Ui» , 
hYms, to pnire that all works or acts of the mind (saving always the on* | 
ftrt of penntiuilon. which th^ ctiU ** faith") oru ralnalna and iaeflsetioJ 
ID work uut nlvntion. The tcndieni of this vtuw aoKinf w ftrs cAm piMn 
EjpBlsons, whn art niundly frrtm nalir ; Vn\X ^]u«^«rf>'W>.TtittJi- 

b tito coMisicul oik! tcu voJuptuoun > uu U Am yfiS^* ^ "^k^ 



320 Protestant Prosvhjtism in Eastern Lands. ^ 

lay, to atUin salvation bj- nieaus of a Bentiment so pleasant, ve regard it as 
qaite unnecwsarr to ndd to it vupererogatorj [>erfonaaDO(iB fliaagrecable UM 
cmr incUnatioDs (p. 4&3). I 

Here, in sober fact, and if we will only give things thoia 
right names, is one of the chief reasons of such "conversions '*l 
as tjikc place in the East to Protestantism. An Oriental mindl 
is difficult to fathom at once ; but take any of the professo^ 
Prot^tants in Syria or other parts of Turkey, clear away alP 
the rubbish thoy have learnt to talk in imitation of their 
new teachers — separate if you can (auJ it is merely a matter 
of time and patience) all the prating about " the Lord Jesns," 
L and " the blosaed Scriptures/' tho " teaching of the spirit," 
r and such-like spiritual mouthings, from wbat are the actual 
thoughts of tho individual and the real reasons for his chanffo, 
and you will invariably find at the bottom of his mind the nil- 
provailing idea, that of what use are confession, penance, 
private prayer, fasting, giving alms, and other good works, 
when salvation can bo accomplished by tho far more easy and 
pleasant process of a more sentimeut of the mind, which any 
man can train his understanding into believing when lie wishes 
to do 80. And these, bo it understood, arc tho best of tho 
converts. As Mgr. Patterson says of them : — 

Snch persons as I ain alludiD^ to hare really cmbi-aoed the principle on 
Tvhich PnitcRtantism nsta. They have thrown off the aathoritj of tlioir own 
belief, not to accept the fonnula of another, hut to reject nil miihoritj. 
Ther are like the German " philosophii; " ProUstanta, or the r«nt!h unlvor> 

I titaries of the West — their coTiduct is often irreprtMrhHWe, but their belief is 

f a blank, and their principles distinctly Antinumiiin, even wheu-they them* 
BClves do not put them in pmetice. I niaiutayi that to one cIaks or otbtT of 
these nil tlic proticlybjs iiiadn to PrcitcfitaiitiAni in the Eiist belong. H\xtj 
are cither worthless peraouK, who are Imppy to autstitnte an m^-niaiulaled 
aentimeut for whatever iimouut of discipUuu their oommuuiou iuipoeod, 
or they are ''philosophers," sceptics, and infidel& The reports of thaae 

1 allegations, and the existing state of religious and political parties in (he 

I East, givee scope for the»e reeulta [p. 453). 

There are, however, two other reasons, which also act 

powerfiilly upon such natives of tho Kast as come under tho 

influence of Protestant missionary teaching, and of which 

L when they have abandoned their own creed, they lake especial 

i pride in the possession. Tho one is the notion which they iuibiboj 

from certain misqnotations of Holy Writ, as well as from ilU 

judged (even looking at it fi-om a Protestant point of view) 

teaching on tho port of tiieir now pastors; viz., that cvcT 

ninn is "ii pricBt unto God," and ibat once » Protestant ah2 

u ^* Church member," they aro a& \vt^\ '\w spiritual rank, tmc 



^^V ProlcMtanl ProselyHsm in Eastern Lan34. 321 

far Bnnorior in " saviag faith '* to those whom they forraerljr 

regarded and res]>«oteU as thoir clergy. Tho idea is of courso 

utterly false, aud childish in tho cxtrcmo to our views. But 

the uutivc miud cun only bo judged by iw own Btandards 

of worth, and tho fact remains as we have said. That the* 

Pruteataul nmHionaries would kuowingty foster such notions, 

it would bo uncharitable to believe ; but that anch is another 

rofialt of thojr teaching, there can bo no doubt whatever. 

Tho missionnries themselves, howtvor, boc verj' little indeed of 

thrir confrregTitioni*, small as they are, sjivc at prayer-meetings 

aud preaching once or twice in tno week. It is a curious fact, 

but one whieh hns struck many even of those who havo not 

yet found courage to knock and ask for admittance into the 

Catholic Chnrch, that in proportion aa a sect, or people, or 

nation, stray for from the unity of the one true fold, so do 

Uhcir pastors and tcachera neglect and despise that visiting 

nuid looking alter their Hocks, which forms with us such a 

prominent part of every parish priest'a or missionary's duty, 

*n»o lligh-Church Anglican IVotoatant clergymen — although 

still very far short of what is done by our clergy — come next 

to the Catholic priest in this work ; and as we descend tho 

scale of I'rotcMantism, wo find tho practioo more aud moro 

lurart-, until by tho Socinians bucIj acts of snpcreroffation on the 

R»art of their preachers are never heard of. With Protestant 

nnissiouaries in tho East the practice is exceedingly rare : 

M)orhaps it is regarded as an iufriugcment upon true religious 

liberty ? 

The thii-d reason wliich has often — very generally, if not 
always — intlucnce in making tho native of hyria, PiUeatino, 
or other Eastern lands embrace Protestantism, is that when 
hp has done so, the fact of hia being a prosolyto, puts him 
indirectly under the " protection" of tho Rnglish or American 
cotijcul, if such an official there is — and there generally is one 
— nilhiu oven a couplo of days' journey from the convert's 
phico of abode. Kot that the iudividnal is at once put on tho 
rolls of tho Rngtish or American subjects. Such was somo 
vcars ago the practice; but now for very shame's sake this 
lui been altered. But, an Uio Knglish consuls-general, 
consols, and vice-consuls havo a sort of standing order to 
"prot<^K;t" all Pn>te8taul8 against the tyninny or ilUusago of 
the \tx'M auth>.irities ; und, aa every native Pi-utestant has 
nearly always fionio grievance whieh ho makoa out to be an 
injustice etmtmittod on him hcx\tiiMc lu U n Protestant, so hia 
complaint invariablv finds it» way to tho Knglish Consulate, 
and inther tho chief of the office or one of hia native dnMjowvca\ 
dcoms it imperative upon him to inlcrlurtt, '\'C \kvA "jSftcwSv^i^ 
roi. m.—ito. xxv. [New 8cnt»,\ "^ , 



322 



Protestant Progdyttfnn in Easl^m Lands. 



any rate officioasly, with tho paaha or other authority of tho 
place. As a matter of course the coniplamfc is listened to, 
and — jastico or not jastico — the "protected" of tho consul 
gets what he colls justice^ but which his opponent oPten deems 
tiic very reverse. For, bo it remarked, that, as a general 
rule in tho East, "justice" means obtaining what you want, 
not what is youi-a by law or equity. Your complaiut, and 
what in Europe wo call justice, may be on the aamc yido. If 
Bo, all the better; but if not, you will term your view of the 
affair "justice" all the aamo; and, if yon don't get what you 
want, you are wii-justly treated. This sort of administration ia 
but too often ruled by tho consols, and the " converts " know 
ftill well how tu make use of it. No one who has not lived in 
the Turkish dominions <yin imagine the power which a Kum- 
pcan consul or vice-consul has in those countries. Mr. 
Urquhart has done good service in exposing this e\'il, which 
is, in point of fact, one of the chief reasons why the 
Ottoman Empire has been gradually but surely vor^ng 
towards ruin since the foreign consular power beeamo virtu- 
ally far groatcr than that of tho local authority. Of this 
interference of one country in the affairs of another, Mr. 
Urquhart says, it presents *' a terrible pi-oapect for the human 
race; for it involves the extinction of each people, and 
the absorption ultimately of the whole in some one govem- 
ment more dexterous than tho iiest." All the chief govern- 
ments of Europe have been more or less guilty of tb is meddling 
with the Executive of Turkey, but notably England, France, 
and Russia, in whoso hands every local pasha is a pl-ivlhiug, 
to bo tossed hero and there at will. England says — or, 
rather, each English consul says for hei' — that he must inter- 
feroj olao French influence would bo too powerful in the 
province or district. France returns tho compliment, and 
declares that England — that is, the English consul — is »■' f 
deep diplomat that, unless she uses her influence, Eul 
would bo uankmouitt in the place. Kussin, on the other luiiui, 
declares tliat she must maintain her j>rvatujc, else tho Turks 
would say of their old onemy that she had fallen in the scale 
of nations. This interference in the administration of tho 
Ottoman Empire is thus described by Mr. Urquhart : — 

In other cotmtriea it Ims beeu Icdowd as diptoiiuitic rcprtswutatiaiM niiiM 
in regstrd to pnaciples ; here [that U, in Tiiikey] it w udiiiinUtrntive. H 
b«ttib upon tho tu«8, the custous, the UmitAtion of districts, the admluist^l 
thr? functions, the piuish hiuinnw, the (ielectian and displnci'ini'Dt uf fti^| 
tionam-A, iitH opvnl'wwt of tho oaurU of low,- wlmtevcr is ini-lu<lr^l undor ^^M 
woni "piri-nuni'iit" iH-Iiingn hi-re to "iiiUrftTt'tuf." This u|i«-r[ ■ '.^^ 

daed with uulimniy, wilhuul cuuVtoV, VvOwuX vn^uuUvUty. Tb' .^ 



flUl 

m ihii 
H_ con 

ft 

I 




^^P Prottslanl Protchjtmn in Eastern Lands. 82S 

in Ktenact thdvco an cArri«l on between the fUncUonaHet of a foreign 
MTcnuaunt ; luid \m tlmt fon-i^ii jj^tventnumt can entor upon the field mily 
lif u) «ct of niiurpntinn, itA poHitinn ut Uut of an eoeiuy. Every net n 
di»cl«d to BubYtnt and to diaturb; the object of each tnilividuiiJ t» of 
D«acasit7 to mipcmede tiw legitiniato aathorhy of the oatiTo functiouuy 
nith whom be » in contAct. 

Thus it tB llmt Uio ndminiatniUvo tnt«rference, which has in Sjrijt 
rpjilocetl the diploiiuitio, is curiott on throu};b coiunil8(voL iL pp. ^iO^STiO). 

Hitherto this work of "intorferonco" has boon cftrried on 
by our Kofiflisb consuls in Svria in very much the same way a« 
it hoa by their Ttussion and French collcflgiips — no better, but 
no worse. At any rat<?, in all nmtters of influeucing reli^oun 
ufTuirs, ilipuctly or indirectly, they liavo held perfectly oloof. 
Hot, if we are to judge from a ducument lately put forth 
by the TnrkiBh MisBions Aid Society, the title of which 
stands at the end of the list of books auu pamphlets that head 
this paper, cither an entire change has in this rospoct 
come over our policy, or else several of our Anglo-8yrian 
"icials must be actiuj^ in direct disobedience of the wishes 

the Koreij^ Office. We allude to an appeal for the building 
of "A Sthun Protestant Collegk," together with a pro- 
spectus of tho same, and a list of tho " Loaai hoard of 
Mornnjrrf" amongst which, to their shame bo it said, appear iho 
names of Mr. Geo. J. Eldridge, her Majesty's Consul -Cieiicrul 
in SjTia; Mr. W, U. Wrench, her Majesty's Vico-Consnl 
ut Ileyruut; Mr. Noel Temjdu MtMjre, her Mnjeaty's Cousul ut 
Jcrusalvm; and Mr. E. T. Uogers, Iior Majesty's Consul at 
Damascus. That there can be no real desire or want for such 
an institntion in the coontry, and that the veiy appeal for 
help tu found it is about tho muttt ontrageooa piece of pious 
impudonco that hfis ever been published, even iu the mimo 
of soctnnun so-ealled religion, will appear upon a further 
oxamiiintion of this document. Wo will do the American 
iiiaionanes the justice of saying that no Kng)i.shman would, 

could, ever have hail the toujm to ask for money for such a 
pi the whiilt' dn<Miinent boars the numistakablo imprew* 

>■• I '* New Kni^liuid. As we have shown before, from 

thi.1 " Bununnry " of Amoricrtu Missions' Statement at page 'iOd, 
copii^d from the n'port of the Turkish Missions Aid Society, 
the number of PrutostJUit "Church members" on tho Syrian 
lifld is two hundred ; this, too, after nearly thirty years of 
missionarv "laltonr'* in the country. And now those same 
miShi oino fonvai'd and modeBily toll us that "more 

[4hiiTi have uh-eody bt-en soeurt'd and invested in l\\ft 

" for the buildiuff of this pro\)oseA." v 
., IS proposed to Fftiao %n &ou&\ &niouxi.V ... \ 





324 ProlestarU ProsehjUitm in Ea^ierti LanAn, ^^| 

the income annimlly going to the support of the Collogo." The 
President of the proposed College, and cx-'officio Preaideut of 
the Board of Managers, is an Ajnerican missionary, tho 
Reverend Dr. Bliss, and amongst the members of the Board 
aro the names of some thirteen or fourteen other missionanos 
of Borta. Tho trustcKja, who " are to have the general sapor* 
vision of the Institution," reside in Nuw York, where we 
should imagine they will be able, from their proximity to the 
CoUego in Syria, to suporviso the whole affairs exceedingly 
well. With these, or with such peraons as have parted ^v^th 
their money for such a pious folly, wo have nothing to do. 
Bat as regards tho English oSicials, it is another matter, and 
Protestants, as well as Catholics, must agree that men holding 
the positions they do in a country where religious discord is 
the bane and corse of the land, have no business %o mis them- 
selves ap with an undertaking which is purely and wholly ^ot 
up for the purpose of proselytism. Had tho subscription 
been to build a Protestant chapel or church, or to endow any 
Buch establishment for the use of the English residents in 
Syria, it would have been a very different matter. To lend 
their names to any such undertaking, these gentlemen would 
have a perfect right ; but to give their official sanction to a 
scheme which is but a renewed campaign upon the religion 
of the country, and as English govemmeut officers to soy 
that thoy — and consequently the government they reprpwwit 
— approve as consul-general and consuls of a wh' 
sectarian converting shop, is nothing less than a prostii 
of the name of this country in Syria. The "dodge" is a good 
one ; the AmericaQ missionaries, notwithstanding their *' tall " 
pious talk in missionary newapapora, have actually done 
nothing towards perverting the native Christians of Syria. 
Two hundrtnl " Church members " in nearly thirty years is at 
the rate of seven converts a year, or less than tho third of a 
convert every twelve months for each of the twenty-foor 
missionaries. This would never pay. Even American sub* 
scribing "Christians" will, after a time, cease to contribute 
for what brings forth so little fruit. Something must b« 
done; and therefore they have started tho idea of this " S 
I*ix>testant College," having got the promises of thesi 
Bulnr gentlemen to countenance it as they have done. 

Did thcso proselytising consuls, before thoy allowed their 
names to bo made use of in this prospectus, read the third 
paragraph of the document, in which wo aro coolly told that 

"the enemies op ClIRIsnANlTY, PROVK88ED iNrinEIH Afl WKM 
AS PaFISTB, FCLLY A.LT\R to tub ADVANTAQK8 TO 
y/iOM THE PEE8ENT STATSi OT latt CUMt«U^> fcSS. W*^ 



i 



Protetiant Prosclytitm in Eastern Lands. 



325 



I 



hHTi tStnatTlC MKASrRCS TO rOSEBTALI. PROTESTANTJBH fH BB- 
COHIBO TBI KDDCAT0E8 OP THIS VAST i'DPULATIOH " ? 

Or, if thoy did read it, did it not strike them that there was 
^B insolence, as well as an amonnt of sickening cant and im- 
^H|d falsehood, throughout these words which onght to bare 
f^^PBnted them, ntt EmjUtfh ffr-nflenien, to say nothing of thoir 
ontolal charactorti, from cimntonancin^ such a concern ? Have 
Knglii<>h consuls in Kastem Inuda so far lost whatever teaching 
thoy may havo had as to forget that, taking all her Majesty's 
sabjects throughout tho world, the " Papists " aro very nearly 
aa nomerons as the Protestants ; and that to class them witl 
"infidels," and call them "the enemies of Christianity," is 
ma insult, — to say nothing of tho loud vulgarity, and the utter 
untruth of the assertion, — which may bo pordouuble in an 
ignorant Yankee tub-pryachcr to peu, but which there can bo 
no oxonse for any English gentleman, for less any English 
offidnl, to lend his name to ? In this, every person with the 
sUghtcst protcusiou to the name of gentleman or an edncatetl 
man, no matter what may he his religions persimsion, must agree 
with us. And to talk of "Syrian Prolestantiani," with its 
two hundred "Church members" amidst a population of 
half a million native Christians, and three times that number 
of Moslems, being " forestalled " in " becoming the educatore 
of this vast population," is much as if tho Mormons in London 
were to complain that the English Church was *' forestalling" 
them in being tljo educators of tho capital of England. Iho 
Latier-IJuy yaints of the metropolis bear a much larger and 
not at all less rcspectftblo proportion to the rest of the popu- 
lation of London, than the Protestant " converts " of Syria 
do to tho rest of their fellow-countrj'mon. 

Three excuses may be put forth in ilefenco of those consular 
t;ntlcmon who have thus disgraced the country they servo. 
ft iniiy bo asserted, — 1 st. That if French, Russian, and Aastriau 
con-inU give oQicinl protection to Catholic and Greek rehgiuus 
establishments, it ia quite lawful for English authorities to da 
tbu sauiu to Protestant undertakings. 2udly, That " tho 
"Syrian ProtesUkut College" is to bo got up for literature, tho 
acionciw, junsprudonee, and mcdieiue, and nut fur religious 
purpoaea. And, ^Jrdlv, that they havu alluwed their names to 
DO made use of witliout reading over the prospectus. Of 
tbaao, the third and last excuse is tlio only one thitt will hold 
water for on instant ; and for their sakcJt we hope it may be 
ftme^ poor and lame tin such n plea would \w fur official men. 
Aaraffards the fimt of these pleas, which wo havo put into 
t* "i-nilunth, it is (^nitu trvw xNivA. ^\w"'Ct^■\\v^i^., 

!• I cuusulb havo and do uKotd <jSavi\3^ 



326 Frotcalanl P'rottehjiitm in EasUrn tandt, ^^H 

tecfcion to Catholic and Greek religiouB establiakmonU, but 
the caaos are by no means paralle]. 

To qnoto again the words of Mr. Urquharfc : — " Tho Homan 
CathoUo regular and secular cIgi^ aro cstablialied hore (in 
Syria) as in any other Itoman Catholic countries ;* that is to 
Hay, tltoy are pastors of flocks, and not missionariea* The 
Protestants have no flocks, and they are sent with a view of 
creating t-hom.*" 

We wonder what this writer would hare said could ho hftve 
seen a " SjTian Protestnnt College " proposed as a moans 
towards this mnch-desired end, or conld. he have foreseen Uiat 
four Kngliah consuls could over have lent their names — oiW- 
cially, too — to such a combination of Little Bethel and ** tjuiart " 
American doings. Nor will it suttice to say that this institu- 
tion is not being got on foot for tho express purpose of pro- 
selytismj more or loss direct. In paragraph number oight we 
are told that-^ 

Tho College will be condoctcd on strictly Prolestont futid evaiigcliail 
principles. 

What that means, we all know ; also — 

It will be open for stadeats (nm any of the Oriental sects or nntioDalititi 
-who will wiifonn ta iU Um and rcgulAtions. 

That is to say, any stndont belonging to the Latin.t 
Maronito, Greek Schismatical, Greek Catholic, Armenian 
Catholic, Armenian tSchismatical, or other Eastern Church, 
will be admitted to this college, provided ho attt'nds " Pro- 
testant " and "Evangelical" preachings and prayers, and is 
humble-minded enough to hear the faith of his fathers de- 
nounced every day as one of "the enemies of Christianity," 
and " Papists " lovingly classed with " profcaeed iutideU." 
And in the very next souteuce we are further informed tjiat — 

It is hoped that a strong Christian inflnenoe wUl ahrayi centre in uid fra 
foitb from this institution ; and that it viU be instntmental in ntsii^ up • 

* Tho same way be mid of the Greek cler^, who hnvo many and t*^ 

larige congregat kmH in t ho country — in ttomo porta much more niimeroiis tb^H 

the Maro&itoH nr nihor Cntbnlit; rhurcliM. ^1 

t In UiQ Etist, EiirfDejiii Cjitholics, and all others who luc the F tM 

Boman Rituul, are caUoiX *' Latins ; " vhilst the other OrieiitJil t '. ^M 

comniuniMD with the rft-e of Peter are distinf^uiihed by tlnii u-.y^'-iiyiM 

namoB — MamnitoJi, lirerk Csithitlics, Armenian Cath,oUc«, Sjii.Ti Cuiholu^l 

Choldcaii-s mill nthcra. Thr whulo ore t^rntwl '•''-■•i - '■■-^," ntul thons H 

I nothing of wUiL'h they are ai> pmiul ox their inU'i' mi Houie nitd tlH 

cendt' of anity. ()f the vitriMiis schunuitieni onti 1.^.. .,.:. z^cia, thi-jv i* a^| 

onv tlml assu/Jies tbr nniiii; ol " C;il.hoU(;.'* ttocpt ceztoin of the " adranoei^| 

school in the English Eatabliahod C^nnrcV- H 



^^m ProieaiaiU Prwe}>jti»m in Eastern Jjondti. 327 1 

bodjr of nicQ wbo will fU{ the mnlcs of « well-tnuned and vi}(<<roa8 *' Notire i 
Miuifttry ;" 1h<>ci>iui> tliu Butborn of ti Notiro CUriKtiuii Litt^ntutv ; mipply 
Ifaa (HliicationAl wants of the land ; oncourago iu induAtrinl inU'rt-ttU ; 
kdcTplop iu nsotucM ; occupy stAtbiu of antbority, and tu a lai^^ dr^frne 
Ptid in CHnying Ihe Gospol and its attendant blnaingB whcrerer tho A rabic 
LuigUBge )8 i^ioken, ^^H 

WitK the help of one Eaglisli cousiil-^nonU, two English 
LjsottsnU, ami ono English vico-coosnl, this may in a certain 
rioonsure be done : yvs, and icifl be done ; tor coDsalar infla- 

oncti in those lands is alt-powerful. But without it, no : j 

without this English State-help the " Syrian Protestant Col- ' 

l«ge " will wither, and only boar fruit in such proportion as 
L have done the *'IVotc>stant Churches" in Syria, with their J 
l^i mii^sionarioA, thoir 37 native ussistantH, and their' 200 (;uin- | 
nnunicantSj afler nearly thirty years' labour in the Syrian I 
M* field." 

After the extracts we have givon from Uie prospectus, can I 
I tht^ro be any doubt as to the proselytising intentions of this ' 
|l&jaierican-Syriua-ProLesULUt-Evangelical lustitutiuu ? or can 
l<^ero ho two opinions as to the propriety of English gentle- 
Uncn and English utHcials degrading themselves and their 
iiOfiSco by becoming connected with snch an undertaking ? 
"We obser^'e, by the way, as a carious coincidence in the 

prospcctng, that the namo of the Now York Treasurer to the 
LBoard of Trustees of this proposed college is William E. 
Ipodgo ; and that the Jiov. D. Stuart Dodge, of Xew York, ' 
Ijkaa boon npnointed one of the Professors. Would it not 
rltave been Qett<>r and moro appropriate if her Majestj-'s 
rConsulH at Boyrout, Damascus, ana Jerusalem had left all this 
^ evangelical apocnlation to men of liko namo and calling 1* It 

is tnio that when the prospectus was drawn out, auu tliese 
iJSogliah officials allowed their name to be made nso of, Lord 
iPAUierston was Prime Minister, and liOrd Hussull ruled over 
lilio Frtreigii Onii-o. That the Shaftesbury power with the first, 
land the well-known tendencies of the author of the Durham 
lljetter, may have had some influooce with these individuals in 
Etheir olticial character is possible, nay, probable; but should 
rgoDtlemeD, English gentlemen, ever havo allowed their oumes 

to go forth as patrons and iliroctors of this unholy humbug? 

A privuto individual mny lend his infltienco to whatever schemo 
ihe likoii to patronize; but a pnbho servant — and above all an 
■JrVg'*"*' public servant in Turkey — ^has no right whatoTor to , 
HlftJBO liberal with his patronage. I 
Inoroaro wo have done with the " 8?5T>i«k^v>-'' 

(Ml 



328 



Proicffa/nt Proselylinvi in Eaatem Lands. 



At tho head of the list of subscribers to this proposed institn- 
tiou is £1,000 from ** The late Syrian Asylums' Con; "'I 

If wo are rightly informed, that money was subscribed : i <j| 
residue of a fund which was iustitut'Cd in 1860 to afford asaistfl 
ance to the snfferora from the Syrian massacres. To this fnnfl 
Catholics, Protestants, Greeks, and Jews subscribed, with tliH 
express stipulation and underHtaiiding that no part or |>ortion 
of it was to be used for any relij^ious purpose whatever. 'J'liu 
fact was, that the chief manag^ers of the fund in Syria were 
American missionaries, and subscribers to it were afraid that 
the money would bo used for proselytising purposes. After 
a time the great misery of the Synan Christians cam© to au 
end, and no further relief was required ; but there still rc- 
luaiiied an unused balance of about £1,200 of this fund in tho 
buuker*a hands. If what is reported in London bo correct^ — 
and wo have vcrj- good reason for believing it to bo so — who 
was it that gave authority for this £1,000 to b© given as a 
donation to the Syrian Protestant College ? The question 
regards not only the Catholics, Greeks, and Jews of London, 
Manchester, Liverpool, and other towns in England that sub- 
scribed to this fund, but also those belonging to a largo — anil 
we arc thankful to say a very largo — class uf our Protestant 
folio w-countiym on, who, however much they may diSer with 
us in matters of faith, are enemies to religion being madtj % 
oloak for fraud, and arc honest and honourable in their dealmgs 
between man and man. If this £1,0U0 which heads tho lUt 
of subscriptions to the Syrian Protestant College was really 
given from the money which in 18C0-GI was gathered together 
as " the Syrian Kelief Fund," u gross and most infamoua breach 
of trust has been committed, and all men should beware how 
they in future contribute to anything in which the Aincricou 
Oriental missionaries have any inflnt-ncc. 

Hut where havo the pi-ojectoi-s of this collopfe Icnmod geo- 
graphy ? They tell us that the establishment will bo ** I/OCAtkd 
IH Beyroct, the seaport of Syria, a city rapidly growing in sizo 
and importance, and occopynro a central fOsmoN in kkspectj 

TO ALL tnu Aiumc-SPEAKINO RACES." I 

The capitals are our own, for we would note tl " ^1 

bringing a new light in geographical discovery. A 

is by far the most pleasant, nay the only pleasant, town i n SyriH 
to lesido in, — that there is moro society, and particulkrnH 
what the promoters of this undertaking vronld call moi9 
" Christiim" society, wo fully admit. That, un account of id 
proximity to tho sea, it is far more healthy than most towns is 
Syria, aud that from the number of its Europuon and nativfl 
Chrinti&a inhabitants it U Wr &a£cv V,o T^:&vd<i& ui^ aud mu^H 



P Ftekeiant Proselijlism in Eiitiem Lands, 339 

more exempt from the chance of any Moslem outbreak 
taking plocoj cannot bo denied. But that it occupies " a 
central position in respect to all the Arabic- speaking races," 
is simply, and very grossly untrue, as a glance at any 
schoolboy's atlas would show. It would be about as correct 
to assert that l*Iyinouth or Falmouth held " a central position 
in respect to " the rest of England. If the promoters of 
" The Syrian Protestant CoUcgo" are so very anxious to 
diffasotho groat bicasingsof their faith and literature "wherercr 
the Arabic language is spoken," would nut Damascus, Mosul, 
Aleppo, Autioch, or oven IJagdad, be more central than 
Beyrout ? To reside in any of these places would not bo so 
pleasant, but it would be more missionary-like, and would 
certjiinly save the money of the subscribers, Beyrout being 
by far the most expensive town in all Syria tu live in. 

But men of American sectarian- preacher stamp never knew 

and uevur will know, what a missionary spirit is. It is foroign 

to their habits as well as to their creed. When we hear of 

Amcrimn lVot<^stant Alissionariei going forth with bnrely a 

chaugu uf clothes ; when we learn that they abandon fathur, 

-fiKither, family, house, and home to preach the Gospel ; when 

we reaid of half a score of them undergoing martyrdom, aa 

did two Catholic bishops and eight priests, in Corea, tax 

account of which was published in the Thnes of the 27tb 

August last — when, iu fine, we hear of their taking lessons g 

in their work from the Jesuits, the Lazarists, the Capu- ^H 

china, the Dominii-nns, or any other of those religious ^H 

orders which bavo shod such lustre upon tho Church m all 

ages — it may, then, become a matter of discussion whether, 

nutwithstaiidiug their gross errors in faith, they have not 

mroothiug of the missionary spirit amongst tliem. At present 

■ we can uuly luok U{kju them as do all tho Moslums, the nativti 

Christians, the Jews, and ninoteen-twentioths of the Kuropean 

population in the East, viz., that they drive a very flourishing 

trade, and enjoy very comfortable incomes ; but that thofl 

work they arc paid for doing' has neither tho self-denial of I 

I man nor the blc^triing of God to make it prosper. Protestiuit I 

^ zoiasions throughout the world have ever been, arc, undB 

I ever wilt bo, most miserable failures. Dr. IjittU'iLilu wtui, at 1 

I any rate, candid when he spoke of " the pitiful history of 

Anglican missions to the heathen ; " but he might with ofjual _ 

truth make mention of the wretched results of Proteatanfefl 

nuasions throughout tho worid. That nni«on of mawkiAhl 

L MDtiniont and Biblical phrases selected at random, which | 

I oommonly goes by tho name of " cant," may t.v!rVtCu\\N \t\'\\ivi\\r»- 

f wcAk-mindod/xrsoJM la subscriW to vWioixttr^ %«:V^uv^:i& ^ j 



330 



PrQiestani Prosehjii^m in Eastern LaitJe. 



Protestant conversion of Oriental Ckristians. But expos 
moat como booner or later, and vrilK it the bcji^inniDg of 
end of subscriptions. Somo years ago tbo Aincricun inissiun- 
aries gavo up tho " field '* tliey occupied at Jerusalem ; would 
it not bo as well if they conferred a similar boon on the Syrian 
and Lebanon districts? Tho Churches against which they are 
chiefly engaged in preaching have their own bishops, their 
own clergy, and their own missionary preachers &om Europe. 
Those latter are not engaged in pervertiug men from another 
quarter, but — at tho request, and with th{? full concurrLuee, of 
the Dutive bishops and clergy — they build up and repair the 
breaches in tho sheep-fold, and help in driving away tho wolroa 
that would enter. There may be — there are — sheep that go 
astray from time to time, but considering all things — and parti- 
cularly now tliat the sectarian infiuence of KngUsh consuls in 
Syria has been brought to bear on the " work " — these ai*© 
few indeed. The Murouites and other sects in communion 
with S. Peter's successor, form part and parcel of God's one 
only true and holy Catholic Church, agaiust which, we hsvo 
His word, the gates of hell shall never prevail.* 

In his work upon " Itouut Lebanon," from which we have 
already quot^od, Mr. Urquhart relates a conversation which he 
had with a certain Maromte bishop^ which seema so apropog 
that wo give it entire : — 

I vii^ yaa to kno7 [said the BisKop] thftt ve luv not attached to 
Fnuicc Fnuicc is to us an oppression from vhich wc vouM be mosi happf 
to escape : we have proved tl^ bj sets, but uo acoouat is tokeu of tb^m. 
How Fnuice came to be oonsidered our protestor is an old story, lato vbidi 
it i.i nettdleM to enter. Tlie connection awakenni ugmnst ok the btitrcd of 
the Tnrks and of the Greeks, and to it may be attributed the past suffvrinj; 
of onr people from both. Here and in the other pnrtA of Synn, in Egypt and 
in Cypnia, from the middle of the hutt ccnturf to tlie clooe of the campaign < 
Napoleon, wo nckon that the blood of 40,0(» Maronited haa been nhed 
the Turks or tho Greeki. This in the debt we owe to French proiectJo 
When, in 1840, the Frenrli Ooveranient «ent ti) iw tu rwpiire na to xitppartj 

Ibrahim Pasha and Emir Bealiir, we gave a flat reftiaal &L cams 

Saida, and &cnt a memge to tbe Patiiarch (of the hotuo of HaheahX ' 
aent his own sccretjuy to jriro him the answer, wliich had been dcuidcd on 
by the biflbops and chiefs, which was, "The Miironitfs hare facud much of, 



* The fiiPt of four Engliah cowiuJs allowing; Uu-ir naniM to go forth 
patrons of a Proteetimt Oolkwe, which in to U: yut up fnr (he xw^n-rr«-"mi 
native Chri^tiauB, la bo atter^ at vaxiivnco with the gcnem.1 i 
govununent, tiiat we istutt escpreBS our Bnrpriao it hna oetm n\ 
^ JPoreivu Office Wo conool imafcinft Lord Btanley Irudiuf; lvl-ii u Ial-iI 
^muctloD to atich an outnge on the fcelAn^ ut \.Ue tmUvc B^ri^n ChriiitijuuL 



Protestant Proseli/ltjvi in Eastern Landu, 831 

bat lariMwrer teen, the fruit of ibe prut«ctioa of Fnnoe, and could not,! 
Lbi ihv bopo of it, oxp'iM tWnut«IvQs Ui the riska thej vcn now required to 
Ttwo tht> Etij^lUti Guvcmmeut tH'Ui to (w on agent (Mr. Wood), 
hj M. Stcodel, on tlio [lurt of the Auhtrion GoTemzDont, pro- 
fio W to awoiit tho iimtcctiim of Aii.ttria in lieu of tiwt of Fmnco. 
We dediHod tij nuikw auy aiiplicatiuu for such protection ; and we c&mplaiiud 
to Vr. Wootl of tkt int^rfcrenrr. tii our religion of tkt I*ratcstant muncmaruj, 
[«4«dk wtQ'l* %ut (ooi tpiOi nuyifi^m oty the iniintiofn loimrd* m of tht EhqIuK 
feCSWcnunotf. He auuTtH u* thai thr Engtti!i Govcmmatt uvu opposed to ali 
I ithtinM, itu/ mealed that m tlitmld draw vp a ji^titum tn tM 
I Oocvrrrmfii/, rnfiutiing tin miinoiMrie» to he jrrohUnlnl from enta-inf . 
I opimlry, promuimj that the Bngti^ AmheuftuUtr %oouH ohtaiii from lAtf] 
iifVrle an order (*> that fff^n, Ait\gj\M u-ith ihfM <uxunpi(«K, i« aidtd in lA«.' 
im*f*tUnon of Mfhenui Ali, ailhoitgh he ftad tverjf wayfavcvrtd the AfortrnttitfiJ 
Th« promuKd ord^r rejijtteting the jnisrionariai nwwr ahm. JStigland if4 
up a rrotatant Biikop (in JerMoitm), and o6to«K«I from tht Portt 
r*Mgnition of the Proialantt as a body (voL ii. pp. 2(11, 1 



The italics in this quotation arc our own. They show pretty! 
whether or not the missionaries are welcome to the' 
of Syria. Bnt what will these same natives say now, 
thoy sec onr cnnsnls-gencral and consuls coming forth 
Ethe otBciul patrons and promoters of Protestuut missioumy 
pnwolytiBm? If it be true — and we have certainly always 
■ ' ' 'ipon it as one of the rules of our Government — that 
_ li»h Government '* is oj/posed to all misisamanj sch-^jiictf/* 
liukv 1^ it that the consul -general in Syria, the consul at 
JimiMalem, and the consul at DamaAcnn, are allowed to take 
opon themselves tho office of "Managers" or "Local 
Iliroctora " of the Protestant Syrian College ? 



332 



abt, m.— origen at c^esarea. 

'ingcnu Libri contra CeUum (inter Opera omnia). Kd Migno, 16&7i 



[N. 



c'ludi 



L)f tho t:bftriict(j 



1(1 work of Or 



lur survey ( 

"ul to recall the leading dates iu the chrout 
of his lifo to tho dato of his exodus from Alexandria. Bom in 
or about 186, he became the head of the Catechetical school at 
the age of eighteen. About 21 1 he visited Rome. From tlmt 
year till 231, he laboured at Alexandria, with no other inter- 
ruptions than short journeys into Arabia, to Cajsaroa, and into 
Greece. In 231 ho left Alexandria never to return, &nd 
thencefom'ard the chief place of his residence was Ciesareaof 
Palestine. In the fourth or fifth year of his sojoom there 
(23o), Maximin's persecution compelled him to flee to Cajsarca 
of Cuppudocia. Returuiug* to tho other Caisarea in 233, he 
remained there for about eleven years, that is, until tlio oom- 
mencement of the Docian persecution. During these ye*r8, 
however, he made another journey into Greece, and two more 
into Arabia. After the cessation of the persecution ho lived a 
fthort time in Jerusalem^ and thence removed to Tyre, where 
he died in 253, or 254, in the sixty-ninth year of hia age. Tho 
chief divisions of his life after attaining manhood are t£crefon> 
the following : — 

I. The twenty yeara (211 — 231) nf his Alexandrian teaching, 
3. Tho twenty ycdra (231—251) of his life al Ca-surw, 
3. The throe or four years from the end of the Docian penecution (SA^)' 
till hiK dentb (254). 

In our present essay wo sltall bo concerned chiefiy with tho 

second of these periods. It was tho time of Origan's most 

active and dignified labour, lie was now not so much tho 

teacher of disciples as the teacher of teachers and the doctor 

*of the whole East. The Church was, on the whole, at pcftce^j 

'her numbers were increasing, her organisation developing, andj 

her doctrines becoming daily more and more a subject ot 

inquiry* to intellects, friendly and hostile. We have 

taken notice (Dublin Review, April, 18G6, p. 401) how C« 

was an impoitant centre, political, literary, and religioua ; ant 

Jiore Origen spent tho twenty years of which wo now speak, in^ 

iiitercotjrse with such l)ieW>\m && ti. Mv::&.Q.udcr, S. The 



befo 



K^ 



Ongen at Ccpsarea. ^H 

tUfcaSf and Firmilian, in training such pupils rb Gr(>goiy Thau*, 
muturgus, iu preaching such numilics as those on IsaiahJ 
Ezofhiol, and the Canticles, in writing such apologies a« tha 
Contra Cehunif and in carrying through such an enterprise as 
the Ilexapla. It is to this period that we must refer thoj 
emphatic testimony of S. Vincent of Lorins. ** It is iraJ 
possiblo," says ho^ " to tell Low Origun was loved, esteemed^ 
and admired by orory one. All that mado any profession or 
pioty hastened to him from the ends of tho world. There waa 
DO Christian who did not respect him as a prophet, no philo- 
sopher who did not honour him as a master." The word 
piety {(ua(ptta) is worth noticing, because something much 
more wide and broad was meant by it then than now ; indeed, 
tho original word would bo better translated religion or 
roligiousness. The term, prophet, is also worthy of being 
remarked ; a ])rophet means one who is at once a teacher of the 
raost exalt-ed class and an ascetic who has perfectly trampled 
this world nnder his foot. Finally, tho philosophers looked 
to him as their master, though ho professed to teach no plii- 
losopliv but Christianity, and quoted tho Hebrew Soripturos 
initteajl of Plato and Aristotle when men came to him with 
dillicullios about the Soid, the Logos, and tho Creator. 

In the present article, therefore, we shall bo concerned with 
his C&Bsarean life ; and as it ia impossible to compresja within 
moderato limits all that might bo said of the litei-ar)* prodtio- 
tioDS of this exceedingly rich period of his laboors, we shall 
confine oursolvea chiefly to tho consideration of the great work 
Oemtrn- Ctlaum. First, however, let us take a glimoo at the 
events of the twenty years, for they are not void of ereiit«| 
which give us a notion of tho man. 

Since his principal charge at Ca'sarca was to preach ths' 
Word of Goa to too people, perhaps the largest part of his 
cxtnnt writings has come to cou-sist of the homilies that he 
delivered iu the discbarge of tliis honourable duty. It was tho 
bishop himself who, as a ralo, preached in the church, and no 
priest waa substituted whoso learning and piety were not 
beyond all qnestion. We have before quoted tho strong 
words iu which Euubitu has handed down the opinion of 
Origen held by S. Thooctistna, biahop of Caasarea. On tbo 
Sunday, therefore, as we learn from himself, on festivals, am 
sometimes, it wotdd seum, on Fridiiys or other weck-duys, h 
stood forth from among tho clergy with all tho weight of liii 
bishop's niundate and of his own chiiructiT, to interpret an 
comment on the Holy Scriptures. It would be intort-sting to 
bt' able to picture to ourstilvf-s tUiiL cUutt-.U \sX CpWSmsxv*. vr 
which tho great light of tho )m»\, ispyko, ftuu^Wj «fc«t >BM».^«i > 



u 



of 
tb o J 
mdjB 

m 

knd I 




Ofigm at C/Bsarea. 



J 



to the mingled Greek and barbarian Christi&as of the capital 
of l*ii1ostino. It would probably bo a building designed and 
founded for the purpose. Yet it cannot have been grand or 
sumptuous, or in any way resembling a heathen temple, for 
Origcn himself allows that the Cliristians had no " teroples." 
What it was insido wo can better guess. We know from 
Origen's own hints that there existed in it the usual distinc- 
tions of position for the various ranks of faithful and of clcre 
that ore so well known from writers of n eontury later. WeJ 
msy, therefore, conclude that the chancel or altar part was clearly j 
separated from the rest of the interior, and perhaps elevatedj 
above it; that the altar itself stood at some diatanco from the! 
eastern wall, and that round the apsis behind it ran the firifia, I 
or presbyters' bench. Here, in the centre, stood the chair of j 
the bishop, and hoi-e ho sat during the sacred litnrgy in the " 
midst of his priests, all in a semi-circle of lofty seats. The 
deacons and inferior clergy occupied tho rest of the sanctuary, 
which was separated by a railing from tlie nave. In the nave, 
immediately outside the rails, stood the nmbo or reading-desk, 
Bonjctimt'H called the choir, for here clustered the singers and 
roatlors whoso place it was to intone tho less solemn parts of 
the litxirgy. Hangings, more or less magnificent, according 
to circumstances, suspended above the rails, were closed 
during tho canon of tho Mass, and shut out the Holies from 
the sight of the people. Over tho altar was tho canopy, on 
four pillars, and upon the altar a linen cloth; and the olmir 
of tlio bishop was usually covered with snitablo drapery. 
"When the bishop preached, ho stood or sat forward, pi*obably 
in front of tho altar, but within the chancel-rails; it was- 
a very unusual thing to preach from the amho, though 8*4 
John Chrysostom is recorded to have done so in Sanctal 
Sophia, in order to bo better heard by the people. Ortgon,| 
therefore, would preach from the Sanctuary on the Jjord's- 
day ; bishop, priests, clergy, and people, in their places 
to hear hira ; tho pontiff in Iiis flat miti*e with the infula of 
the high priesthood; the priests in tlie Unon chasubles that 
cone down and covered them on every side ; tho deacons and 
others in their various tunics and albs ; the singers and readers . 
with tho diptychs and books of chant laid ready open on the J 
desk of the amho; tho faithful in the nave, men on one sidel 
and women on tlio other; tho virgins and the widows in theifj 
seats apart ; the various orders of penitents in the nave or infl 
the uarthex, and the band of listening catechumens in fVontn 
of tho " royal gates " (of the nave) that they hoptrd soon tiJ 
be iillowcd Ui eutur. ni« ln-.-in/rs would bo v( vV ' ■■ ufW 

^rrour, and of many ditfereut T%uik'&'> We^ Miv^ mJal 



Orujfjt at Cmitartia. 



Greek philosophera and i>oor vertUB or House slaves, patricians 
of Romau burghs, and 8yriau purlers ; doubtless tlio bulk of 
thura were the pctor and the lowly of Cwsart-a. lie had to 
say a word tu all, and he found means to say it, iu the word 
of Holy Scriptnre. He had, by this time, dispensed himself 
from prtiriouHly writing his discourses ; and hence many of 
those that have come down to us are the shorthand reports 
timt were takpn down as ho Ppoko, and afterwards correcrted 
by himself. The text or subject of the discourse was tliat 
]Kiriion of Scripture which had just been reciUHl by the rtiider, 
or part of it ; though sometimes we find that ho had a text 
given him by the bishop or by the presbytery, and that 
occasionally he selected a particular snbjoct at the desire of 
" some of the bretliren.*' Ho held his own copy of the 
Scripture in his hand j for we find him comparing it with tho 
version jost used by the reader. His discourses were not sot 
pieces of eloquence ; they were true homilies, that is, familiar 
and easy addresses, almost seeming to liavc developed thom- 
selvee out of an earlier style of dialogue between priest and 
people. They have all the abruptness, all the questionings 
and uiiswcrings, all the oxplanatious of terms and sentences, 
and all the appi-eciation of difficulties that suggest rather tho 
catochist witn his class than tlie preacher with his auditory. 
Wo miss tho poetry and fine fancy of Clement, but we gain, 
in orderly and connected development. One is certainly 
t«inptcd to think that more ai'tislic and ornamental treatment 
mig^nt have been cxpoctod from the son of Ijoonides and tho 
teacher of rhetoric. But Origon tells us more than once that 
he studiously avoids worldly and profone eloquence. His 
reason seems not far to sock. Rhetoric was tho main profos- 
Bion of the Pagan teachers that abounded in every town of the 
empire; and S. Auguittiu'a expression, that rhetoric meant 
the art of tolling lies, was not exaggcrat<Hl. Rhetoric in 
those day^ did not mean tho sound and immortal precepts of 
AriMtotle, but tho vain heaping together of emptv wonU. It 
was the noccsnity of prot^^siing against this that has undoubt- 
edly given much of their rugeedness to tho homilies of 
ipngcn. His watchword was, oaiBcation ; his rule and law, 
1 ho expressly says, was, not complcfteucss of expositiun, not 
kdo of words, but the benefit of those who listened, 
snfto he was a ^eaker, ho rejected tedious and minute 
liiiquiKitions, which wero more suitablo for " tho leisure of a 
UtMivuso ho was a speaker of tho truth, he avoided, 
to auHtcnty, thu imit4iti(m of profane and perverted art. 
Irich in ij! 1 forth a fttxcoxu ^A itftVcvwci^^ 

fttion^ vi ■ . ■ u&mo toi^ ^kuxiwAuT ^a^^ 




336 



Origm af Cicsarea. 






rest. A word from Origen Imd more weight fchan a treafciso 
from an iinlcuowu moutli. Wo have no record of how Uis 
audience took his discourses, save whnt is implied in. tfao 
gcuerul testimony to his prodigious reputation. But, on the 
other hand, he presents ua with a few facta about his audience. 
We learn that some were readier to look after the adorning of 
the Church than the beautifying of their own souls. It 
appeara that it was difficult to get an audionco together on 
conimou week-days, and that they wero somewhat roinias in 
ussembling oven on festivals, though ho speaks of a few aa 
'* constant attondauts " on the preaching. Those who did 
come to church, too often came not so much to hear God's 
Word, as because it was a festival, and because it was pleasant 
to have a holiday, And some escaped the sermon altogethi 
by going out immediately after the reading. " Why do 
complain of not knowing this and not knowing that," he aa; 
" when you never wait for the conference, and never inte 
gate your priests ?" Moreover, many who were jireseut at 
the discourse in body, were far away in spirit, for " they 
sat apart in the comers of the Loi'd's house and oociipieu 
themselves with profane confabulation." He did not pi-each to 
un immacnlato audience : there wuro many who woro Cliristiaiis 
in name, Pagans in life ; many who turned the House of 
Prayor into a den of thieves j many who preferred tlie agora, 
the law courts, the farm, before the Church; and man}* w^ho 
could provide pedagogues, masters, books, money, and time, 
that their childn^n might leom the liberal arts, but who 
failed to see that something of the same dih'gence aoM 
sacrifice was necessary on their own parts if they wishi-d t| 
become true disciples of the Word of God. But from all 
this it wonld bo wrong to infer that Origen's hearers were 
worse than others in their circumstances. Donbtless they 
listened with reverence both to his teaching and to huj 
rebukes. Perhaps even they applauded him by acc]amatioti.j9 
such a thing was not nnkBOwn a centmy or so later, QJ 
would be little to Oi'igen'a taste to have his nudienco waring 
their garmeuts and rocking their bodies in ecstasy or culling 
ont " orthodox ! " as they did to S. Cyril, of Alexandria, ^ 
" Thou art the thirteenth Apostle ! " aa the excitable Corifl 
Stan tinopoli tans did to S. Curysostom j like S. Jerome, fl 
preferred " to excite the grief of the people rather thuB 
their applause, and his commendation was thuir tears.'' fl 
Vincent, of Lcrins, two centuries after Origin's preach inj 
at Cre.sarea, speaks of the way in which his *' elotjuencefl 
uffected himaeir. If his audience were as well Ratisfied, th^B 
mast bare listened to lum with groat pleasure and pro&B 



at Cceswea. 



337 



I 

\ 



I Ictt 



" Hia discoursei" eays S. Viiicent, ia the CommoniUrnuvif 
" WDs ploasant to the fancj-, Hweet as milk to the tAstc ; it 
Beeros to me that there isHtied from his month honey rather 
than words. Nothing so hard to believe, bat his powers 
controversy made it plain; notliing so diiTicult to practise] 
htit his persniusivcness rendered it easy. Tell me not thn 
he did nothing- but nrp^e. There has never been a teacher 
who has used so many examples out of Holy Writ." The 
homilies of Origcn did not pass away with the voice tliat 
delivered theoi. Till he was sixty years old he had generally 
written them oat beforehand. After that time the short- 
hand writers beside him caaght every word as it follj and 
so the diaconrsos bec&me ft treosm^ for ever. Fortnne and 
time have indeed destroyed far the greater part of the 
"thousand and more tractatos^' which S. Jerome says he 
delivered in the Church, and of what remain Bome only 
exist in abbreviated Latin translations. But thoagh their 
letter is diminished, their spirit pervailea the whole field of 

iristic exposition, and many of the greatest of the Greefc^ 

id l«atin fathers have not hesitated over and over again 
two at length the exact wordd of Ori^^en, And so the 
sernteuces first atlerod in the church of Ctcsaroa have become 
the public property of the Church universal^ and whito 
Cr&sarea is a ruin and its library scattered to dnst, tho 
living word and spirit of him who spoke there, spejik still 
in cities far greater, and to auditorii.'S far more wide ; for 
every palpit utters his thoughts, and Christian people, though 
they may not know it, are everywhere "edified" by that 
which was first the offspring of hia intellect. 

Origen had been laboaring at Gmsaroa for barely four year 
when one of those interruptions occurred that he had ulreadj 
bt-'cumc fumilar with at Alexandria. Tho Kmperor MaxiiiiiD 
■085), a barbarian ^iaut, whose unchecked propensities for 
flneUy and blood seem to have driven him absolutely mad' 
boiforo tho end of his three years* reign, followed up the mur- 
der of bis benefactor Alexander Severus by a scries of horrors, 
in wbicli were involved both Pagans and Christians alike. 
Any man of name, character or wealth, in any part of tho 
world that could bo reached by a Homui cohort, was liable to 
coniUoation, torture, and death in onlor to appease his frantic 
ffospirions. Cicsarert was an important Roman post, and as no 
ono in Cicitarea was better known tlian the head of tho Chris- 
school, we soon find that Origcn is marked out for a vic- 
Ho escaped, however, by a jirompt flight, and readied 

"o other riutfari-'a, of Cappadocio, the si.*** oC Vvva ^t'\v!\\\ ^'vvwi\- 
lian. llo had no sooner arrived thgro lUoii ^Aio csvYv^^vj».*\ft*- 

fOL m.^xo, xsr, [J^cte ScrieM,\ "^ 



338 



Orige^i ^ Coesarea. 



^petition foil upon the cit^ of his refuge, under the aturpioecc^ 
Sereniauus the governor, " a dire and bitter porsooutor," &> 
he is called by Firrnilian. In Uichu sLmits ho inan&ged to 
lie hid for two years in the house of a lady called Juliana — a 
house, indeed, to whicli he was attractod by other conaidenu 
tious bosido that of safety; for this lady was tlio heiress of 
the whulo Ubmry of Syuuuachus the Ebiouite, one of those 
learned translatora of the Hebrew Scriptures whom Origon 
incorporated in the Hoxapla. Ho himself meutious with great 
satisfaction the advantages which his bibUcal lubonrs derived 
from the opportunities he enjoyed in his Cappadocian retirp- 
ment. We are also indebted to this period for two, not the 
least interesting, of his works. Maximin's informers seem to 
have contrived to implicate tho good Christian Ambrose in 
soniu trouble. That Ambrose was a man of wealth, we bavo 
seen, and he was undoubtedly, also, in sumo considerable 
charge or employment which necessitated his journeying fre- 
quently from one Jtoraan city to another. Whether this pta*- 
secutiou caught him at Alexandria or Ctesarea, or elsewhere, is 
uncertain ; but he had received notice of his danger and was 
propiiring to pluoo himself in security when the iusurrcctioo 
of the Gordiaus broke out in Syria aud Asia, and in tho cou- 
fasioD and trouble that ensued bo became tho prisoner of 
Maximin's troops, and was immediately sent, or destined to bo 
sent, to Germany, where the emperor had just concluded a 
triumphant cam])aign. The news of the danger of his aealoua 
friend and patron drew from Origen the letter that wo kncnr 
now as the E-eh^riaiio ad Martyrtum. It Was accompanied by 
another, the l)v Orationet which he had perhaps ah'eady com- 
posed. These two works, into an examination of which wc 
cannot enter, show more of the interior spirit of their \\ ' 
than anything elso that has reached us. When a hist" 
the early methods of Prayer comes to be writteu, tho trLMlir^o 
On Prayer will have to be thorougldy examined. I'ho Kxhor- 
t^tiou to Hortyrdom is full of tho true Adamantine vehemence 
and nict^'. Though addressed to Ambrose, it is really, aud 
woulu be accepted as a general call to tho Church of Palestine 
to stand fast aud do manfully in the dangerous t i ' ' 

they had fallen. The name of Protcctotus, a pric- 
which is associated with that of Ambrose in the ■ u, iw 

he wits aleo in danger of death, felicitously lui .: i.aud 

we may look upon it as a homily, delivered in writing and 
from a distance, and on a new aud stirring subject, to th|^ 
Church whicli ho had been accustomed to edify with hiftwor^f 
during the three or four years procedlug. W TS 

omit to cuiar upon it at large. Mt Msodurnx'^ vl ,~ ^j^t 



On(fen at Ocsgarea, 



880 



\ 



p 



retnmetl to his own C'losaroa. After this, his literary onter- 
prises, compleleil and undorinkenj como thick and froqncnfc, 
AinoD^ otiier works wo moot with the commentarios on Ezo- 
chicl and on IsuiiLh^ on S. Matthew and 8. Luke, on Daniol 
and tho twelve Minor Prophvts, and on several of the EpiatlGS 
of S. Vttul. It is to this time also that belongs the celebrated 
exposition of thu Canticle of Canticles, of which S. Jerome 
has said that whereas in his other works he surpassed all other 
men, bo in this he sarpoased himself. But little of the original 
has como down to ns, and the traualafcion of Kuhuus is tuofroo 
and abridged to enable ns to understand how this high praiso 
was deserved. 

About the same period ho made a second journey into Greece. 
What occasion brought him to Athene wo aro not informed. Wo 
find, however, that he thought very highly of tho Athenian 
Church. In his reply to CclsuSj speaking of tho influence and 
weight that Chiiatians were everywhere acquiring, he instances 
the Church at Athens, and boasts that tho assembly of tho 
Athenian pcoplo was only a tumultuous mob in comparison with 
the congregation of the Athenian Christians. fSincy Athens 
was even then the central light of the whole world, wo may 
perhaps conclude that Origcn's journey thither woa caused by 
some phoso of tho conHict between Philosophy and tho Gospel 
with wliich he had been all his life so famihar. On his return 
to C:ei;tirc'a ho wrote tho answer to Celsos, with which wo shall 
concern ourselves presently. It was written during the roign 
of I'hihp the Arabian. Wo nro told by Kuaebius that Origen 
wruto a hitter to this cmppror. \V1iat this letter can have boon 
about is somewhat of a pu/zlo in history. £usel>tus, to bo 
Kuro, a coupio of chapters boforo ho mentions tho lotterj relates 
a stor}*, ratlu'r coldly, tibout I'hilip's coming to the Church {at 
Antioch) ono KnfiCer tinio as a Chrii^tian, and his seating 
himself amonrj tho penitents when tho Bishop (S. I^byhis) 
refused to lulmit him on any other terras. S. Babylo:! 
might well reject him and place him among tho pcnitentx, 
fi>r hit* eiiri'or, which commenced, as that of most of the 
Koman i<m[>i'rors, with tho morder of his prodeceBsor, 
the younjr^ tinrdiau, had been anything but innrxreiit. Certain 
it is, however, that the story was current of Philip's being a 
CHiristian. Kven if lie were not, which seems tho more pro- 
bable, there is no improbabihty that ho may havo ijnestioued 
sorh a man as Origin about Christianity. It must bo rocol- 
l<r«l, moreover, t f r Philip wiix by birth an 

jbinn, being a > i. Ho whh tho aim of a 

ft>l r, and wo arn tirst introducM t^ V\\xtv *i\«ic\tv^*xv 

/lart in Uio camptugu ot VJotOkittXv va VtovSo. "^^ 




340 



Origm at Oocsarca, 



Persians wore driven out of Mosopotamia. The important Roman 
city of BuMtra, though not within the boundaries of Arabia, 
was sufficiently near them to bo considered the metropolis of 
the upper part of Arabia, us Petra was of tlio middle. Philip, 
therefore, was evidently nothing more than a powerful Bedouin 
Sheik, such as may bo seen at this vcrj' day in the countries 
of which he waa a native, aud had succeeded his fatlicr in 
the possession of wide influence over the predatory tribes 
that ranged over all Palestine, Syria, and Arabia, except the 
actual spots occupied by a Roman military force. His cha- 
racter is significantly illustrated by the incident that raised 
him to the purple. When Gordian*s army was in Mofiopotnmia, 
bis dangerous captain of Free Lances took care to huvL' iho 
wholo of the commissariat supplies intercepted^ and thus caused 
the mutiny whicli terminated in Gordian'a death. Such a feat 
was easy and natural to a chief whose wild horsemen com- 
mnndcd every part of the great Syrian desert that lay between 
M(!sopot:iniin aud the Roman stiitious oil the Mediterranean 
coast. But what is more to our purpose is, thnt Origen waa 
frequently nt lioatra, and was there at the very time of Gor- 
dian's campaign and Philip's accession. Beaiing in mind the 
extent to which the name of Origen was known among tho 
Pagan men of letters^ as well as among the Christian churches, 
it seems impossible but that Philip must have heard him 
mentioned. Only let us grunt that the Emperor had a leaning 
to Christianity, even though in no better spin't than that of 
an eclectic, and the occasion of Origen'a lotter becomes clear. 
Tho mention of the Syrian desert reminds us of another 
celebrated name. Palmyra, or Tadmor of the Wilderness, 
was, at the time of which wo write, almost in the zenith of her 
beauty, though it was not till twenty years aftx?rwards that 
her spleudom* culminated and collapsed under Zwiobin and 
Longiuus. Origen knew the j^reat philosopher, who had bee 
his auditor at Alexandria, and whom he had most probabl^ 
met again at Athens. It is quite possible that IJonginua 
may have become tho guost of Zenobia before Origon left 
Ctusarea for tho last time, and, therefore, during the time hfl 
was 80 familiar with the Aiiibiau Church. Wo know that hoj 
had more than a mere acquaintance with tho author of thai 
Treatise on the Sublime, aud, perhaps, there were uo tv 
minds of the ago more fitted to grapple with each other, 
their mutual influence we have no cert^iin traces, but it 
bo noted that amongst the lost works of Louginus t1 
treatise Ufpl af)\u>u. Can it have had any relation i> 
Origen under the same namo ? 
It n-fls at Cajsarua, between Uio ^'cava ^VS wvd tho br/iakin^ 



Orifjon at Ooiarea* 



841 



ont of tbo Decian porsoontion in 249j that was written tho 
ruMiotis Contra Ot^Uutn. It is justly considered the niasUir- 
piocti of ita author. Oatonsibly au answor to the ^insayin^d 
of a heathen philoBopher, it really takes up, with the calmestif 
Bcientific procLsion, tho position that Christianity is so true and 
hsngfs together with such complutoness of moiul beauty, Lhut 
thu borkingfi of Gentile learning caonot confute it, nor the 
violeaco of Gentile hatrud stop its inovitAblo march. With no 
riietoricat ])aasionj with profound learning, with a knowledge 
of Holy Scripture truly worthy of Adamantius, with frequent 
passages of noble and profound eloquence, tho Cliristian 
doctor builds up tho monument of the faith ho loved uud 
taught; and tho work that bus come down to us through all 
thofio a^s since ii was written, has been recognized for 
fifteen hundred years as ono of those groat, complete, Aniiibud 
productions that are only given to the world by the i>on of i 
genius. Kuscbius, his biographer, speaks of it as containing 
the refutation of idl that tins boeu asserted, and, " by pro- 
oecnpation," of all that could ever bo aasortod on certain vitid 
mutters of controversy. S. Basil and S. Gregory Nazianzen 
stnmg tuge^er a series of favourite passages mainly from it,and 
called their work Philttrnlia, "love for tho beautiful,^' S..leromo, 
whoso praisu cannot be suspected of partiality, puts kirn by 
tho side of two otlier great apologists his successors, and c.x- 
cluims that to read them makes him think himself the merest 
tyro, and slirivels up all his learning to a sort of dreamy 
romcmbranco of what ho was taught as a boy. Bishop Bull 
takes tho Oontra GeUuvi as the touchstone of Origeu's dog- 
matic teachings "he meant it for the public," ho says, " he 
wrote it thoughtfully and of sot purpose, and ho wrote it when 
bo was more thau sixty years of age, full of knowledge and 
wtwricnce." 

kit must have been about the timo when Marcus Anrelius 
IS engaged in persecuting tho Church (IGO — 180} that a 
certain enrloctic Platonist philosopher called Celsus, in order 
to contribute his share to the good work, wrote an uncom- 
promising attack on Christianity, and callcnl it by iho title of 
" The True ^^'ord ;" or, " tho Word of Truth.*' We have called 
him an eclectic Platonist ; but, in fact, it is very much dis. 

f>utcd among the learned whai sect of philoaophors ho 
lonoured wiUt his allegiance. 8ome call him a Stoic, othon 
on Kpicurean, and this latter opinion is the common traditional 
ooo; and what would seem to settle the question, Epicurean 
ia the epithet given to him by Origen himsolf. That Origen^ 
wh«'n he totik up tho " Word of Truth" \k> Tts^w'lfc W , ^^i'a(^>^. 
hr uaj* going to ivi'ato an Epicurean, i» c^\tt w^«QX\'Vi^a^*'^ 



542 



Origon at Ccpttarea, 



is no less evident that he had not read many sentences of tSio 
work itsolf hoibro he began to donbt and nioi'O than d'>ulit 
whL'tlior tho niuno of Epicurean was a true description uf iis 
author. In ouo place he ia amazed to hear " an Epicurean say 
Buch things," in another he charges him Trith nrtfnUy con- 
' cealiag his Epicuriam for a purpose, and in a third he fiup- 
poBos thnt if hn over was an lOpicun'an he has rRTionnced 
its tenets and betaken himself to something moru sound and 
I sensible. What made Origon hesitate to state plainly thjit ho 
was no follower of Epiciu-us soemH to have been tho broad 
tradition that had attached the epithet to the name of Celsus, 
thereby iJentifying tho ^vritcr of tho " Word of 'IVuth " with 
the writer of a certain work against ma^ic, well known to 
literary men, which was beyond all doubt from the pen of an 
Epicurean Celsns. This latter waa also probably tho san3o 
as the Celsns to whom the scoffer Ijucian dedicated his 
*' Alexander" in which he shows up that impostor's tricks 
and sham magic ; and Lucian, in his dedication, alludes to tho 
works against magic, just as Origcn dons. As Lncian died - 
years before Origen was bom, the works against magic ; 
have been very widely known, and their author must haw 
been accepted as ihe Celsns, and, as ho was certainly an Epi- 
curean, that designation fastened itaelf also upon tho other 
CoIhus, tho author of the " Word of Truth," who had not 
had the advantage of an admiring Lucian to fix his proper 
title in tho memory of tho literary world. But an Epicnrean 
he certainly was not. One proof is quite aofficiont. Thf* snbjcct 
of magic was a decisive tost of a true Epicurean, Not i ^: 

in Providence and professing, in fact, a sort of pin:. , :.ii. 
Atheism, he considered that gods and demons never inter- 
fered in tho concerns of tho earth and tho human mco. 
Human and mundane atoms, as they got created by a spcjii's 
of accident and came togethnr fortnitonsly, so thry continue^ 
to blunder agiiinst each other in various ways, and thi^l 
cansod what men foohshly called the coAmm, or order of thu 
universe J whilst tho divine nature of the immortals, sorcnc oa-j 
Olympus M 

I Scmota a noatm rcbuf, scjunctaqnc longd, M 

^ Jam privAtA dtilom otnni. privnta i>cxiclia, ^^^M 

^^K Ipm tfaU pollens opilnu, nil iiiLli^ uo^tri, ^^^M 

^^H Keo ben& pro meritu cupitur nee tiiu<>itur ir^ ^^^H 

^^M Zfurettw, d« lUnim Nat»r6^ L fid. ^| 

Tho Epicurean, therefore, langhcd alike at the notion (fl 

bcDcvoleat god and malignant demon, at provid" '■ 

ai ma^c, ojid crowned liMnseV? m^WVo^wa \aw.V dv.^ ^ 



Orison at Ctrgarrti. 



343 



sinned, if bis monnn Bllowed it, under the aootliing pornuasion 1 
that *'to-uiorrow" ho waa "to die." When, t^oroforo, wo 
find that tho author of the " Word of Truth " not only 
attributoa miraolos to ^aculnpius, Aristeiis, aud othors^ and j 
magic to Christ, bat ul^o considers that this world and its 
various parts oro coramiLtod to tho cnstody of demons, whom | 
it is, thorttfure, proper to propitiate hy worship and saori- 
Hoc, wo nood no other cridonco that hu was no follower of 
Kpicuims. j 

On the other hand, a prominent belief in the agoncics 
of unaeen powors was a mark of tho Plutonist of the day. { 
Whnteror I'lato may have thooght of tho inferior ffods and 
(iomon» (and on 8omo oooksioDS, as in tho "TimuMis," no epoaka 
uf tliem with conaiderablo lovity), the followtira, who revived , 
his doctrine in tho tirst centurioa zifter Christ, (^ivo Ihora a 
vitry IiirK-o ehare of their attention. A creator or tirat thther j 
of oil things was a l^latonic dogmn, and man and mattor iniint : 
hare iu some way come from liim ; but in order to brid^ | 
over the Interval between two nach extremes as (lod and 
matter, reconrso waa had, to an immentto army of interratnliato 
lieinj^, of which the Iiigliost wiis bo dignified ns to be littto 
nioro than an abstraction, and tho lowest shaded off into a 
spociea of superior animal. It is this multitude of good and j 
bad! demons that raakea its appearance in modified anapo and 
number in Platonist and Gnostic cosmogonies, and wiiieU is 
so jniizhuff to follow through all ita fantastic intcmiarriages 
021(1 coinbiuations. When Ccluns must have been writing, 
lliat is, nboiit the time S. Clement of AlexHndria brj/nti to 
t'Ciieh, tho spirit of Tlato was abroad, not only at Alexiuidria 
bat at Atliens and in Rome. Theurgy was openly professed 
by tho most reputable teoohors; their cnomics called it nor- 
coty ; but whatever it was, it meant some intimato commu- I 

■ nlon with the invisible world. A writer, therorure, wlio |itit« 
tho moon and stars under tho guanlinuship of heavenly 
Lpow«ra, who jmtheticttliy flefonds the case of tho demons and i 
oeprecatcs tlicir being deprived of tho gratification they durivo ' 
IVom the "smell" of a sacrifico, and who attributes super- 
xutnral powers to friends and onomies— calling them in tho 
one case miracles, in tho latter, magio — is evtilently closer to 
Saccas and Porphyry thna to £nicurus and Drmnrritiu. 
Celsai, howoTOr, though ho says all this, cannot be called a 
■al Hntonist or Neo- Platonist. He came in the early days of 
t revival, and his philosophic palUum bung rather luosoly 
about him ; bo was not above following a new leader on an 1 
1^ oocasxin, provided he saw his way to n new stroke a^nclASua i 
H Chxivtiaas, It must bo admitted iWt \i« Akv«(% «b ^aix iftua% ^ 



I 
I 



344 



Origm tit Cinsa/rm, 



learning, Bomo acntoncsH and some aoquaintanco with & 
variety of different peoples and cufifcoma. On the othor han^ 
ho is oceosioually >;u)lty of tho most absord and transpart'ol 
fidpliisms, his conceit is unbonndod, and his tone gpenendlfl 
finuei'ing and often wry offensive. i 

It was this philosopher then, Eclectic, Platonist, and man 
of tho world, whose " Word of Truth" seomctl to tho "pioos 
and indefatigable Ambrose'^ to be so dangerous and damaging 
that no time ought to be lost in answering it. With this 
view, he attacked Origen on the subject, and by dint of prayew 
and reproaentations made him take in hand its refutation. 
Origen was by no means ea^r to undertake the work ; and 
wo can partly enter into his objections. The book of Colsus 
was not a new one : it had been in the hands of the reading 
world and in centres of leamine', such as Athens, Antiocfa, 
Cffisarea, and Alexandria, for at least sixty years, and it is to 
bo supposed that answers to its most important objections 
wei-o common enough in the Christian schools, thongh perhaps 
it was itself ignored* Then, it was not the sort of book that 
could do the faithful any harm, for they could not read it, or, 
if they did, thoy distrusted it even whoro they could not 
refute it. It was too late in the day for an open-mouihed 
Pagan to have any chance against tho Gospel of Christ. Tho 
duugerous people were those who, like tho heretics, camo 
with ** the elements of this world ^' disguised under the sheep's 
clothing of Christianity; but an honest wolf only lost his 
trouble; and so Origon, whilst promising to comply with the 
wishes of his friend, plainly says that what ho has undertakcn^H 
to overthrow, ho cannot conceive as having tho least eft'ect iq^B 
slukking the orthodoxy of a single faithful man. " That man," 
he says, "would be little to my taste, whoso faith would bo in 
danger of shipwreck from tho words of this Colsns, who has 
not now even tho advantage of being alive; and I do not 
know what I should think of one who i-cquircd a book to be 
written before he coidd meet hia accusations. And, yot, 
becauHo there might possibly be some professing believers 
who fmd Celsiis' writings a stumbling-block, aud would bo 
proportionally comforted by anything in the shape of a writing 
that undertook to crush him, I have resolved to take in hana 
the refutation of the work you have sent mo.*' The expres- 
sions, **a book to be written,'* " writings," and " hand-writing," 
are noticeable, for they show clearly enough, what has ni 
been much observed, that Origcn's chief objection to nnswerin; 
Celsus was that Celsns was ahcady answered in tho ori 
teaching of the Church. In this also wo have tho explanati 
of the contempt in which ho eeoms to hold his antagonist 



Orig&n al Cce&area, 



845 



I 



I 



tompor which is ecldom advisable either in war or polemicfi. 
But Coliiaa hful bvou, and was dai]y hoiii^ fuisworcd, nnd the 
only ((uestiou was, whether it was worth while tu put formally 
on paper what every Christian eateehist hnd by heart. Woai 
it uol better to imitate the majestic silence of Jesus Christ,,] 
who Bpoke no word, bnt let His life speak for Him 7 "1 daro I 
affirm/' ho says, '* that the defence yon ask mo to write will 
be swaiupcd and disappear before that other defence of foots 
and the power of Jesus, which aone but the blind can fail to 
see." And ho adds, that it is not for the faithful ho writes, 
bnt for those who have not tast«d the faith of Christ, or for 
those weak believers who, in the Apostle's phrase^ must be 
** kindly taken up." 

And yet Ambrose seems to have been quite right in insisting^ 
that Origeu should answer the book of Cclsua. Its arg-amenti' 
might be stale, and its influence small, but there it was, a 
formal written record of some of the ugliest things that coiUd 
be said against Christianity and its Founder. Wlmt seemed 
moro becoming, than that the foremost Christian Doctor 
his day should take in hand, at a time when external pc 
and internal growth seemed to warrant it^ to give a formalj 
written answer to an attack that was a standing piece 
impertineuoo, even if it did no harm? Besides, some harm) 
it must have done, at least, in the shape of keeping well* 
meaning Pagans from the truth; and though Origon is alway 
more fond of working for the spiritual welfare of his 
houfichold than of direct proselytising, yet Ambrose, as a con- 
vert, knew what prejudice was, and what was the importance 
of a work fi-om the pen of a Christian Doctor who had the car 
of tho Gentile world. And Ambrose, moreover, was pcriV'Ctly 
I, as was every ouc except the Adamantine himself, that 
.1 if tliD refutation embraced only the common topics that 
wero handled daily in the Christian iustructions, yet tlie result 
would be 08 fur above tho ordinary catechetical lesson a.s the 
master was above tho ordiniuy CAteohist. Perhaps ho honUy 
knew, as wo know, that his instances woidd produce a master- 
pieco of polemical writing, from which all ages have borrov 
nnd in which tho immense knowledge of Scripture, the b< 
tiful and tender piety, and tho sustained oloqnenoe of ex« 
pressiuu, were unrivalled ontU, perhaps, Bossaet wroto his 

It is by no means our intention to give a detailed analysis i 
this wonucrfnl work : it vi described at groat length in easil 
•ccc8«iblo onthors. But it will bo interesting to seuie on some 
of iU» rnoni salient i ' n), and thus to throw wWL \\^ 

BMUr be poMiblo u] sabjeot of oux duicniuau. ^^^^ 




346 



Oritjen vi C<vsar<xt„ 



the first remark that occars soemH to be a contradicliunof 
Origen*s own atatotnent. The Contra OeUum was written tncm) 
for the faithful thau for the philosophers, and was lesa aimed at 
the dead and gone Celsus than at the living children of the 
Church. It may bo ti-ue that it was nob meant precisely to con- 
iirm tottering faith or to prop up consciences that the objeictiooK 
of CelauH had shaken ; but its effect wonld naturally be to en- 
courage the devout Christian by shomng him how much could 
be said for hia profession and exposing to scorn wllb irrosist- 
i bio logic the best that could bo eaid by hia gainsayura. If 
Origou bad not hud in view ihu oamo audience aa that to whiuli 
he preached on Sundays and Fridays, he would hardly have 
dealt so abundantly in the citations from Holy Scripture which 
uro such a marked feature of the work, and he would not have 
cared to expand as he does the bare polemical branch into the 
ilowers and fruit of homiletic exhortation. But the faithful 
wore always his first thought, and the grovmd-colour of all ho 
baa written is warm and outspokou pioty. Ho knew much 
ubout Pagan philosophy and worldly science, but when l\>r* 
phyry (quoted by Eusebius) says that Plato was never out of 
his hands, wo can only say that Plato is never niontionrd in 
his writings save where an advnrsary or an error compola him. 
A far truer picture of himself is given iu his own words to his 
favourite pupil, Gregory Thanmaturgus. " You have tideuta," 
he says, " that might make you a perfect Homan lawyer, or » 
leader of any of tho fashionable sects of Greek phifusophy; 
but the wish of my heart is, dear lord aud my most honoured 
son Gregory, that you make Christianity your last end'' 
(reAucwc — alluding to tho ttumjutim bonnm of tho Stoics), "anil 
that yuu uso Greek philosophy and all its attendant scienoos 
OS handmaids to the Holy Scriptures, and as tho meHXkB 
(irworicwc) towards Christianity." This was written, of oourae, 
long after Gregory had become a Christiau, and, indeed, a^ <- 
the TBty time that tho Contra Cclstim would bo in prot^i 
Not a little, therefore, in the work which would seem to Ijfg 
the question, aa against an enemy, becomes an eloquent du- 
relopmont, aa towards those who already believed. And thin 
remark will bo found not unimportant in explaining more pitj 
BBgas than one* ^k 

The attack of Celsus ts that of a clever, well-iaforme^| 
travL'Ued man. It is to bo feared that wo cannot call him fl 
well-mcauing one. The ertraoTLlinary impndent^o of one or 
two of the leading sophisms and a general tone of ranoour an^ 
rabidness, very diil'ereut from the politeness of Numeniuft sofl 
Porphyry, seem to force the conclusion that wo ftre de^ugfl||H 
A man who ought to have known better but whose hoari^^H 



OrujAii 



347 



I 




I 



hcan hanloQtMl hy Uie world and tho tlosb. He goos oror « 
larj^o vnriety of topics, ia not aL nil romnrkablo for order (na 
his opponent coniplaius), and repeats hiumelf uioro tliuu once. 
Bovoral German, writors have pul)lishod accnrato occounUt of 
faifi philosophic teneta^ as far as ihoy can be ascertAlned. For 
tho prcsentj in order to arrire at some definite knowlodgo of 
the sort of pcfople who opposed Christianity from tho tiino of 
S. Chsmont to tho Deciati persecution, wo sliaQ present Colsns 
in a few of the chiof chanictoni "that ho assumcti in hii 
onslaught on Chrifttiunitj. For he is very many-sided in his 
anxioty to get at oU the vulnomble points of hiii enemy, and 
perhaps it mi|^ht be said that bin mt?[nory is not so fPMd aa a 
polemic's memory ought to be, niul that ho contradicts himself 
once or twice. At any rnto lie actd with somo aucoesa mora 
parts thiin one. 

The tScoft'er was a character in which CoIkus had tho ndran- 
taj^o of a few recent traditions. Perhaps tho thurouj^h I'a^iin 
sooflfor, who roally laughed at Christianity bcounsu h